Bearing Design in Machinery Engineering Tribology and Lubrication

Avraham Harnoy New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey

Marcel Dekker, Inc.

New York • Basel

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Copyright © 2002 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 0-8247-0703-6 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Headquarters Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 tel: 212-696-9000; fax: 212-685-4540 Eastern Hemisphere Distribution Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland tel: 41-61-260-6300; fax: 41-61-260-6333 World Wide Web http:==www.dekker com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special Sales=Professional Marketing at the headquarters address above. Copyright # 2003 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microﬁlming, and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Current printing (last digit): 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Spring Designer's Handbook, Harold Carlson Computer-Aided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan Lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills Solar Engineering for Domestic Buildings, William A. Himmelman Applied Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, G. Boothroyd and C. Poli Centrifugal Pump Clinic, Igor J. Karassik Computer-Aided Kinetics for Machine Design, Daniel L. Ryan Plastics Products Design Handbook, Part A: Materials and Components; Part B: Processes and Design for Processes, edited by Edward Miller Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Earl Logan, Jr. Vibrations of Shells and Plates, Werner Soedel Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook, Mario Di Giovanni Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design, Alexander Blake An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints, John H. Bickford Optimal Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James N. Siddall Spring Manufacturing Handbook, Harold Carlson Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Lewis H. Bell Gears and Their Vibration: A Basic Approach to Understanding Gear Noise, J. Derek Smith Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling: Design and Applications Handbook, American Chain Association Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, edited by Philip A. Schweitzer Gear Drive Systems: Design and Application, Peter Lynwander Controlling In-Plant Airborne Contaminants: Systems Design and Calculations, John D. Constance CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation, Charles S. Knox Probabilistic Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James N. Siddall Traction Drives: Selection and Application, Frederick W. Heilich III and Eugene E. Shube Finite Element Methods: An Introduction, Ronald L. Huston and Chris E. Passerello Mechanical Fastening of Plastics: An Engineering Handbook, Brayton Lincoln, Kenneth J. Gomes, and James F. Braden Lubrication in Practice: Second Edition, edited by W. S. Robertson Principles of Automated Drafting, Daniel L. Ryan Practical Seal Design, edited by Leonard J. Martini Engineering Documentation for CAD/CAM Applications, Charles S. Knox Design Dimensioning with Computer Graphics Applications, Jerome C. Lange Mechanism Analysis: Simplified Graphical and Analytical Techniques, Lyndon O. Barton CAD/CAM Systems: Justification, Implementation, Productivity Measurement, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark E. Coticchia Steam Plant Calculations Manual, V. Ganapathy Design Assurance for Engineers and Managers, John A. Burgess Heat Transfer Fluids and Systems for Process and Energy Applications, Jasbir Singh

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Gear Noise and Vibration, J. Derek Smith Practical Fluid Mechanics for Engineering Applications, John J. Bloomer Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology, edited by George E. Totten Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, T. Kuppan Designing for Product Sound Quality, Richard H. Lyon Probability Applications in Mechanical Design, Franklin E. Fisher and Joy R. Fisher Nickel Alloys, edited by Ulrich Heubner Rotating Machinery Vibration: Problem Analysis and Troubleshooting, Maurice L. Adams, Jr. Formulas for Dynamic Analysis, Ronald Huston and C. Q. Liu Handbook of Machinery Dynamics, Lynn L. Faulkner and Earl Logan, Jr. Rapid Prototyping Technology: Selection and Application, Ken Cooper Reciprocating Machinery Dynamics: Design and Analysis, Abdulla S. Rangwala Maintenance Excellence: Optimizing Equipment Life-Cycle Decisions, edited by John D. Campbell and Andrew K. S. Jardine Practical Guide to Industrial Boiler Systems, Ralph L. Vandagriff Lubrication Fundamentals: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, D. M. Pirro and A. A. Wessol Mechanical Life Cycle Handbook: Good Environmental Design and Manufacturing, edited by Mahendra S. Hundal Micromachining of Engineering Materials, edited by Joseph McGeough Control Strategies for Dynamic Systems: Design and Implementation, John H. Lumkes, Jr. Practical Guide to Pressure Vessel Manufacturing, Sunil Pullarcot Nondestructive Evaluation: Theory, Techniques, and Applications, edited by Peter J. Shull Diesel Engine Engineering: Dynamics, Design, and Control, Andrei Makartchouk Handbook of Machine Tool Analysis, Ioan D. Marinescu, Constantin Ispas, and Dan Boboc Implementing Concurrent Engineering in Small Companies, Susan Carlson Skalak Practical Guide to the Packaging of Electronics: Thermal and Mechanical Design and Analysis, Ali Jamnia Bearing Design in Machinery: Engineering Tribology and Lubrication, Avraham Harnoy Mechanical Reliability Improvement: Probability and Statistics for Experi-mental Testing, R. E. Little Industrial Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam Generators: Design, Applications, and Calculations, V. Ganapathy The CAD Guidebook: A Basic Manual for Understanding and Improving ComputerAided Design, Stephen J. Schoonmaker Industrial Noise Control and Acoustics, Randall F. Barron Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials, Wolé Soboyejo Reliability Verification, Testing, and Analysis in Engineering Design, Gary S. Wasserman Fundamental Mechanics of Fluids: Third Edition, I. G. Currie Additional Volumes in Preparation HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers: Fundamentals, Application, and Operations, Herbert W. Stanford III Handbook of Turbomachinery: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Earl Logan, Jr., and Ramendra Roy Progressing Cavity Pumps, Downhole Pumps, and Mudmotors, Lev Nelik Gear Noise and Vibration: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, J. Derek Smith

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To Renana, Amir, and Alon

Preface

Most engineering schools offer senior courses in bearing design in machinery. These courses are offered under various titles, such as Tribology, Bearings and Bearing Lubrication, and Advanced Machine Design. This book is intended for use as a textbook for these and similar courses for undergraduate students and for self-study by engineers involved in design, maintenance, and development of machinery. The text includes many examples of problems directly related to important design cases, which are often encountered by engineers. In addition, students will ﬁnd this book useful as a reference for design projects and machine design courses. Engineers have already realized that there is a need for a basic course and a textbook for undergraduate students that does not focus on only one bearing type, such as a hydrodynamic bearing or a rolling-element bearing, but presents the big picture—an overview of all bearing types. This course should cover the fundamental aspects of bearing selection, design, and tribology. Design engineers require much more knowledge for bearing design than is usually taught in machine design courses. This book was developed to ﬁll this need. The unique approach of this text is that it is not intended only for scientists and graduate students, but it is speciﬁcally tailored as a basic practical course for engineers. For this purpose, the traditional complex material of bearing design was simpliﬁed and presented in a methodical way that is easily understood, and illustrated by many examples. v

vi

Preface

However, this text also includes chapters for advanced studies, to upgrade the text for graduate-level courses. Engineering schools continually strive to strengthen the design component of engineering education, in order to meet the need of the industry, and this text is intended to satisfy this requirement. Whenever an engineer faces the task of designing a machine, his ﬁrst questions are often which bearings to select and how to arrange them, and how to house, lubricate and seal the bearings. Appropriate bearing design is essential for a reliable machine operation, because bearings wear out and fail by fatigue, causing a breakdown in machine operation. I have used the material in this book for many years to teach a tribology course for senior undergraduate students and for an advanced course, Bearings and Bearing Lubrication, for graduate students. The book has beneﬁted from the teaching experience and constructive comments of the students over the years. The ﬁrst objective of this text is to present the high-level theory in bearing design in a simpliﬁed form, with an emphasis on the basic physical concepts. For example, the hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm theory is presented in basic terms, without resorting to complex ﬂuid dynamic derivations. The complex mathematical integration required for solving the pressure wave in ﬂuid-ﬁlm bearings is replaced in many cases by a simple numerical integration, which the students and engineers may prefer to perform with the aid of a personal computer. The complex calculations of contact stresses in rolling-element bearings are also presented in a simpliﬁed practical form for design engineers. The second objective is that the text be self-contained, and the explanation of the material be based on ﬁrst principles. This means that engineers of various backgrounds can study this text without prerequisite advanced courses. The third objective is not to dwell only on theory and calculations, but rather to emphasize the practical aspects of bearing design, such as bearings arrangement, high-temperature considerations, tolerances, and material selection. In the past, engineers gained this expert knowledge only after many years of experience. This knowledge is demonstrated in this text by a large number of drawings of design examples and case studies from various industries. In addition, important economical considerations are included. For bearing selection and design, engineers must consider the initial cost of each component as well as the long-term maintenance expenses. The fourth objective is to encourage students to innovate design ideas and unique solutions to bearing design problems. For this purpose, several case studies of interesting and unique solutions are included in this text. In the last few decades, there has been remarkable progress in machinery and there is an ever-increasing requirement for better bearings that can operate at higher speeds, under higher loads, and at higher temperatures. In response to this need, a large volume of experimental and analytical research has been

Preface

vii

conducted that is directly related to bearing design. Another purpose of this text is to make the vast amount of accumulated knowledge readily available to engineers. In many cases, bearings are selected by using manufacturers’ catalogs of rolling-element bearings. However, as is shown in this text, rolling bearings are only one choice, and depending on the application, other bearing types can be more suitable or more economical for a speciﬁc application. This book reviews the merits of other bearing types to guide engineers. Bearing design requires an interdisciplinary background. It involves calculations that are based on the principles of ﬂuid mechanics, solid mechanics, and material science. The examples in the book are important to show how all these engineering principles are used in practice. In particular, the examples are necessary for self-study by engineers, to answer the questions that remain after reading the theoretical part of the text. Extensive use is made of the recent development in computers and software for solving basic bearing design problems. In the past, engineers involved in bearing design spent a lot of time and effort on analytical derivations, particularly on complicated mathematical integration for calculating the load capacity of hydrodynamic bearings. Recently, all this work was made easier by computeraided numerical integration. The examples in this text emphasize the use of computers for bearing design. Chapter 1 is a survey of the various bearing types; the advantages and limitations of each bearing type are discussed. The second chapter deals with lubricant viscosity, its measurement, and variable viscosity as a function of temperature and pressure. Chapter 3 deals with the characteristics of lubricants, including mineral and synthetic oils and greases, as well as the many additives used to enhance the desired properties. Chapters 4–7 deal with the operation of ﬂuid-ﬁlm bearings. The hydrodynamic lubrication theory is presented from ﬁrst principles, and examples of calculations of the pressure wave and load capacity are included. Chapter 8 deals with the use of charts for practical bearing design procedures, and estimation of the operation temperature of the oil. Chapter 9 presents practical examples of widely used hydrodynamic bearings that overcome the limitations of the common hydrodynamic journal bearings. Chapter 10 covers the design of hydrostatic pad bearings in which an external pump generates the pressure. The complete hydraulic system is discussed. Chapter 11 deals with bearing materials. The basic principles of practical tribology (friction and wear) for various materials are introduced. Metals and nonmetals such as plastics and ceramics as well as composite materials are included.

viii

Preface

Chapters 12 and 13 deal with rolling element bearings. In Chapter 12, the calculations of the contact stresses in rolling bearings and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are presented with practical examples. In Chapter 13, the practical aspects of rolling bearing lubrication are presented. In addition, the selection of rolling bearings is outlined, with examples. Most important, the design considerations of bearing arrangement are discussed, and examples provided. Chapter 14 covers the subject of bearing testing under static and dynamic conditions. Chapter 15 deals with hydrodynamic journal bearings under dynamic load. It describes the use of computers for solving the trajectory of the journal center under dynamic conditions. Chapters 16 and 17 deal with friction characteristics and modeling of dynamic friction, which has found important applications in control of machines with friction. Chapter 18 presents a unique case study of composite bearing—hydrodynamic and rolling-element bearing in series. Chapter 19 deals with viscoelastic (non-Newtonian) lubricants, such as the VI improved oils, and Chapter 20 describes the operation of natural human joints as well as the challenges in the development of artiﬁcial joint implants. I acknowledge the constructive comments of many colleagues and engineers involved in bearing design, and the industrial publications and advice provided by the members of the Society of Tribology and Lubrication Engineers. Many graduates who had taken this course have already used the preliminary notes for actual design and provided valuable feedback and important comments. I am grateful to my graduate and undergraduate students, whose valuable comments were instrumental in making the text easily understood. Many solved problems were added because the students felt that they were necessary for unambiguous understanding of the many details of bearing design. Also, I wish to express my appreciation to Ted Allen and Marcel Dekker, Inc., for the great help and support with this project. I acknowledge all the companies that provided materials and drawings, in particular, FAG and SKF. I am also pleased to thank the graduate students Simon Cohn and Max Roman for conducting experiments that are included in the text, helping with drawings, and reviewing examples, and Gaurav Dave, for help with the artwork. Special thanks to my son, Amir Harnoy, who followed the progress of the writing of this text, and continually provided important suggestions. Amir is a mechanical project engineer who tested the text in actual designs for the aerospace industry. Last but not least, particular gratitude to my wife, Renana, for help and encouragement during the long creation of this project. Avraham Harnoy

Contents

Preface Symbols Chapter 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11

Classiﬁcation and Selection of Bearings

Introduction Dry and Boundary Lubrication Bearings Hydrodynamic Bearing Hydrostatic Bearing Magnetic Bearing Rolling Element Bearings Selection Criteria Bearings for Precision Applications Noncontact Bearings for Precision Application Bearing Subjected to Frequent Starts and Stops Example Problems

Chapter 2 2.1 2.2

v xvii

Lubricant Viscosity

Introduction Simple Shear Flow

1 1 5 6 9 12 14 17 19 20 21 22 33 33 34 ix

x

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Contents

Boundary Conditions of Flow Viscosity Units Viscosity–Temperature Curves Viscosity Index Viscosity as a Function of Pressure Viscosity as a Function of Shear Rate Viscoelastic Lubricants

Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Introduction Crude Oils Base Oil Components Synthetic Oils Greases Additives to Lubricants

Chapter 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

Introduction Assumptions of Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Hydrodynamic Long Bearing Differential Equation of Fluid Motion Flow in a Long Bearing Pressure Wave Plane-Slider Load Capacity Viscous Friction Force in a Plane-Slider Flow Between Two Parallel Plates Fluid-Film Between a Cylinder and Flat Plate Solution in Dimensionless Terms

Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

36 37 38 40 41 43 43 47 47 48 49 50 56 58 67 67 69 72 72 74 79 81 81 82 84 86

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

94

Navier–Stokes Equations Reynolds Hydrodynamic Lubrication Equation Wide Plane-Slider Fluid Film Between a Flat Plate and a Cylinder Transition to Turbulence Cylindrical Coordinates Squeeze-Film Flow

94 97 103 104 105 110 111

Contents

Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12

118 120 121 122 125 127 129 131 132 134 134 135 147

Introduction Short-Bearing Analysis Flow in the Axial Direction Sommerfeld Number of a Short Bearing Viscous Friction Journal Bearing Stiffness

147 149 153 153 154 155

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

Introduction Design Procedure Minimum Film Thickness Raimondi and Boyd Charts and Tables Fluid Film Temperature Peak Temperature in Large, Heavily Loaded Bearings Design Based on Experimental Curves

Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4

118

Short Journal Bearings

Chapter 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing

Introduction Reynolds Equation for a Journal Bearing Journal Bearing with Rotating Sleeve Combined Rolling and Sliding Pressure Wave in a Long Journal Bearing Sommerfeld Solution of the Pressure Wave Journal Bearing Load Capacity Load Capacity Based on Sommerfeld Conditions Friction in a Long Journal Bearing Power Loss on Viscous Friction Sommerfeld Number Practical Pressure Boundary Conditions

Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6

xi

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

Introduction Hydrodynamic Bearing Whirl Elliptical Bearings Three-Lobe Bearings

161 161 162 163 164 181 188 190 196 196 197 198 199

xii

9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10

Contents

Pivoted-Pad Journal Bearing Bearings Made of Compliant Materials Foil Bearings Analysis of a Foil Bearing Foil Bearings in High-Speed Turbines Design Example of a Compliant Bearing

Chapter 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16

Introduction Hydrostatic Circular Pads Radial Pressure Distribution and Load Capacity Power Losses in the Hydrostatic Pad Optimization for Minimum Power Loss Long Rectangular Hydrostatic Bearings Multidirectional Hydrostatic Support Hydrostatic Pad Stiffness for Constant Flow-Rate Constant-Pressure-Supply Pads with Restrictors Analysis of Stiffness for a Constant Pressure Supply Journal Bearing Cross-Stiffness Applications Hydraulic Pumps Gear Pump Characteristics Flow Dividers Case Study: Hydrostatic Shoe Pads in Large Rotary Mills

Chapter 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5

Bearing Materials

Fundamental Principles of Tribology Wear Mechanisms Selection of Bearing Materials Metal Bearings Nonmetal Bearing Materials

Chapter 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

Hydrostatic Bearings

200 202 203 204 207 209 212 212 214 214 218 219 222 223 226 233 235 243 244 244 248 252 252 267 267 273 275 279 283

Rolling Element Bearings

308

Introduction Classiﬁcation of Rolling-Element Bearings Hertz Contact Stresses in Rolling Bearings Theoretical Line Contact

308 314 323 324

Contents

xiii

12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10

331 340 342 345 351 361

Ellipsoidal Contact Area in Ball Bearings Rolling-Element Speed Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication in Rolling Bearings Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of a Line Contact Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication of Ball Bearings Force Components in an Angular Contact Bearing

Chapter 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.20 13.21 13.22 13.23 13.24

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

378

Introduction Fatigue Life Calculations Bearing Operating Temperature Rolling Bearing Lubrication Bearing Precision Internal Clearance of Rolling Bearings Vibrations and Noise in Rolling Bearings Shaft and Housing Fits Stress and Deformation Due to Tight Fits Bearing Mounting Arrangements Adjustable Bearing Arrangement Examples of Bearing Arrangements in Machinery Selection of Oil Versus Grease Grease Lubrication Grease Life Liquid Lubrication Systems High-Temperature Applications Speed Limit of Standard Bearings Materials for Rolling Bearings Processes for Manufacturing High-Purity Steel Ceramic Materials for Rolling Bearings Rolling Bearing Cages Bearing Seals Mechanical Seals

378 390 395 399 411 414 416 418 429 436 440 447 458 460 467 471 478 479 481 484 485 490 490 498

Chapter 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6

Testing of Friction and Wear

Introduction Testing Machines for Dry and Boundary Lubrication Friction Testing Under High-Frequency Oscillations Measurement of Journal Bearing Friction Testing of Dynamic Friction Friction-Testing Machine with a Hydrostatic Pad

502 502 503 505 509 511 512

xiv

14.7 14.8

Contents

Four-Bearings Measurement Apparatus Apparatus for Measuring Friction in Linear Motion

Chapter 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4

Introduction Analysis of Short Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions Journal Center Trajectory Solution of Journal Motion by Finite-Difference Method

Chapter 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4

Friction Characteristics

Introduction Friction in Hydrodynamic and Mixed Lubrication Friction of Plastic Against Metal Dynamic Friction

Chapter 17 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6

Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions

Modeling Dynamic Friction

Introduction Dynamic Friction Model for Journal Bearings Development of the Model Modeling Friction at Steady Velocity Modeling Dynamic Friction Comparison of Model Simulations and Experiments

514 517 521 521 522 526 526 531 531 532 537 537 540 540 542 543 546 548 550

Chapter 18 Case Study: Composite Bearing—Rolling Element and Fluid Film in Series

556

18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6

556 558 563 564 568 576

Introduction Composite-Bearing Designs Previous Research in Composite Bearings Composite Bearing with Centrifugal Mechanism Performance Under Dynamic Conditions Thermal Effects

Chapter 19 19.1

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic Effects

Introduction

582 582

Contents

19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5

Viscoelastic Fluid Models Analysis of Viscoelastic Fluid Flow Pressure Wave in a Journal Bearing Squeeze-Film Flow

Chapter 20 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5

xv

Orthopedic Joint Implants

Introduction Artiﬁcial Hip Joint as a Bearing History of the Hip Replacement Joint Materials for Joint Implants Dynamic Friction

584 586 590 592 596 596 598 599 601 602

Appendix A Units and Deﬁnitions of Material Properties

605

Appendix B

609

Numerical Integration

Bibliography

615

Index

625

Symbols

NOMENCLATURE FOR HYDRODYNAMIC BEARINGS a~ ¼ acceleration vector a ¼ tan a, slope of inclined plane slider B ¼ length of plane slider (x direction) (Fig. 4-5) C ¼ radial clearance c ¼ speciﬁc heat e ¼ eccentricity F ¼ external load Ff ¼ friction force F(t) ¼ time dependent load; having components Fx ðtÞ, Fy ðtÞ h ¼ variable ﬁlm thickness hn ¼ hmin , minimum ﬁlm thickness h0 ¼ ﬁlm thickness at a point of peak pressure L ¼ length of the sleeve (z direction) (Fig. 7-1); width of a plane slider (z direction) (Fig. 4-5) m ¼ mass of journal N ¼ bearing speed [RPM] n ¼ bearing speed [rps] O; O1 ¼ sleeve and journal centers, respectively (Fig. 6-1) xvii

xviii

Symbols

p ¼ pressure wave in the ﬂuid ﬁlm P ¼ average pressure PV ¼ bearing limit (product of average pressure times sliding velocity) q ¼ constant ﬂow rate in the clearance (per unit of bearing length) R ¼ journal radius R1 ¼ bearing bore radius t ¼ time t ¼ ot, dimensionless time U ¼ journal surface velocity V ¼ sliding velocity VI ¼ viscosity index (Eq. 2-5) W ¼ bearing load carrying capacity, Wx , Wy , components a ¼ slope of inclined plane slider, or variable slope of converging clearance a ¼ viscosity-pressure exponent, Eq. 2-6 b ¼ h2 =h1 , ratio of maximum and minimum ﬁlm thickness in plane slider e ¼ eccentricity ratio, e=C f ¼ Attitude angle, Fig. 1-3 l ¼ relaxation time of the ﬂuid r ¼ density y ¼ angular coordinates (Figs. 1-3 and 9-1) txy ; tyz ; txz ¼ shear stresses sx :sy ; sz ¼ tensile stresses o ¼ angular velocity of the journal m ¼ absolute viscosity mo ¼ absolute viscosity at atmospheric pressure n ¼ kinematic viscosity, m=r

NOMENCLATURE FOR HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS Ae ¼ effective bearing area (Eq. 10-25) B ¼ width of plate in unidirectional ﬂow di ¼ inside diameter of capillary tube E_ h ¼ hydraulic power required to pump the ﬂuid through the bearing and piping system E_ f ¼ mechanical power provided by the drive (electrical motor) to overcome the friction torque (Eq. 10.15) E_ t ¼ total power of hydraulic power and mechanical power required to maintain the operation of hydrostatic bearing (Eq. 10-18) h0 ¼ clearance between two parallel, concentric disks Hp ¼ head of pump ¼ Hd Hs

Symbols

xix

Hd ¼ discharge head (Eq. 10-51) Hs ¼ suction head (Eq. 10-52) k ¼ bearing stiffness (Eq. 10-23) K ¼ parameter used to calculate stiffness of bearing ¼ 3kAe Q L ¼ length of rectangular pad lc ¼ length of capillary tube pd ¼ pump discharge pressure pr ¼ recess pressure ps ¼ supply pressure (also pump suction pressure) Dp ¼ pressure loss along the resistance Q ¼ ﬂow rate R ¼ disk radius R0 ¼ radius of a round recess Rf ¼ ﬂow resistance ¼ Dp=Q Rin ¼ resistance of inlet ﬂow restrictor Tm ¼ mechanical torque of motor V ¼ ﬂuid velocity W ¼ load capacity Z ¼ height Z1 ¼ efﬁciency of motor Z2 ¼ efﬁciency of pump k ¼ constant that depends on bearing geometry (Eq. 10-27) b ¼ ratio of recess pressure to the supply pressure, pr =ps m ¼ ﬂuid viscosity g ¼ speciﬁc weight of ﬂuid

NOMENCLATURE FOR ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS a ¼ half width of rectangular contact area (Fig. 12-8) a, b ¼ small and large radius, respectively, of an ellipsoidal contact area d ¼ rolling element diameter di ; do ¼ inside and outside diameters of a ring Eeq ¼ equivalent modulus of elasticity [N=m2 ] E^ ¼ elliptical integral, deﬁned by Eq. 12-28 and estimated by Eq. 12.19 Fc ¼ centrifugal force of a rolling element hc ¼ central ﬁlm thickness hmin ; hn ¼ minimum ﬁlm thickness k ¼ ellipticity-parameter, b=a , estimated by Eq. 12.17 L ¼ An effective length of a line contact between two cylinders mr ¼ mass of a rolling element (ball or cylinder)

xx

Symbols

nr ¼ number of rolling elements around the bearing p ¼ pressure distribution pmax ¼ maximum Hertz pressure at the center of contact area (Eq. 12-15) qa ¼ parameter to estimate, E^ , deﬁned in Eq. 12-18 r ¼ deep groove radius R1 ; R2 ¼ radius of curvatures of two bodies in contact R1x ; R2x ¼ radius of curvatures, in plane y; z, of two bodies in contact R1y ; R2y ¼ radius of curvatures, in plane x; z, of two bodies in contact Req; ¼ equivalent radius of curvature Rr ¼ race-conformity ratio, r=d Rs ¼ equivalent surface roughness at the contact (Eq. 12-38) Rs1 and Rs2 ¼ surface roughness of two individual surfaces in contact Rx ¼ equivalent contact radius (Eqs. 12-5, 12-6) Rd ¼ curvature difference deﬁned by Eq. 12-27 t* ¼ parameter estimated by Eq. 12.25 for calculating tyz in Eq. 12-24 T^ ¼ elliptical integral, deﬁned by Eq. 12.28 and estimated by Eq. 12-22 UC ¼ velocity of a rolling element center (Eq. 12-31) Ur ¼ rolling velocity (Eq. 12-35) W ¼ dimensionless bearing load carrying capacity W ¼ load carrying capacity Wi ; Wo ¼ resultant normal contact forces of the inner and outer ring races in angular contact bearing Wmax ¼ maximum load on a single rolling element N ¼ bearing speed [RPM] a ¼ viscosity-pressure exponent a ¼ linear thermal-expansion coefﬁcient ar ¼ radius ratio ¼ Ry =Rx L ¼ a ratio of a ﬁlm thickness and size of surface asperities, Rs (Eq. 12-39) dm ¼ maximum deformation of the roller in a normal direction to the contact area (Eq. 12-7, 12-21) x ¼ ratio of rolling to sliding velocity txy ; tyz ; txz ¼ shear stresses sx ; sy ; sz ¼ tensile stresses m0 ¼ absolute viscosity of the lubricant at atmospheric pressure n ¼ Poisson’s ratio o ¼ angular speed oC ¼ angular speed of the center of a rolling element (or cage) [rad=s] r ¼ density

1 Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

1.1

INTRODUCTION

Moving parts in machinery involve relative sliding or rolling motion. Examples of relative motion are linear sliding motion, such as in machine tools, and rotation motion, such as in motor vehicle wheels. Most bearings are used to support rotating shafts in machines. Rubbing of two bodies that are loaded by a normal force (in the direction normal to the contact area) generates energy losses by friction and wear. Appropriate bearing design can minimize friction and wear as well as early failure of machinery. The most important objectives of bearing design are to extend bearing life in machines, reduce friction energy losses and wear, and minimize maintenance expenses and downtime of machinery due to frequent bearing failure. In manufacturing plants, unexpected bearing failure often causes expensive loss of production. Moreover, in certain cases, such as in aircraft, there are very important safety considerations, and unexpected bearing failures must be prevented at any cost. During the past century, there has been an ever-increasing interest in the friction and wear characteristics of various bearing designs, lubricants, and materials for bearings. This scientiﬁc discipline, named Tribology, is concerned with the friction, lubrication, and wear of interacting surfaces in relative motion. Several journals are dedicated to the publication of original research results on this subject, and several books have been published that survey the vast volume of 1

2

Chapter 1

research in tribology. The objectives of the basic research in tribology are similar to those of bearing design, focusing on the reduction of friction and wear. These efforts resulted in signiﬁcant advances in bearing technology during the past century. This improvement is particularly in lubrication, bearing materials, and the introduction of rolling-element bearings and bearings supported by lubrication ﬁlms. The improvement in bearing technology resulted in the reduction of friction, wear, and maintenance expenses, as well as in the longer life of machinery. The selection of a proper bearing type for each application is essential to the reliable operation of machinery, and it is an important component of machine design. Most of the maintenance work in machines is in bearing lubrication as well as in the replacement of damaged or worn bearings. The appropriate selection of a bearing type for each application is very important to minimize the risk of early failure by wear or fatigue, thereby to secure adequate bearing life. There are other considerations involved in selection, such as safety, particularly in aircraft. Also, cost is always an important consideration in bearing selection—the designer should consider not only the initial cost of the bearing but also the cost of maintenance and of the possible loss of production over the complete life cycle of the machine. Therefore, the ﬁrst step in the process of bearing design is the selection of the bearing type for each application. In most industries there is a tradition concerning the type of bearings applied in each machine. However, a designer should follow current developments in bearing technology; in many cases, selection of a new bearing type can be beneﬁcial. Proper selection can be made from a variety of available bearing types, which include rolling-element bearings, dry and boundary lubrication bearings, as well as hydrodynamic and hydrostatic lubrication bearings. An additional type introduced lately is the electromagnetic bearing. Each bearing type can be designed in many different ways and can be made of various materials, as will be discussed in the following chapters. It is possible to reduce the size and weight of machines by increasing their speed, such as in motor vehicle engines. Therefore, there is an increasing requirement for higher speeds in machinery, and the selection of an appropriate bearing type for this purpose is always a challenge. In many cases, it is the limitation of the bearing that limits the speed of a machine. It is important to select a bearing that has low friction in order to minimize friction-energy losses, equal to the product of friction torque and angular speed. Moreover, frictionenergy losses are dissipated in the bearing as heat, and it is essential to prevent bearing overheating. If the temperature of the sliding surfaces is too close to the melting point of the bearing material, it can cause bearing failure. In the following chapters, it will be shown that an important task in the design process is the prevention of bearing overheating.

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

1.1.1

3

Radial and Thrust Bearings

Bearings can also be classiﬁed according to their geometry related to the relative motion of elements in machinery. Examples are journal, plane-slider, and spherical bearings. A journal bearing, also referred to as a sleeve bearing, is widely used in machinery for rotating shafts. It consists of a bushing (sleeve) supported by a housing, which can be part of the frame of a machine. The shaft (journal) rotates inside the bore of the sleeve. There is a small clearance between the inner diameter of the sleeve and the journal, to allow for free rotation. In contrast, a plane-slider bearing is used mostly for linear motion, such as the slides in machine tools. A bearing can also be classiﬁed as a radial bearing or a thrust bearing, depending on whether the bearing load is in the radial or axial direction, respectively, of the shaft. The shafts in machines are loaded by such forces as reactions between gears and tension in belts, gravity, and centrifugal forces. All the forces on the shaft must be supported by the bearings, and the force on the bearing is referred to as a bearing load. The load on the shaft can be divided into radial and axial components. The axial component (also referred to as thrust load) is in the direction of the shaft axis (see Fig. 1-1), while the radial load component is in the direction normal to the shaft axis. In Fig. 1-1, an example of a loaded shaft is presented. The reaction forces in helical gears have radial and axial components. The component Fa is in the axial direction, while all the other components are radial loads. Examples of solved problems are included at the end of this chapter. Certain bearings, such as conical roller bearings, shown in Fig. 1-1, or angular ball bearings, can support radial as well as thrust forces. Certain other bearings, however, such as hydrodynamic journal bearings, are applied only for radial loads, while the hydrodynamic thrust bearing supports

F IG. 1-1

Load components on a shaft with helical gears.

4

Chapter 1

only axial loads. A combination of radial and thrust bearings is often applied to support the shaft in machinery.

1.1.2

Bearing Classi¢cation

Machines could not operate at high speed in their familiar way without some means of reducing friction and the wear of moving parts. Several important engineering inventions made it possible to successfully operate heavily loaded shafts at high speed, including the rolling-element bearing and hydrodynamic, hydrostatic, and magnetic bearings. 1.

2.

3.

4.

Rolling-element bearings are characterized by rolling motion, such as in ball bearings or cylindrical rolling-element bearings. The advantage of rolling motion is that it involves much less friction and wear, in comparison to the sliding motion of regular sleeve bearings. The term hydrodynamic bearing refers to a sleeve bearing or an inclined plane-slider where the sliding plane ﬂoats on a thin ﬁlm of lubrication. The ﬂuid ﬁlm is maintained at a high pressure that supports the bearing load and completely separates the sliding surfaces. The lubricant can be fed into the bearing at atmospheric or higher pressure. The pressure wave in the lubrication ﬁlm is generated by hydrodynamic action due to the rapid rotation of the journal. The ﬂuid ﬁlm acts like a viscous wedge and generates high pressure and load-carrying capacity. The sliding surface ﬂoats on the ﬂuid ﬁlm, and wear is prevented. In contrast to hydrodynamic bearing, hydrostatic bearing refers to a conﬁguration where the pressure in the ﬂuid ﬁlm is generated by an external high-pressure pump. The lubricant at high pressure is fed into the bearing recesses from an external pump through high-pressure tubing. The ﬂuid, under high pressure in the bearing recesses, carries the load and separates the sliding surfaces, thus preventing high friction and wear. A recent introduction is the electromagnetic bearing. It is still in development but has already been used in some unique applications. The concept of operation is that a magnetic force is used to support the bearing load. Several electromagnets are mounted on the bearing side (stator poles). The bearing load capacity is generated by the magnetic ﬁeld between rotating laminators, mounted on the journal, and stator poles, on the stationary bearing side. Active feedback control keeps the journal ﬂoating without any contact with the bearing surface. The advantage is that there is no contact between the sliding surfaces, so wear is completely prevented as long as there is magnetic levitation.

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

5

Further description of the characteristics and applications of these bearings is included in this and the following chapters.

1.2

DRY AND BOUNDARY LUBRICATION BEARINGS

Whenever the load on the bearing is light and the shaft speed is low, wear is not a critical problem and a sleeve bearing or plane-slider lubricated by a very thin layer of oil (boundary lubrication) can be adequate. Sintered bronzes with additives of other elements are widely used as bearing materials. Liquid or solid lubricants are often inserted into the porosity of the material and make it self-lubricated. However, in heavy-duty machinery—namely, bearings operating for long periods of time under heavy load relative to the contact area and at high speeds—better bearing types should be selected to prevent excessive wear rates and to achieve acceptable bearing life. Bearings from the aforementioned list can be selected, namely, rolling-element bearings or ﬂuid ﬁlm bearings. In most applications, the sliding surfaces of the bearing are lubricated. However, bearings with dry surfaces are used in unique situations where lubrication is not desirable. Examples are in the food and pharmaceutical industries, where the risk of contamination by the lubricant forbids its application. The sliding speed, V , and the average pressure in the bearing, P, limit the use of dry or boundary lubrication. For plastic and sintered bearing materials, a widely accepted limit criterion is the product PV for each bearing material and lubrication condition. This product is proportional to the amount of frictionenergy loss that is dissipated in the bearing as heat. This is in addition to limits on the maximum sliding velocity and average pressure. For example, a selflubricated sintered bronze bearing has the following limits: Surface velocity limit, V , is 6 m=s, or 1180 ft=min Average surface-pressure limit, P, is 14 MPa, or 2000 psi PV limit is 110,000 psi-ft=min, or 3:85 106 Pa-m=s In comparison, bearings made of plastics have much lower PV limit. This is because the plastics have a low melting point; in addition, the plastics are not good conductors of heat, in comparison to metals. For these reasons, the PV limit is kept at relatively low values, in order to prevent bearing failure by overheating. For example, Nylon 6, which is widely used as a bearing material, has the following limits as a bearing material: Surface velocity limit, V , is 5 m=s Average surface-pressure limit, P, is 6.9 MPa PV limit is 105 103 Pa-m=s

6

Chapter 1

Remark. In hydrodynamic lubrication, the symbol for surface velocity of a rotating shaft is U , but for the PV product, sliding velocity V is traditionally used. Conversion to SI Units. 1 lbf =in:2 ðpsiÞ ¼ 6895 N=m2 ðPaÞ 1 ft=min ¼ 0:0051 m=s 1 psi-ft=min ¼ 6895 0:0051 ¼ 35 Pa-m=s ¼ 35 106 MPa-m=s An example for calculation of the PV value in various cases is included at the end of this chapter. The PV limit is much lower than that obtained by multiplying the maximum speed and maximum average pressure due to the load capacity. The reason is that the maximum PV is determined from considerations of heat dissipation in the bearing, while the average pressure and maximum speed can be individually of higher value, as long as the product is not too high. If the maximum PV is exceeded, it would usually result in a faster-than-acceptable wear rate.

1.3

HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING

An inclined plane-slider is shown in Fig. 1-2. It carries a load F and has horizontal velocity, U , relative to a stationary horizontal plane surface. The planeslider is inclined at an angle a relative to the horizontal plane. If the surfaces were dry, there would be direct contact between the two surfaces, resulting in signiﬁcant friction and wear. It is well known that friction and wear can be reduced by lubrication. If a sufﬁcient quantity of lubricant is provided and the

F IG. 1-2

Hydrodynamic lubrication of plane-slider.

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

7

sliding velocity is high, the surfaces would be completely separated by a very thin lubrication ﬁlm having the shape of a ﬂuid wedge. In the case of complete separation, full hydrodynamic lubrication is obtained. The plane-slider is inclined, to form a converging viscous wedge of lubricant as shown in Fig. 1-2. The magnitudes of h1 and h2 are very small, of the order of only a few micrometers. The clearance shown in Fig. 1-2 is much enlarged. The lower part of Fig. 1-2 shows the pressure distribution, p (pressure wave), inside the thin ﬂuid ﬁlm. This pressure wave carries the slider and its load. The inclined slider, ﬂoating on the lubricant, is in a way similar to water-skiing, although the physical phenomena are not identical. The pressure wave inside the lubrication ﬁlm is due to the ﬂuid viscosity, while in water-skiing it is due to the ﬂuid inertia. The generation of a pressure wave in hydrodynamic bearings can be explained in simple terms, as follows: The ﬂuid adheres to the solid surfaces and is dragged into the thin converging wedge by the high shear forces due to the motion of the plane-slider. In turn, high pressure must build up in the ﬂuid ﬁlm in order to allow the ﬂuid to escape through the thin clearances. A commonly used bearing in machinery is the hydrodynamic journal bearing, as shown in Fig. 1-3. Similar to the inclined plane-slider, it can support a radial load without any direct contact between the rotating shaft (journal) and the bearing sleeve. The viscous ﬂuid ﬁlm is shaped like a wedge due to the eccentricity, e, of the centers of the journal relative to that of bearing bore. As with the plane-slider, a pressure wave is generated in the lubricant, and a thin ﬂuid

F IG. 1-3

Hydrodynamic journal bearing.

8

Chapter 1

ﬁlm completely separates the journal and bearing surfaces. Due to the hydrodynamic effect, there is low friction and there is no signiﬁcant wear as long as a complete separation is maintained between the sliding surfaces. The pressure wave inside the hydrodynamic ﬁlm carries the journal weight together with the external load on the journal. The principle of operation is the uneven clearance around the bearing formed by a small eccentricity, e, between the journal and bearing centers, as shown in Fig. 1-3. The clearance is full of lubricant and forms a thin ﬂuid ﬁlm of variable thickness. A pressure wave is generated in the converging part of the clearance. The resultant force of the ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure wave is the load-carrying capacity, W , of the bearing. For bearings operating at steady conditions (constant journal speed and bearing load), the loadcarrying capacity is equal to the external load, F, on the bearing. But the two forces of action and reaction act in opposite directions. In a hydrodynamic journal bearing, the load capacity (equal in magnitude to the bearing force) increases with the eccentricity, e, of the journal. Under steady conditions, the center of the journal always ﬁnds its equilibrium point, where the load capacity is equal to the external load on the journal. Figure 1-3 indicates that the eccentricity displacement, e, of the journal center, away from the bearing center, is not in the vertical direction but at a certain attitude angle, f, from the vertical direction. In this conﬁguration, the resultant load capacity, due to the pressure wave, is in the vertical direction, opposing the vertical external force. The ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure is generated mostly in the converging part of the clearance, and the attitude angle is required to allow the converging region to be below the journal to provide the required lift force in the vertical direction and, in this way, to support the external load. In real machinery, there are always vibrations and disturbances that can cause occasional contact between the surface asperities (surface roughness), resulting in severe wear. In order to minimize this risk, the task of the engineer is to design the hydrodynamic journal bearing so that it will operate with a minimum lubrication-ﬁlm thickness, hn , much thicker than the size of the surface asperities. Bearing designers must keep in mind that if the size of the surface asperities is of the order of magnitude of 1 micron, the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , should be 10–100 microns, depending on the bearing size and the level of vibrations expected in the machine.

1.3.1

Disadvantages of Hydrodynamic Bearings

One major disadvantage of hydrodynamic bearings is that a certain minimum speed is required to generate a full ﬂuid ﬁlm that completely separates the sliding surfaces. Below that speed, there is mixed or boundary lubrication, with direct contact between the asperities of the rubbing surfaces. For this reason, even if the bearing is well designed and successfully operating at the high rated speed of the

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

9

machine, it can be subjected to excessive friction and wear at low speed, such as during starting and stopping of journal rotation. In particular, hydrodynamic bearings undergo severe wear during start-up, when they accelerate from zero speed, because static friction is higher than dynamic friction. A second important disadvantage is that hydrodynamic bearings are completely dependent on a continuous supply of lubricant. If the oil supply is interrupted, even for a short time for some unexpected reason, it can cause overheating and sudden bearing failure. It is well known that motor vehicle engines do not last a long time if run without oil. In that case, the hydrodynamic bearings fail ﬁrst due to the melting of the white metal lining on the bearing. This risk of failure is the reason why hydrodynamic bearings are never used in critical applications where there are safety concerns, such as in aircraft engines. Failure of a motor vehicle engine, although it is highly undesirable, does not involve risk of loss of life; therefore, hydrodynamic bearings are commonly used in motor vehicle engines for their superior performance and particularly for their relatively long operation life. A third important disadvantage is that the hydrodynamic journal bearing has a low stiffness to radial displacement of the journal (low resistance to radial run-out), particularly when the eccentricity is low. This characteristic rules out the application of hydrodynamic bearings in precision machines, e.g., machine tools. Under dynamic loads, the low stiffness of the bearings can result in dynamic instability, particularly with lightly loaded high-speed journals. The low stiffness causes an additional serious problem of bearing whirl at high journal speeds. The bearing whirl phenomenon results from instability in the oil ﬁlm, which often results in bearing failure. Further discussions of the disadvantages of journal bearing and methods to overcome these drawbacks are included in the following chapters.

1.4

HYDROSTATIC BEARING

The introduction of externally pressurized hydrostatic bearings can solve the problem of wear at low speed that exists in hydrodynamic bearings. In hydrostatic bearings, a ﬂuid ﬁlm completely separates the sliding surfaces at all speeds, including zero speed. However, hydrostatic bearings involve higher cost in comparison to hydrodynamic bearings. Unlike hydrodynamic bearings, where the pressure wave in the oil ﬁlm is generated inside the bearing by the rotation of the journal, an external oil pump pressurizes the hydrostatic bearing. In this way, the hydrostatic bearing is not subjected to excessive friction and wear rate at low speed. The hydrostatic operation has the advantage that it can maintain complete separation of the sliding surfaces by means of high ﬂuid pressure during the starting and stopping of journal rotation. Hydrostatic bearings are more expensive

10

Chapter 1

than hydrodynamic bearings, since they require a hydraulic system to pump and circulate the lubricant and there are higher energy losses involved in the circulation of the ﬂuid. The complexity and higher cost are reasons that hydrostatic bearings are used only in special circumstances where these extra expenses can be ﬁnancially justiﬁed. Girard introduced the principle of the hydrostatic bearing in 1851. Only much later, in 1923, did Hodgekinson patent a hydrostatic bearing having wide recesses and ﬂuid pumped into the recesses at constant pressure through ﬂow restrictors. The purpose of the ﬂow restrictors is to allow bearing operation and adequate bearing stiffness when all the recesses are fed at constant pressure from one pump. The advantage of this system is that it requires only one pump without ﬂow dividers for distributing oil at a constant ﬂow rate into each recess. Whenever there are many recesses, the ﬂuid is usually supplied at constant pressure from one central pump. The ﬂuid ﬂows into the recesses through ﬂow restrictors to improve the radial stiffness of the bearing. A diagram of such system is presented in Fig. 1-4. From a pump, the oil ﬂows into several recesses around the bore of the bearing through capillary ﬂow restrictors. From the recesses, the ﬂuid ﬂows out in the axial direction through a thin radial clearance, ho , between the journal and lands (outside the recesses) around the circumference of the two ends of the bearing. This thin clearance creates a resistance to the outlet ﬂow from each bearing recess. This outlet resistance, at the lands, is essential to maintain high pressure in each recess around the bearing. This resistance at the outlet varies by any small radial displacement of the journal due to the bearing load. The purpose of supplying the ﬂuid to the recesses through ﬂow restrictors is to make the bearing stiffer under radial force; namely, it reduces radial displacement (radial run-out) of the journal when a radial load is applied. The following is an explanation for the improved stiffness provided by ﬂow restrictors. When a journal is displaced in the radial direction from the bearing center, the clearances at the lands of the opposing recesses are no longer equal. The resistance to the ﬂow from the opposing recesses decreases and increases, respectively (the resistance is inversely proportional to h3o ). This results in unequal ﬂow rates in the opposing recesses. The ﬂow increases and decreases, respectively. An important characteristic of a ﬂow restrictor, such as a capillary tube, is that its pressure drop increases with ﬂow rate. In turn, this causes the pressures in the opposing recesses to decrease and increase, respectively. The bearing load capacity resulting from these pressure differences acts in the opposite direction to the radial load on the journal. In this way, the bearing supports the journal with minimal radial displacement. In conclusion, the introduction of inlet ﬂow restrictors increases the bearing stiffness because only a very small radial displacement of the journal is sufﬁcient to generate a large pressure difference between opposing recesses.

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

F IG. 1-4

11

Hydrostatic bearing system.

In summary, the primary advantage of the hydrostatic bearing, relative to all other bearings, is that the surfaces of the journal and bearing are separated by a ﬂuid ﬁlm at all loads and speeds. As a result, there is no wear and the sliding friction is low at low speeds. A second important advantage of hydrostatic bearings is their good stiffness to radial loads. Unlike hydrodynamic bearings, high stiffness is maintained under any load, from zero loads to the working loads, and at all speeds, including zero speed. The high stiffness to radial displacement makes this bearing suitable for precision machines, for example, precise machine tools. The high bearing stiffness is important to minimize any radial displacement (run-out) of the

12

Chapter 1

journal. In addition, hydrostatic journal bearings operate with relatively large clearances (compared to other bearings); and therefore, there is not any signiﬁcant run-out that results from uneven surface ﬁnish or small dimensional errors in the internal bore of the bearing or journal.

1.5

MAGNETIC BEARING

A magnetic bearing is shown in Fig. 1-5. The concept of operation is that a magnetic ﬁeld is applied to support the bearing load. Several electromagnets are

F IG. 1-5 Bearings.

Concept of magnetic bearing. Used by permission of Resolve Magnetic

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

13

mounted on the bearing side (stator poles). Electrical current in the stator poles generates a magnetic ﬁeld. The load-carrying capacity of the bearing is due to the magnetic ﬁeld between the rotating laminators mounted on the journal and the coils of the stator poles on the stationary bearing side. Active feedback control is required to keep the journal ﬂoating without its making any contact with the bearing. The control entails on-line measurement of the shaft displacement from the bearing center, namely, the magnitude of the eccentricity and its direction. The measurement is fed into the controller for active feedback control of the bearing support forces in each pole in order to keep the journal close to the bearing center. This is achieved by varying the magnetic ﬁeld of each pole around the bearing. In this way, it is possible to control the magnitude and direction of the resultant magnetic force on the shaft. This closed-loop control results in stable bearing operation. During the last decade, a lot of research work on magnetic bearings has been conducted in order to optimize the performance of the magnetic bearing. The research work included optimization of the direction of magnetic ﬂux, comparison between electromagnetic and permanent magnets, and optimization of the number of magnetic poles. This research work has resulted in improved load capacity and lower energy losses. In addition, research has been conducted to improve the design of the control system, which resulted in a better control of rotor vibrations, particularly at the critical speeds of the shaft.

1.5.1

Disadvantages of Magnetic Bearings

Although signiﬁcant improvement has been achieved, there are still several disadvantages in comparison with other, conventional bearings. The most important limitations follow. a.

Electromagnetic bearings are relatively much more expensive than other noncontact bearings, such as the hydrostatic bearing. In most cases, this fact makes the electromagnetic bearing an uneconomical alternative. b. Electromagnetic bearings have less damping of journal vibrations in comparison to hydrostatic oil bearings. c. In machine tools and other manufacturing environments, the magnetic force attracts steel or iron chips. d. Magnetic bearings must be quite large in comparison to conventional noncontact bearings in order to generate equivalent load capacity. An acceptable-size magnetic bearing has a limited static and dynamic load capacity. The magnetic force that supports static loads is limited by the saturation properties of the electromagnet core material. The maximum magnetic ﬁeld is reduced with temperature. In addition, the dynamic

14

Chapter 1

e.

1.6

load capacity of the bearing is limited by the available electrical power supply from the ampliﬁer. Finally, electromagnetic bearings involve complex design problems to ensure that the heavy spindle, with its high inertia, does not fall and damage the magnetic bearing when power is shut off or momentarily discontinued. Therefore, a noninterrupted power supply is required to operate the magnetic bearing, even at no load or at shutdown conditions of the system. In order to secure safe operation in case of accidental power failure or support of the rotor during shutdown of the machine, an auxiliary bearing is required. Rolling-element bearings with large clearance are commonly used. During the use of such auxiliary bearings, severe impact can result in premature rollingelement failure.

ROLLING-ELEMENT BEARINGS

Rolling-element bearings, such as ball, cylindrical, or conical rolling bearings, are the bearings most widely used in machinery. Rolling bearings are often referred to as antifriction bearings. The most important advantage of rolling-element bearings is the low friction and wear of rolling relative to that of sliding. Rolling bearings are used in a wide range of applications. When selected and applied properly, they can operate successfully over a long period of time. Rolling friction is lower than sliding friction; therefore, rolling bearings have lower friction energy losses as well as reduced wear in comparison to sliding bearings. Nevertheless, the designer must keep in mind that the life of a rollingelement bearing can be limited due to fatigue. Ball bearings involve a point contact between the balls and the races, resulting in high stresses at the contact, often named hertz stresses, after Hertz (1881), who analyzed for the ﬁrst time the stress distribution in a point contact. When a rolling-element bearing is in operation, the rolling contacts are subjected to alternating stresses at high frequency that result in metal fatigue. At high speed, the centrifugal forces of the rolling elements, high temperature (due to friction-energy losses) and alternating stresses all combine to reduce the fatigue life of the bearing. For bearings operating at low and medium speeds, relatively long fatigue life can be achieved in most cases. But at very high speeds, the fatigue life of rolling element bearings can be too short, so other bearing types should be selected. Bearing speed is an important consideration in the selection of a proper type of bearing. High-quality rolling-element bearings, which involve much higher cost, are available for critical high-speed applications, such as in aircraft turbines. Over the last few decades, a continuous improvement in materials and the methods of manufacturing of rolling-element bearings have resulted in a

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

15

signiﬁcant improvement in fatigue life, speciﬁcally for aircraft applications. But the trend in modern machinery is to increase the speed of shafts more and more in order to reduce the size of machinery. Therefore, the limitations of rollingelement bearings at very high speeds are expected to be more signiﬁcant in the future. The fatigue life of a rolling bearing is a function of the magnitude of the oscillating stresses at the contact. If the stresses are low, the fatigue life can be practically unlimited. The stresses in dry contact can be calculated by the theory of elasticity. However, the surfaces are usually lubricated, and there is a very thin lubrication ﬁlm at very high pressure separating the rolling surfaces. This thin ﬁlm prevents direct contact and plays an important role in wear reduction. The analysis of this ﬁlm is based on the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) theory, which considers the ﬂuid dynamics of the ﬁlm in a way similar to that of hydrodynamic bearings. Unlike conventional hydrodynamic theory, EHD theory considers the elastic deformation in the contact area resulting from the high-pressure distribution in the ﬂuid ﬁlm. In addition, in EHD theory, the lubricant viscosity is considered as a function of the pressure, because the pressures are much higher than in regular hydrodynamic bearings. Recent research work has considered the thermal effects in the elastohydrodynamic ﬁlm. Although there has been much progress in the understanding of rolling contact, in practice the life of the rollingelement bearing is still estimated by means of empirical equations. One must keep in mind the statistical nature of bearing life. Rolling bearings are selected to have a very low probability of premature failure. The bearings are designed to have a certain predetermined life span, such as 10 years. The desired life span should be determined before the design of a machine is initiated. Experience over many years indicates that failure due to fatigue in rolling bearings is only one possible failure mode among many other, more frequent failure modes, due to various reasons. Common failure causes include bearing overheating, misalignment errors, improper mounting, corrosion, trapped hard particles, and not providing the bearing with proper lubrication (oil starvation or not using the optimum type of lubricant). Most failures can be prevented by proper maintenance, such as lubrication and proper mounting of the bearing. Fatigue failure is evident in the form of spalling or ﬂaking at the contact surfaces of the races and rolling elements. It is interesting to note that although most rolling bearings are selected by considering their fatigue life, only 5% to 10% of the bearings actually fail by fatigue. At high-speed operation, a frequent cause for rolling bearing failure is overheating. The heat generated by friction losses is dissipated in the bearing, resulting in uneven temperature distribution in the bearing. During operation, the temperature of the rolling bearing outer ring is lower than that of the inner ring. In turn, there is uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer rings, resulting in

16

Chapter 1

thermal stresses in the form of a tight ﬁt and higher contact stresses between the rolling elements and the races. The extra contact stresses further increase the level of friction and the temperature. This sequence of events can lead to an unstable closed-loop process, which can result in bearing failure by seizure. Common rolling-element bearings are manufactured with an internal clearance to reduce this risk of thermal seizure. At high temperature the fatigue resistance of the metal is deteriorating. Also, at high speed the centrifugal forces increase the contact stresses between the rolling elements and the outer race. All these effects combine to reduce the fatigue life at very high speeds. Higher risk of bearing failure exists whenever the product of bearing load, F, and speed, n, is very high. The friction energy is dissipated in the bearing as heat. The power loss due to friction is proportional to the product Fn, similar to the product PV in a sleeve bearing. Therefore, the temperature rise of the bearing relative to the ambient temperature is also proportional to this product. In conclusion, load and speed are two important parameters that should be considered for selection and design purposes. In addition to friction-energy losses, bearing overheating can be caused by heat sources outside the bearing, such as in the case of engines or steam turbines. In aircraft engines, only rolling bearings are used. Hydrodynamic or hydrostatic bearings are not used because of the high risk of a catastrophic (sudden) failure in case of interruption in the oil supply. In contrast, rolling bearings do not tend to catastrophic failure. Usually, in case of initiation of damage, there is a warning noise and sufﬁcient time to replace the rolling bearing before it completely fails. For aircraft turbine engines there is a requirement for ever increasing power output and speed. At the very high speed required for gas turbines, the centrifugal forces of the rolling elements become a major problem. These centrifugal forces increase the hertz stresses at the outer-race contacts and shorten the bearing fatigue life. The centrifugal force is proportional to the second power of the angular speed. Similarly, the bearing size increases the centrifugal force because of its larger rolling-element mass as well as its larger orbit radius. The DN value (rolling bearing bore, in millimeters, times shaft speed, in revolutions per minute, RPM) is used as a measure for limiting the undesired effect of the centrifugal forces in rolling bearings. Currently, the centrifugal force of the rolling elements is one important consideration for limiting aircraft turbine engines to 2 million DN. Hybrid bearings, which have rolling elements made of silicon nitride and rings made of steel, have been developed and are already in use. One important advantage of the hybrid bearing is that the density of silicon nitride is much lower than that of steel, resulting in lower centrifugal force. In addition, hybrid bearings have better fatigue resistance at high temperature and are already in use for many industrial applications. Currently, intensive tests are being conducted in hybrid

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

17

bearings for possible future application in aircraft turbines. However, due to the high risk in this application, hybrid bearings must pass much more rigorous tests before actually being used in aircraft engines. Thermal stresses in rolling bearings can also be caused by thermal elongation of the shaft. In machinery such as motors and gearboxes, the shaft is supported by two bearings at the opposite ends of the shaft. The friction energy in the bearings increases the temperature of the shaft much more than that of the housing of the machine. It is important to design the mounting of the bearings with a free ﬁt in the housing on one side of the shaft. This bearing arrangement is referred to as a locating=ﬂoating arrangement; it will be explained in Chapter 13. This arrangement allows for a free thermal expansion of the shaft in the axial direction and elimination of the high thermal stresses that could otherwise develop. Rolling-element bearings generate certain levels of noise and vibration, in particular during high-speed operation. The noise and vibrations are due to irregular dimensions of the rolling elements and are also affected by the internal clearance in the bearing.

1.7

SELECTION CRITERIA

In comparison to rolling-element bearings, limited fatigue life is not a major problem for hydrodynamic bearings. As long as a full ﬂuid ﬁlm completely separates the sliding surfaces, the life of hydrodynamic bearings is signiﬁcantly longer than that of rolling bearings, particularly at very high speeds. However, hydrodynamic bearings have other disadvantages that make other bearing types the ﬁrst choice for many applications. Hydrodynamic bearings can be susceptible to excessive friction and wear whenever the journal surface has occasional contact with the bearing surface and the superior ﬂuid ﬁlm lubrication is downgraded to boundary or mixed lubrication. This occurs at low operating speeds or during starting and stopping, since hydrodynamic bearings require a certain minimum speed to generate an adequate ﬁlm thickness capable of completely separating the sliding surfaces. According to the theory that is discussed in the following chapters, a very thin ﬂuid ﬁlm is generated inside a hydrodynamic bearing even at low journal speed. But in practice, due to surface roughness or vibrations and disturbances, a certain minimum speed is required to generate a ﬂuid ﬁlm of sufﬁcient thickness that occasional contacts and wear between the sliding surfaces are prevented. Even at high journal speed, surface-to-surface contact may occur because of unexpected vibrations or severe disturbances in the system. An additional disadvantage of hydrodynamic bearings is a risk of failure if the lubricant supply is interrupted, even for a short time. A combination of high speed and direct contact is critical, because heat is generated in the bearing at a

18

Chapter 1

very fast rate. In the case of unexpected oil starvation, the bearing can undergo a catastrophic (sudden) failure. Such catastrophic failures are often in the form of bearing seizure (welding of journal and bearing) or failure due to the melting of the bearing lining material, which is often a white metal of low melting temperature. Without a continuous supply of lubricant, the temperature rises because of the high friction from direct contact. Oil starvation can result from several causes, such as failure of the oil pump or the motor. In addition, the lubricant can be lost due to a leak in the oil system. The risk of a catastrophic failure in hydrodynamic journal bearings is preventing their utilization in important applications where safety is involved, such as in aircraft engines, where rolling-element bearings with limited fatigue life are predominantly used. For low-speed applications and moderate loads, plain sleeve bearings with boundary lubrication can provide reliable long-term service and can be an adequate alternative to rolling-element bearings. In most industrial applications, these bearings are made of bronze and lubricated by grease or are self-lubricated sintered bronze. For light-duty applications, plastic bearings are widely used. As long as the product of the average pressure and speed, PV , is within the speciﬁed design values, the two parameters do not generate excessive temperature. If plain sleeve bearings are designed properly, they wear gradually and do not pose the problem of unexpected failure, such as fatigue failure in rollingelement bearings. When they wear out, it is possible to keep the machine running for a longer period before the bearing must be replaced. This is an important advantage in manufacturing machinery, because it prevents the ﬁnancial losses involved in a sudden shutdown. Replacement of a plain sleeve bearing can, at least, be postponed to a more convenient time (in comparison to a rolling bearing). In manufacturing, unexpected shutdown can result in expensive loss of production. For sleeve bearings with grease lubrication or oil-impregnated porous metal bearings, the manufacturers provide tables of maximum speed and load as well as maximum PV value, which indicate the limits for each bearing material. If these limits are not exceeded, the temperature will not be excessive, resulting in a reliable operation of the bearing. A solved problem is included at the end of this chapter. Sleeve bearings have several additional advantages. They can be designed so that it is easier to mount and replace them, in comparison to rolling bearings. Sleeve bearings can be of split design so that they can be replaced without removing the shaft. Also, sleeve bearings can be designed to carry much higher loads, in comparison to rolling bearings, where the load is limited due to the high ‘‘hertz’’ stresses. In addition, sleeve bearings are usually less sensitive than rolling bearings to dust, slurry, or corrosion caused by water inﬁltration. However, rolling bearings have many other advantages. One major advantage is their relatively low-cost maintenance. Rolling bearings can operate with a

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

19

minimal quantity of lubrication. Grease-packed and sealed rolling bearings are very convenient for use in many applications, since they do not require further lubrication. This signiﬁcantly reduces the maintenance cost. In many cases, machine designers select a rolling bearing only because it is easier to select from a manufacturer’s catalogue. However, the advantages and disadvantages of each bearing type must be considered carefully for each application. Bearing selection has long-term effects on the life of the machine as well as on maintenance expenses and the economics of running the machine over its full life cycle. In manufacturing plants, loss of production is a dominant consideration. In certain industries, unplanned shutdown of a machine for even 1 hour may be more expensive than the entire maintenance cost or the cost of the best bearing. For these reasons, in manufacturing, bearing failure must be prevented without consideration of bearing cost. In aviation, bearing failure can result in the loss of lives; therefore, careful bearing selection and design are essential.

1.8

BEARINGS FOR PRECISION APPLICATIONS

High-precision bearings are required for precision applications, mostly in machine tools and measuring machines, where the shaft (referred to as the spindle in machine tools) is required to run with extremely low radial or axial runout. Therefore, precision bearings are often referred to as precision spindle bearings. Rolling bearings are widely used in precision applications because in most cases they provide adequate precision at reasonable cost. High-precision rolling-element bearings are manufactured and supplied in several classes of precision. The precision is classiﬁed by the maximum allowed tolerance of spindle run-out. In machine tools, spindle run-out is undesirable because it results in machining errors. Radial spindle run-out in machine tools causes machining errors in the form of deviation from roundness, while axial runout causes manufacturing errors in the form of deviation from ﬂat surfaces. Rolling-element bearing manufacturers use several tolerance classiﬁcations, but the most common are the following three tolerance classes of precision spindle bearings (FAG 1986):

Precision class 1. High-precision rolling-element bearings 2. Special-precision bearings 3. Ultraprecision bearings

Maximum run-out (mm) 2.0 1.0 0.5

20

Chapter 1

Detailed discussion of rolling-element bearing precision is included in Chapter 13. Although rolling-element bearings are widely used in high-precision machine tools, there is an increasing requirement for higher levels of precision. Rolling-element bearings always involve a certain level of noise and vibrations, and there is a limit to their precision. The following is a survey of other bearing types, which can be alternatives for high precision applications

1.9

NONCONTACT BEARINGS FOR PRECISION APPLICATIONS

Three types of noncontact bearings are of special interest for precision machining, because they can run without any contact between the sliding surfaces in the bearing. These noncontact bearings are hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and electromagnetic bearings. The bearings are noncontact in the sense that there is a thin clearance of lubricant or air between the journal (spindle in machine tools) and the sleeve. In addition to the obvious advantages of low friction and the absence of wear, other characteristics of noncontact bearings are important for ultra-highprecision applications. One important characteristic is the isolation of the spindle from vibrations. Noncontact bearings isolate the spindle from sources of vibrations in the machine or even outside the machine. Moreover, direct contact friction can induce noise and vibrations, such as in stick-slip friction; therefore, noncontact bearings offer the signiﬁcant advantage of smooth operation for highprecision applications. The following discussion makes the case that hydrostatic bearings are the most suitable noncontact bearing for high-precision applications such as ultra-high-precision machine tools. The difference between hydrodynamic and hydrostatic bearings is that, for the ﬁrst, the pressure is generated inside the bearing clearance by the rotation action of the journal. In contrast, in a hydrostatic bearing, the pressure is supplied by an external pump. Hydrodynamic bearings have two major disadvantages that rule them out for use in machine tools: (a) low stiffness at low loads, and (b) at low speeds, not completely noncontact, since the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness is less than the size of surface asperities. In order to illustrate the relative advantage of hydrostatic bearings, it is interesting to compare the nominal orders of magnitude of machining errors in the form of deviation from roundness. The machining errors result from spindle run-out. Higher precision can be achieved by additional means to isolate the spindle from external vibrations, such as from the driving motor. In comparison to rolling-element bearings, experiments in hydrostatic-bearings indicated the following machining errors in the form of deviation from roundness by machine tools with a spindle supported by hydrostatic bearings (see Donaldson and Patterson, 1983 and Rowe, 1967):

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

Precison class 1. Regular hydrostatic bearing 2. When vibrations are isolated from the drive

21

Machining error (mm) 0.20 0.05

Experiments indicate that it is important to isolate the spindle from vibrations from the drive. Although a hydrostatic bearing is supported by a ﬂuid ﬁlm, the ﬁlm has relatively high stiffness and a certain amount of vibrations can pass through, so additional means for isolation of vibrations is desirable. The preceding ﬁgures illustrate that hydrostatic bearings can increase machining precision, in comparison to precision rolling bearings, by one order of magnitude. The limits of hydrostatic bearing technology probably have not been reached yet.

1.10

BEARING SUBJECTED TO FREQUENT STARTS AND STOPS

In addition to wear, high start-up friction in hydrodynamic journal bearings increases the temperature of the journal much more than that of the sleeve, and there is a risk of bearing seizure. There is uneven thermal expansion of the journal and bearing, and under certain circumstances the clearance can be completely eliminated, resulting in bearing seizure. Bearing seizure poses a higher risk than wear, since the failure is catastrophic. This is the motivation for much research aimed at reducing start-up friction. According to hydrodynamic theory, a very thin ﬂuid ﬁlm is generated even at low journal speed. But in practice, due to surface roughness, vibrations, and disturbances, a certain high minimum speed is required to generate an adequate ﬁlm thickness so that occasional contacts and wear between the sliding surfaces are prevented. The most severe wear occurs during starting because the journal is accelerated from zero velocity, where there is relatively high static friction. The lubricant ﬁlm thickness increases with speed and must be designed to separate the journal and sleeve completely at the rated speed of the machine. During starting, the speed increases, the ﬂuid ﬁlm builds up its thickness, and friction is reduced gradually. In applications involving frequent starts, rolling element bearings are usually selected because they are less sensitive to wear during start-up and stopping. But this is not always the best solution, because rolling bearings have a relatively short fatigue-life when the operating speed is very high. In Chapter 18, it is shown that it is possible to solve these problems by using a ‘‘composite

22

Chapter 1

bearing,’’ which is a unique design of hydrodynamic and rolling bearings in series (Harnoy and Rachoor, 1993). Manufacturers continually attempt to increase the speed of machinery in order to reduce its size. The most difﬁcult problem is a combination of high operating speed with frequent starting and stopping. At very high speed, the life of the rolling-element bearing is short, because fatigue failure is partly determined by the number of cycles, and high speed results in reduced life (measured in hours). In addition to this, at high speed the centrifugal forces of the rolling elements (balls or rollers) increase the fatigue stresses. Furthermore, the temperature of the bearing rises at high speeds; therefore, the fatigue resistance of the material deteriorates. The centrifugal forces and temperature exacerbate the problem and limit the operating speed at which the fatigue life is acceptable. Thus the two objectives, longer bearing life and high operating speed, are in conﬂict when rolling-element bearings are used. Hydrodynamic bearings operate well at high speeds but are not suitable for frequent-starting applications. Replacing the hydrodynamic bearing with an externally pressurized hydrostatic bearing can eliminate the wear and friction during starting and stopping. But a hydrostatic bearing is uneconomical for many applications, since it requires an oil pump system, an electric motor, and ﬂow restrictors in addition to the regular bearing system. An example of a unique design of a composite bearing— hydrodynamic and rolling bearings in series—is described in chapter 18. This example is a low-cost solution to the problem involved when high-speed machinery are subjected to frequent starting and stopping. In conclusion, the designer should keep in mind that the optimum operation of the rolling bearing is at low and moderate speeds, while the best performance of the hydrodynamic bearing is at relatively high speeds. Nevertheless, in aviation, high-speed rolling-element bearings are used successfully. These are expensive high-quality rolling bearings made of special steels and manufactured by unique processes for minimizing impurity and internal microscopic cracks. Materials and manufacturing processes for rolling bearings are discussed in Chapter 13.

1.11

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

Example Problem 1-1 PV Limits Consider a shaft supported by two bearings, as shown in Fig. 1-6. The two bearings are made of self-lubricated sintered bronze. The bearing on the left side is under radial load, Fr ¼ 1200 lbf , and axial load, Fa ¼ 0:5Fr . (The bearing on the right supports only radial load). The journal diameter is D ¼ 1 inch, and the

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

F IG. 1-6

23

Journal bearing under radial and thrust load.

bearing length L ¼ D. The thrust load is supported against a shaft shoulder of diameter D1 ¼ 1:2D. The shaft speed is N ¼ 1000 RPM. Sintered bronze has the following limits: Surface velocity limit, V , is 6 m=s, or 1180 ft=min. Surface pressure limit, P, is 14 MPa, or 2000 psi. PV limit is 110,000 psi-ft=min, or 3:85 106 Pa-m=s a.

For the left-side bearing, ﬁnd the P, V , and PV values for the thrust bearing (in imperial units) and determine if this thrust bearing can operate with a sintered bronze bearing material. b. For the left-side bearing, also ﬁnd the P, V , and PV values for the radial bearing (in imperial units) and determine if the radial bearing can operate with sintered bronze bearing material. Summary of data for left bearing: Fr ¼ 1200 lbf Fa ¼ 0:5Fr ¼ 600 lbf D ¼ 1 in: ¼ 0:083 ft ðjournal diameterÞ D1 ¼ 1:2 in: ¼ 0:1ft ðshoulder diameterÞ N ¼ 1000 RPM

Solution a.

Thrust Bearing Calculation of Average Pressure, P.

The average pressure, P, in the axial

24

Chapter 1

direction is, P¼

Fa A

where p A ¼ ðD21 D2 Þ 4 This is the shoulder area that supports the thrust load. Substituting yields P¼

4Fa 4 600 ¼ 1736 psi ¼ 2 2 pðD1 D Þ pð1:22 12 Þ

This is within the allowed limit of Pallowed ¼ 2000 psi. b. Calculation of Average Surface Velocity of Thrust Bearing, Vth . The average velocity of a thrust bearing is at the average diameter, ðD1 þ DÞ=2: Vth ¼ oRav ¼ o

Dav 2

where o ¼ 2pN rad=min. Substituting yields Vth ¼ 2pNRav ¼

2pN ðD1 þ DÞ ¼ 0:5pN ðD1 þ DÞ 4

Substitution in the foregoing equation yields Vth ¼ 0:5p 1000 rev=min ð0:1 þ 0:083Þ ft ¼ 287:5 ft=min This is well within the allowed limit of Vallowed ¼ 1180 ft=min. c.

Calculation of Actual Average PV Value for the Thrust Bearing:

PV ¼ 1736 psi 287:5 ft=min ¼ 500 103 psi-ft=min Remark. The imperial units for PV are of pressure, in psi, multiplied by velocity, in ft=min. Conclusion. Although the limits of the velocity and pressure are met, the PV value exceeds the allowed limit for self-lubricated sintered bronze bearing material, where the PV limit is 110,000 psi-ft=min. b.

Radial Bearing Calculation of Average Pressure P¼

Fr A

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

25

where A ¼ LD is the projected area of the bearing. Substitution yields P¼

Fr 1200 lbf ¼ 1200 psi ¼ LD 1 in: 1 in:

Calculation of Journal Surface Velocity. The velocity is calculated as previously; however, this time the velocity required is the velocity at the surface of the 1-inch shaft, D=2. Vr ¼ o

D D ¼ 2pn ¼ p 1000 rev=min 0:083 ft ¼ 261 ft=min 2 2

Calculation of Average PV Value: PV ¼ 1200 psi 261 ft=min ¼ 313 103 psi-ft=min In a similar way to the thrust bearing, the limits of the velocity and pressure are met; however, the PV value exceeds the allowed limit for sintered bronze bearing material, where the PV limit is 110,000 psi-ft=min.

Example Problem 1-2 Calculation of Bearing Forces In a gearbox, a spur gear is mounted on a shaft at equal distances from two supporting bearings. The shaft and gear turn together at a speed of 600 RPM. The gearbox is designed to transmit a maximum power of 5 kW. The gear pressure angle is f ¼ 20 . The diameter of the gear pitch circle is dp ¼ 5 in. Remark. The gear pressure angle f (PA) is the angle between the line of force action (normal to the contact area) and the direction of the velocity at the pitch point (see Fig. 1-7). Two standard pressure angles f for common involute gears are f ¼ 20 and f ¼ 14:5 . Detailed explanation of the geometry of gears is included in many machine design textbooks, such as Machine Design, by Deutschman et al. (1975), or Machine Design, by Norton (1996). a.

Find the reaction force on each of the two bearings supporting the shaft. b. The ratio of the two bearings’ length and bore diameter is L=D ¼ 0:5. The bearings are made of sintered bronze material (PV ¼ 110;000 psift=min). Find the diameter and length of each bearing that is required in order not to exceed the PV limit. Solution a. Reaction Forces Given:

26

Chapter 1

F IG. 1-7

Gear pressure angle.

Rotational speed N ¼ 600 RPM Power E_ ¼ 5000 W Diameter of pitch circle dp ¼ 5 in. Pressure angle f ¼ 20 PVallowed ¼ 110;000 psi-ft=min L=D ¼ 0:5 (the bore diameter of the bearing, D, is very close to that of the journal, d) Conversion Factors: 1psi ¼ 6895 N=m2 1 ft=min ¼ 5:08 103 m=s 1 psi-ft=min ¼ 35 N=m2 -m=s The angular velocity, o, of the journal is: o¼

2pN 2p600 ¼ ¼ 52:83 rad=s 60 60

Converting the diameter of the pitch circle to SI units, dp ¼ 5 in: 0:0254 m=in: ¼ 0:127 m

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

27

The tangential force, Ft , acting on the gear can now be derived from the power, E_ : E_ ¼ T o where the torque is T¼

F t dp 2

Substituting into the power equation: E_ ¼

Ft dp o 2

and solving for Ft and substituting yields 2E_ 2 5000 Nm=s ¼ 1253:2 N ¼ dp o 0:127 m 62:83 rad=s

Ft ¼

In spur gears, the resultant force acting on the gear is F ¼ Ftr (Fig. 1-7) cos f ¼

Ft F

so Ft 1253:2 ¼ ¼ 1333:6 N cos f cos 20

F¼

The resultant force, F, acting on the gear is equal to the radial component of the force acting on the bearing. Since the gear is equally spaced between the two bearings supporting the shaft, each bearing will support half the load, F. Therefore, the radial reaction, W , of each bearing is W ¼

b.

F 1333:6 ¼ ¼ 666:8 N 2 2

Bearing Dimensions

The average bearing pressure, P, is P¼

F A

Here, A ¼ LD, where D is the journal diameter and A is the projected area of the contact surface of journal and bearing surface, P¼

F LD

28

Chapter 1

The velocity of shaft surface, V , is V ¼

D o 2

Therefore, PV ¼

W D o LD 2

Since L=D ¼ 0:5, L ¼ 0:5D, substituting and simplifying yields PV ¼

W oD W ¼ o 0:5D2 2 D

The PV limit for self-lubricated sintered bronze is given in English units, converted to SI units, the limit is 110;000 psi-ft=min 35 N=m2 -m=s ¼ 3;850;000 Pa-m=s Solving for the journal diameter, D, and substituting yields the diameter of the bearing: D¼

W o 666:8 N 62:83 rad=s ¼ ¼ 0:011 m; PV 3:85 106 Pa m=s

or

D ¼ 11 mm

The length of the bearing, L, is L ¼ 0:5D ¼ 0:5 11 mm ¼ 5:5 mm The resulting diameter, based on a PV calculation, is very small. In actual design, the journal is usually of larger diameter, based on strength-of-material considerations, because the shaft must have sufﬁcient diameter for transmitting the torque from the drive.

Example Problem 1-3 Calculation of Reaction Forces In a gearbox, one helical gear is mounted on a shaft at equal distances from two supporting bearings. The helix angle of the gear is c ¼ 30 , and the pressure angle (PA) is f ¼ 20 . The shaft speed is 3600 RPM. The gearbox is designed to transmit maximum power of 20 kW. The diameter of the pitch circle of the gear is equal to 5 in. The right-hand-side bearing is supporting the total thrust load. Find the axial and radial loads on the right-hand-side bearing and the radial load on the left-side bearing.

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

29

Solution The angular velocity of the shaft, o, is: o¼

2pN 2p3600 ¼ ¼ 377 rad=s 60 60

Torque produced by the gear is T ¼ Ft dp =2. Substituting this into the power equation, E_ ¼ T o, yields: E_ ¼

Ft dp o 2

Solving for the tangential force, Ft , results in Ft ¼

2E_ 2 20;000 N-m=s ¼ 836 N ¼ dp o 0:127 m 377 rad=s

Once the tangential component of the force is solved, the resultant force, F, and the thrust load (axial force), Fa , can be calculated as follows: Fa ¼ Ft tan c Fa ¼ 836 N tan 30 ¼ 482 N and the radial force component is: Fr ¼ Ft tan f ¼ 836 N tan 20 ¼ 304 N The force components, Ft and Fr, are both in the direction normal to the shaft centerline. The resultant of these two gear force components, Ftr , is cause for the radial force component in the bearings. The resultant, Ftr , is calculated by the equation (Fig. 1-7) qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Ftr ¼ Ft2 þ Fr2 ¼ 8362 þ 3042 ¼ 890 N The resultant force, Ftr , on the gear is supported by the two bearings. It is a radial bearing load because it is acting in the direction normal to the shaft centerline. Since the helical gear is mounted on the shaft at equal distances from both bearings, each bearing will support half of the radial load, Wr ¼

Ftr 890 N ¼ 445 N ¼ 2 2

However, the thrust load will act only on the right-hand bearing: Fa ¼ 482 N

30

Chapter 1

Example Problem 1-4 Calculation of Reaction Forces In a gearbox, two helical gears are mounted on a shaft as shown in Fig. 1-1. The helix angle of the two gears is c ¼ 30 , and the pressure angle (PA) is f ¼ 20 . The shaft speed is 3600 RPM. The gearbox is designed to transmit a maximum power of 10 kW. The pitch circle diameter of the small gear is equal to 5 in. and that of the large gear is of 15 in. a.

Find the axial reaction force on each of the two gears and the resultant axial force on each of the two bearings supporting the shaft. b. Find the three load components on each gear, Ft , Fr , and Fa . Solution Given: Helix angle Pressure angle Rotational speed Power Diameter of pitch circle (small) Diameter of pitch circle (large)

c ¼ 30 f ¼ 20 N ¼ 3600 RPM 10 kW dP1 ¼ 5 in: dP2 ¼ 15 in:

Small Gear a. Axial Reaction Forces. The ﬁrst step is to solve for the tangential force acting on the small gear, Ft . It can be derived from the power, E, and shaft speed: E_ ¼ T o where the torque is T ¼ Ft dp =2. The angular speed o in rad=s is 2pN 2p 3600 ¼ ¼ 377 rad=s o¼ 60 60 Substituting into the power equation yields Ft dp o E_ ¼ 2 The solution for Ft acting on the small gear is given by 2E_ Ft ¼ dp o The pitch diameter is 5 in., or dp ¼ 0:127 m. After substitution, the tangential force is 2 10;000 W ¼ 418 N Ft ¼ ð0:127 mÞ ð377 rad=sÞ

Classi¢cation and Selection of Bearings

31

The radial force on the gear (Fr in Fig 1-1) is: Fr ¼ Ft tan f Fr ¼ 418 N tan 20 Fr ¼ 152 N b.

Calculation of the Thrust Load, Fa :

The axial force on the gear is calculated by the equation, Fa ¼ Ft tan c ¼ 418 N tan 30 ¼ 241 N Ft ¼ 418 N Fr ¼ 152 N Fa ¼ 241 N Large gear The same procedure is used for the large gear, and the results are: Ft ¼ 140 N Fr ¼ 51 N Fa ¼ 81 N Thrust Force on a Bearing One bearing supports the total thrust force on the shaft. The resultant thrust load on one bearing is the difference of the two axial loads on the two gears, because the thrust reaction forces in the two gears are in opposite directions (see Fig. 1-1): Fa ðbearingÞ ¼ 241 81 ¼ 180 N

Problems 1-1

Figure 1-4 shows a drawing of a hydrostatic journal bearing system that can support only a radial load. Extend this design and sketch a hydrostatic bearing system that can support combined radial and thrust loads. 1-2 In a gearbox, a spur gear is mounted on a shaft at equal distances from two supporting bearings. The shaft and mounted gear turn together at a speed of 3600 RPM. The gearbox is designed to transmit a maximum power of 3 kW. The gear contact angle is f ¼ 20 . The pitch diameter of the gear is dp ¼ 30 in. Find the radial force on each of the two bearings supporting the shaft. The ratio of the two bearings’ length and diameter is L=D ¼ 0:5. The bearings are made of acetal resin material with the

32

Chapter 1

following limits: Surface velocity limit, V , is 5 m=s. Average surface-pressure limit, P, is 7 MPa. PV limit is 3000 psi-ft=min. 1-3

Find the diameter of the shaft in order not to exceed the stated limits. A bearing is made of Nylon sleeve. Nylon has the following limits as a bearing material: Surface velocity limit, V , is 5 m=s. Average surface-pressure limit, P, is 6.9 MPa. PV limit is 3000 psi-ft=min.

The shaft is supported by two bearings, as shown in Fig. 1-6. The bearing on the left side is under a radial load Fr ¼ 400 N and an axial load Fa ¼ 200 N . (The bearing on the left supports the axial force.) The journal diameter is d, and the bearing length L ¼ d. The thrust load is supported against a shaft shoulder of diameter D ¼ 1:2d. The shaft speed is N ¼ 800 RPM. For the left-side bearing, ﬁnd the minimum journal diameter d that would result in P, V , and PV below the allowed limits, in the radial and thrust bearings. 1-4 In a gearbox, one helical gear is mounted on a shaft at equal distances from two supporting bearings. The helix angle of the gear is c ¼ 30 , and the pressure angle (PA) is f ¼ 20 . The shaft speed is 1800 RPM. The gearbox is designed to transmit a maximum power of 12 kW. The diameter of the pitch circle of the gear is 5 in. The right-hand-side bearing is supporting the total thrust load. Find the axial and radial load on the right-hand-side bearing and the radial load on the left-side bearing. 1-5 In a gearbox, two helical gears are mounted on a shaft as shown in Fig. 1-1. The helix angle of the two gears is f ¼ 30 , and the pressure angle (PA) is f ¼ 20 . The shaft speed is 3800 RPM. The gearbox is designed to transmit a maximum power of 15 kW. The pitch circle diameters of the two gears are 5 in. and 15 in. respectively. a.

Find the axial reaction force on each of the two gears and the resultant axial force on each of the two bearings supporting the shaft. b. Find the three load components on each gear, Ft , Fr , and Fa .

2 Lubricant Viscosity

2.1

INTRODUCTION

For hydrodynamic lubrication, the viscosity, m, is the most important characteristic of a ﬂuid lubricant because it has a major role in the formation of a ﬂuid ﬁlm. However, for boundary lubrication the lubricity characteristic is important. The viscosity is a measure of the ﬂuid’s resistance to ﬂow. For example, a lowviscosity ﬂuid ﬂows faster through a capillary tube than a ﬂuid of higher viscosity. High-viscosity ﬂuids are thicker, in the sense that they have higher internal friction to the movement of ﬂuid particles relative to one another. Viscosity is sensitive to small changes in temperature. The viscosity of mineral and synthetic oils signiﬁcantly decreases (the oils become thinner) when their temperature is raised. The higher viscosity is restored after the oils cool down to their original temperature. The viscosity of synthetic oils is relatively less sensitive to temperature variations (in comparison to mineral oils). But the viscosity of synthetic oils also decreases with increasing temperature. During bearing operation, the temperature of the lubricant increases due to the friction, in turn, the oil viscosity decreases. For hydrodynamic bearings, the most important property of the lubricant is its viscosity at the operating bearing temperature. One of the problems in bearing design is the difﬁculty of precisely predicting the ﬁnal temperature distribution and lubricant viscosity in the ﬂuid ﬁlm of the bearing. For a highly loaded bearing combined with slow speed, oils of 33

34

Chapter 2

relatively high viscosity are applied; however, for high-speed bearings, oils of relatively low viscosity are usually applied. The bearing temperature always rises during operation, due to frictionenergy loss that is dissipated in the bearing as heat. However, in certain applications, such as automobile engines, the temperature rise is much greater, due to the heat of combustion. In these cases, the lubricant is subject to very large variations of viscosity due to changes in temperature. A large volume of research and development work has been conducted by engine and lubricant manufacturers to overcome this problem in engines and other machinery, such as steam turbines, that involve a high-temperature rise during operation. Minimum viscosity is required to secure proper hydrodynamic lubrication when the engine is at an elevated temperature. For this purpose, a lubricant of high viscosity at ambient temperature must be selected. This must result in high viscosity during starting of a car engine, particularly on cold winter mornings, causing heavy demand on the engine starter and battery. For this reason, lubricants with less sensitive viscosity to temperature variations would have a distinct advantage. This has been the motivation for developing the multigrade oils, which are commonly used in engines today. An example of a multigrade oil that is widely used in motor vehicle engines is SAE 5W-30. The viscosity of SAE 5W-30 in a cold engine is about that of the low-viscosity oil SAE 5W, while its viscosity in the hot engine during operation is about that of the higher-viscosity oil SAE 30. The viscosity of synthetic oils is also less sensitive to temperature variations, in comparison to regular mineral oils, and the development of synthetic oils during recent years has been to a great extent motivated by this advantage. It is important to mention that the viscosity of gases, such as air, reveals an opposite trend, increasing with a rise in temperature. This fact is important in the design of air bearings. However, one must bear in mind that the viscosity of air is at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of mineral oils.

2.2

SIMPLE SHEAR FLOW

In Fig. 2-1, simple shear ﬂow between two parallel plates is shown. One plate is stationary and the other has velocity U in the direction parallel to the plate. The ﬂuid is continuously sheared between the two parallel plates. There is a sliding motion of each layer of molecules relative to the adjacent layers in the x direction. In simple shear, the viscosity is the resistance to the motion of one layer of molecules relative to another layer. The shear stress, t, between the layers increases with the shear rate, U =h (a measure of the relative sliding rate of adjacent layers). In addition, the shear stress, t, increases with the internal friction between the layers; that is, the shear stress is proportional to the viscosity, m, of the ﬂuid.

Lubricant Viscosity

F IG. 2-1

35

Simple shear ﬂow.

Most lubricants, including mineral and synthetic oils, demonstrate a linear relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate. A similar linear relationship holds in the air that is used in air bearings. Fluids that demonstrate such linear relationships are referred to as Newtonian ﬂuids. In simple shear ﬂow, u ¼ uðyÞ, the shear stress, t, is proportional to the shear rate. The shear rate between two parallel plates without a pressure gradient, as shown in Fig. 2-1, is U =h. But in the general case of simple shear ﬂow, u ¼ uðyÞ, the local shear rate is determined by the velocity gradient du=dy, where u is the ﬂuid velocity component in the x direction and the gradient du=dy is in respect to y in the normal direction to the sliding layers. One difference between solids and viscous ﬂuids is in the relation between the stress and strain components. In the case of simple shear, the shear stress, t, in a solid material is proportional to the deformation, shear strain. Under stress, the material ceases to deform when a certain elastic deformation is reached. In contrast, in viscous ﬂuids the deformation rate continues (the ﬂuid ﬂows) as long as stresses are applied to the ﬂuid. An example is a simple shear ﬂow of viscous ﬂuids where the shear rate, du=dy, continues as long as the shear stress, t, is applied. For liquids, a shear stress is required to overcome the cohesive forces between the molecules in order to maintain the ﬂow, which involves continuous relative motion of the molecules. The proportionality coefﬁcient for a solid is the shear modulus, while the proportionality coefﬁcient for the viscous ﬂuid is the viscosity, m. In the simple shear ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid, a linear relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate is given by t¼m

du dy

ð2-1Þ

In comparison, a similar linear equation for elastic simple-shear deformation of a solid is: t¼G

dex dy

ð2-2Þ

36

Chapter 2

where ex is the displacement (one-time displacement in the x direction) and G is the elastic shear modulus of the solid. Whenever there is viscous ﬂow, shear stresses must be present to overcome the cohesive forces between the molecules. In fact, the cohesive forces and shear stress decrease with temperature, which indicates a decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. For the analysis of hydrodynamic bearings, it is approximately assumed that the viscosity, m, is a function of the temperature only. However, the viscosity is a function of the pressure as well, although this becomes signiﬁcant only at very high pressure. Under extreme conditions of very high pressures, e.g., at point or line contacts in rolling-element bearings or gears, the viscosity is considered a function of the ﬂuid pressure.

2.3

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS OF FLOW

The velocity gradient at the solid boundary is important for determining the interaction forces between the ﬂuid and the solid boundary or between the ﬂuid and a submerged body. The velocity gradient, du=dy, at the boundary is proportional to the shear stress at the wall. An important characteristic of ﬂuids is that the ﬂuid adheres to the solid boundary (there are some exceptions; oil does not adhere to a Teﬂon wall). For most surfaces, at the boundary wall, the ﬂuid has identical velocity to that of the boundary, referred to as the non-slip condition. The intermolecular attraction forces between the ﬂuid and solid are relatively high, resulting in slip only of one ﬂuid layer over the other, but not between the ﬁrst ﬂuid layer and the solid wall. Often, we use the term friction between the ﬂuid and the solid, but in fact, the viscous friction is only between the ﬂuid and itself, that is, one ﬂuid layer slides relative to another layer, resulting in viscous friction losses. Near the solid boundary, the ﬁrst ﬂuid layer adheres to the solid surface while each of the other ﬂuid layers is sliding over the next one, resulting in a velocity gradient. Equation (2-1) indicates that the slope of the velocity proﬁle (velocity gradient) is proportional to the shear stress. Therefore, the velocity gradient at the wall is proportional to the shear stress on the solid boundary. Integration of the viscous shear forces on the boundary results in the total force caused by shear stresses. This portion of the drag force is referred to as the skin friction force or viscous drag force between the ﬂuid and a submerged body. The other portion of the drag force is the form drag, which is due to the pressure distribution on the surface of a submerged body. Oils are practically incompressible. This property simpliﬁes the equations, because the ﬂuid density, r, can be assumed to be constant, although this assumption cannot be applied to air bearings. Many of the equations of ﬂuid mechanics, such as the Reynolds number, include the ratio of viscosity to density,

Lubricant Viscosity

37

r, of the ﬂuid. Since this ratio is frequently used, this combination has been given the name kinematic viscosity, n: n¼

m r

ð2-3Þ

The viscosity m is often referred to as absolute viscosity as a clear distinction from kinematic viscosity.

2.4

VISCOSITY UNITS

The SI unit of pressure, p, as well as shear of stress, t, is the Pascal (Pa) ¼ Newtons per square meter [N=m2 ]. This is a small unit; a larger unit is the kilopascal ðkPaÞ ¼ 103 Pa. In the imperial (English) unit system, the common unit of pressure, p, as well as of shear stress, t, is lbf per square inch (psi). The conversion factors for pressure and stress are: 1 Pa ¼ 1:4504 104 psi 1 kPa ¼ 1:4504 101 psi

2.4.1

SI Units

From Eq. (2-1) it can be seen that the SI unit of m is ½N-s=m2 or [Pa-s]: m¼

t N=m2 ¼ ¼ N-s=m2 du=dy ðm=sÞ=m

The SI units of kinematic viscosity, n, are ½m2 =s : n¼

2.4.2

m N-s=m2 ¼ ¼ m2 =s r N-s2 =m4

cgs Units

An additional cgs unit for absolute viscosity, m, is the poise [dyne-s=cm2 . The unit of dyne-seconds per square centimeter is the poise, while the centipoise (one hundredth of a poise) has been widely used in bearing calculations, but now has been gradually replaced by SI units. The cgs unit for kinematic viscosity, n, is the stokes (St) [cm2 =s]; a smaller unit is the centistokes (cSt), cSt ¼ 102 stokes. The unit cSt is equivalent to ½mm2 =s .

38

Chapter 2

2.4.3

Imperial Units

In the imperial (English) unit system, the unit of absolute viscosity, m, is the reyn [lbf-s=in:2 ] (named after Osborne Reynolds) in pounds (force)-seconds per square inch. The imperial unit for kinematic viscosity, n, is [in:2 =s], square inches per second. Conversion list of absolute viscosity units, m: 1 centipoise ¼ 1:45 107 reyn 1 centipoise ¼ 0:001 N-s=m2 1 centipoise ¼ 0.01 poise 1 reyn ¼ 6:895 103 N-s=m2 1 reyn ¼ 6:895 106 centipoise 1 N-s=m2 ¼ 103 centipoise 1 N-s=m2 ¼ 1:45 104 reyn

2.4.4

Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS)

In addition to the preceding units, a number of empirical viscosity units have been developed. Empirical viscosity units are a measure of the ﬂow time of oil in a laboratory test instrument of standard geometry. The most common empirical viscosity unit in the United States is the Saybolt universal second (SUS). This Saybolt viscosity is deﬁned as the time, in seconds, required to empty out a volume of 60 cm3 of ﬂuid through a capillary opening in a Saybolt viscometer. There are equations to convert this Saybolt viscosity to other kinematic viscosities, and the ﬂuid density is required for further conversion to absolute viscosity, m. The SUS is related to a standard viscometer (ASTM speciﬁcation D 88). This unit system is widely used in the United States by commercial oil companies. The following equation converts t (in SUS) into kinematic viscosity, n, in centistoke (cSt) units: nðcStÞ ¼ 0:22t

180 t

ð2-4Þ

Lubrication engineers often use the conversion chart in Fig. 2-2 to convert from kinematic viscosity to absolute viscosity, and vice versa. Also, the chart is convenient for conversion between the unit systems.

2.5

VISCOSITY^TEMPERATURE CURVES

A common means to determine the viscosity at various temperatures is the ASTM viscosity–temperature chart (ASTM D341). An example of such a chart is given

Lubricant Viscosity

F IG. 2-2

39

Viscosity conversion chart from Saybolt universal seconds.

in Fig. 2-3. The viscosity of various types of mineral oils is plotted as a function of temperature. These curves are used in the design of hydrodynamic journal bearings.

40

Chapter 2

F IG. 2-3

2.6

Viscosity–temperature chart.

VISCOSITY INDEX

Lubricants having a relatively low rate of change of viscosity versus temperature are desirable, particularly in automotive engines. The viscosity index (VI) is a common empirical measure of the level of decreasing viscosity when the temperature of oils increases. The VI was introduced as a basis for comparing Pennsylvania and Gulf Coast crude oils. The Pennsylvania oil exhibited a relatively low change of viscosity with temperature and has been assigned a VI of 100, while a certain Gulf Coast oil exhibited a relatively high change in viscosity with temperature and has been assigned a VI of 0. The viscosity-versustemperature curve of all other oils has been compared with the Pennsylvania and Gulf Coast oils. The viscosity index of all other oils can be determined from the slope of their viscosity–temperature curve, in comparison to VI ¼ 0 and VI ¼ 100 oils, as illustrated in Fig. 2-4. Demonstration of the method for determining the viscosity index from various viscosity–temperature curves is presented schematically in Fig. 2-4. The viscosity index of any type of oil is determined by the following equation: VI ¼

LU 100 LH

ð2-5Þ

Lubricant Viscosity

F IG. 2-4

41

Illustration of the viscosity index.

Here, L is the kinematic viscosity at 100 F of VI ¼ 0 oil, H is the kinematic viscosity at 100 F of the VI ¼ 100, and U is the kinematic viscosity at 100 F of the newly tested oil. High-viscosity-index oils of 100 or above are usually desirable in hydrodynamic bearings, because the viscosity is less sensitive to temperature variations and does not change so much during bearing operation.

2.7

VISCOSITY AS A FUNCTION OF PRESSURE

The viscosity of mineral oils as well as synthetic oils increases with pressure. The effect of the pressure on the viscosity of mineral oils is signiﬁcant only at relatively high pressure, such as in elastohydrodynamic lubrication of point or line contacts in gears or rolling-element bearings. The effect of pressure is considered for the analysis of lubrication only if the maximum pressure exceeds 7000 kPa (about 1000 psi). In the analysis of hydrodynamic journal bearings, the viscosity–pressure effects are usually neglected. However, in heavily loaded hydrodynamic bearings, the eccentricity ratio can be relatively high. In such cases, the maximum pressure (near the region of minimum ﬁlm thickness) can be

42

Chapter 2

above 7000 kPa. But in such cases, the temperature is relatively high at this region, and this effect tends to compensate for any increase in viscosity by pressure. However, in elastohydrodynamic lubrication of ball bearings, gears, and rollers, the maximum pressure is much higher and the increasing viscosity must be considered in the analysis. Under very high pressure, above 140,000 kPa (20,000 psi), certain oils become plastic solids. Barus (1893) introduced the following approximate exponential relation of viscosity, m, versus pressure, p:

m ¼ m0 eap

ð2-6Þ

Here, m0 is the absolute viscosity under ambient atmospheric pressure and a is the pressure-viscosity coefﬁcient, which is strongly dependent on the operating temperature. Values of the pressure-viscosity coefﬁcient, a ½m2 =N , for various lubricants have been measured. These values are listed in Table 2-1. A more accurate equation over a wider range of pressures has been proposed by Rhoelands (1966) and recently has been used for elastohydrodynamic analysis. However, since the Barus equation has a simple exponential form, it has been the basis of most analytical investigations.

TABLE 2-1

Pressure-Viscosity Coefﬁcient, a ½m2 =N , for Various Lubricants Temperature, tm

Fluid

38 C

99 C

149 C

Ester 1:28 108 0:987 108 0:851 108 Formulated ester 1.37 1.00 0.874 Polyalkyl aromatic 1.58 1.25 1.01 Synthetic parafﬁnic oil 1.77 1.51 1.09 Synthetic parafﬁnic oil 1.99 1.51 1.29 Synthetic parafﬁnic oil plus antiwear additive 1.81 1.37 1.13 Synthetic parafﬁnic oil plus antiwear additive 1.96 1.55 1.25 C-ether 1.80 0.980 0.795 Superreﬁned naphthenic mineral oil 2.51 1.54 1.27 Synthetic hydrocarbon (traction ﬂuid) 3.12 1.71 0.937 Fluorinated polyether 4.17 3.24 3.02 Source: Jones et al., 1975.

Lubricant Viscosity

2.8

43

VISCOSITY AS A FUNCTION OF SHEAR RATE

It has been already mentioned that Newtonian ﬂuids exhibit a linear relationship between the shear stress and the shear rate, and that the viscosity of Newtonian ﬂuids is constant and independent of the shear rate. For regular mineral and synthetic oils this is an adequate assumption, but this assumption is not correct for greases. Mineral oils containing additives of long-chain polymers, such as multigrade oils, are non-Newtonian ﬂuids, in the sense that the viscosity is a function of the shear rate. These ﬂuids demonstrate shear-thinning characteristics; namely, the viscosity decreases with the shear rate. The discipline of rheology focuses on the investigation of the ﬂow characteristics of non-Newtonian ﬂuids, and much research work has been done investigating the rheology of lubricants. The following approximate power-law equation is widely used to describe the viscosity of non-Newtonian ﬂuids: n1 @u m ¼ m0 @y

ð0 < n < 1Þ

ð2-7Þ

The equation for the shear stress is n1 @u @u t ¼ m0 @y @y

ð2-8Þ

An absolute value of the shear-rate is used because the shear stress can be positive or negative, while the viscosity remains positive. The shear stress, t, has the same sign as the shear rate according to Eq. (2-8).

2.9

VISCOELASTIC LUBRICANTS

Polymer melts as well as liquids with additives of long-chain polymers in solutions of mineral oils demonstrate viscous as well as elastic properties and are referred to as viscoelastic ﬂuids. Experiments with viscoelastic ﬂuids show that the shear stress is not only a function of the instantaneous shear-rate but also a memory function of the shear-rate history. If the shear stress is suddenly eliminated, the shear rate will decrease slowly over a period of time. This effect is referred to as stress relaxation. The relaxation of shear stress takes place over a certain average time period, referred to as the relaxation time. The characteristics of such liquids are quite complex, but in principle, the Maxwell model of a spring and a dashpot (viscous damper) in series can approximate viscoelastic behavior. Under extension, the spring has only elastic force while the dashpot has only viscous resistance force. According to the Maxwell model, in a simple shear ﬂow,

44

Chapter 2

u ¼ uð yÞ, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is described by the following equation: tþl

dt du ¼m dt dy

ð2-9Þ

Here, l is the relaxation time (having units of time). The second term with the relaxation time describes the ﬂuid stress-relaxation characteristic in addition to the viscous characteristics of Newtonian ﬂuids. As an example: In Newtonian ﬂuid ﬂow, if the shear stress, t, is sinusoidal, it will result in a sinusoidal shear rate in phase with the shear stress oscillations. However, according to the Maxwell model, there will be a phase lag between the shear stress, t, and the sinusoidal shear rate. Analysis of hydrodynamic lubrication with viscoelastic ﬂuids is presented in Chapter 19.

Problems 2-1a

A hydrostatic circular pad comprises two parallel concentric disks, as shown in Fig. 2-5. There is a thin clearance, h0 between the disks. The upper disk is driven by an electric motor (through a mechanical drive) and has a rotation angular speed o. For the rotation, power is required to overcome the viscous shear of ﬂuid in the clearance. Derive the expressions for the torque, T , and the power, E_ f , provided by the drive (electric motor) to overcome the friction due to viscous shear in the clearance. Consider only the viscous friction in the thin clearance, h0 , and neglect the friction in the circular recess of radius R0 . For deriving the expression of the torque, ﬁnd the shear stresses and torque, dT , of a thin ring, dr, and integrate in the boundaries from R0 to R. For the power, use the equation, E_ f ¼ T o. Show that the results of the derivations are: p R4 R4 ðP2-1aÞ 1 04 o Tf ¼ m 2 h0 R 4 4 _Ef ¼ p m R 1 R0 o2 2 h0 R4

2-1b

ðP2-1bÞ

A hydrostatic circular pad as shown in Fig. 2-5 operates as a viscometer with a constant clearance of h0 ¼ 200 mm between the disks. The disk radius is R ¼ 200 mm, and the circular recess radius is R0 ¼ 100 mm. The rotation speed of the upper disk is 600 RPM. The lower disk is mounted on a torque-measuring device, which reads a torque of 250 N-m. Find the ﬂuid viscosity in SI units.

Lubricant Viscosity

F IG. 2-5

2-2

45

Parallel concentric disks.

Find the viscosity in Reyns and the kinematic viscosity in centistoke (cSt) units and Saybolt universal second (SUS) units for the following ﬂuids: a.

The ﬂuid is mineral oil, SAE 10, and its operating temperature is 70 C. The lubricant density is r ¼ 860 kg=m3 . b. The ﬂuid is air, its viscosity is m ¼ 2:08 105 N-s=m2 , and its density is r ¼ 0:995 kg=m3 . c. The ﬂuid is water, its viscosity is m ¼ 4:04 104 N-s=m2 , and its density is r ¼ 978 kg=m3 . 2-3

Derive the equations for the torque and power loss of a journal bearing that operates without external load. The journal and bearing are concentric with a small radial clearance, C, between them. The diameter of the shaft is D and the bearing length is L. The shaft turns

46

Chapter 2

at a speed of 3600 RPM inside the bushing. The diameter of the shaft is D ¼ 50 mm, while the radial clearance C ¼ 0:025 mm. (In journal bearings, the ratio of radial clearance, C, to the shaft radius is of the order of 0.001.) The bearing length is L ¼ 0:5D. The viscosity of the oil in the clearance is 120 Saybolt seconds, and its density is r ¼ 890 kg=m3 . a.

Find the torque required for rotating the shaft, i.e., to overcome the viscous-friction resistance in the thin clearance. b. Find the power losses for viscous shear inside the clearance (in watts). 2-4

A journal is concentric in a bearing with a very small radial clearance, C, between them. The diameter of the shaft is D and the bearing length is L. The ﬂuid viscosity is m and the relaxation time of the ﬂuid (for a Maxwell ﬂuid) is l. The shaft has sinusoidal oscillations with sinusoidal hydraulic friction torque on the ﬂuid ﬁlm: Mf ¼ M0 sin ot This torque will result in a sinusoidal shear stress in the ﬂuid. a.

Neglect ﬂuid inertia, and ﬁnd the equation for the variable shear stress in the ﬂuid. b. Find the maximum shear rate (amplitude of the sinusoidal shear rate) in the ﬂuid for the two cases of a Newtonian and a Maxwell ﬂuid. c. In the case of a Maxwell ﬂuid, ﬁnd the phase lag between shear rate and the shear stress.

3 Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

3.1

INTRODUCTION

Lubricants are various substances placed between two rubbing surfaces in order to reduce friction and wear. Lubricants can be liquids or solids, and even gas ﬁlms have important applications. Solid lubricants are often used to reduce dry or boundary friction, but we have to keep in mind that they do not contribute to the heat transfer of the dissipated friction energy. Greases and waxes are widely used for light-duty bearings, as are solid lubricants such as graphite and molybdenum disulphide (MoS2 ). In addition, coatings of polymers such as PTFE (Teﬂon) and polyethylene can reduce friction and are used successfully in light-duty applications. However, liquid lubricants are used in much larger quantities in industry and transportation because they have several advantages over solid lubricants. The most important advantages of liquid lubricants are the formation of hydrodynamic ﬁlms, the cooling of the bearing by effective convection heat transfer, and ﬁnally their relative convenience for use in bearings. Currently, the most common liquid lubricants are mineral oils, which are made from petroleum. Mineral oils are blends of base oils with many different additives to improve the lubrication characteristics. Base oils (also referred to as mineral oil base stocks) are extracted from crude oil by a vacuum distillation process. Later, the oil passes through cleaning processes to remove undesired 47

48

Chapter 3

components. Crude oils contain a mixture of a large number of organic compounds, mostly hydrocarbons (compounds of hydrogen and carbon). Various other compounds are present in crude oils. Certain hydrocarbons are suitable for lubrication; these are extracted from the crude oil as base oils. Mineral oils are widely used because they are available at relatively low cost (in comparison to synthetic lubricants). The commercial mineral oils are various base oils (comprising various hydrocarbons) blended to obtain the desired properties. In addition, they contain many additives to improve performance, such as oxidation inhibitors, rust-prevention additives, antifoaming agents, and highpressure agents. A long list of additives is used, based on each particular application. The most common oil additives are discussed in this chapter. During recent years, synthetic oils have been getting a larger share of the lubricant market. The synthetic oils are more expensive, and they are applied only whenever the higher cost can be ﬁnancially justiﬁed. Blends of mineral and synthetic base oils are used for speciﬁc applications where unique lubrication characteristics are required. Also, greases are widely used, particularly for the lubrication of rolling-element bearings and gears.

3.2

CRUDE OILS

Most lubricants use mineral oil base stocks, made from crude oil. Each source of crude oil has its own unique composition or combination of compounds, resulting in a wide range of characteristics as well as appearance. Various crude oils have different colors and odors, and have a variety of viscosities as well as other properties. Crude oils are a mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. But they also contain many other compounds with various elements, including sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. Certain crude oils are preferred for the manufacture of lubricant base stocks because they have a desirable composition. Certain types of hydrocarbons are desired and extracted from crude oil to prepare lubricant base stocks. Desired components in the crude oil are saturated hydrocarbons, such as parafﬁn and naphthene compounds. Base oil is manufactured by means of distillation and extraction processes to remove undesirable components. In the modern reﬁning of base oils, the crude oil is ﬁrst passed through an atmospheric-pressure distillation. In this unit, lighter fractions, such as gases, gasoline, and kerosene, are separated and removed. The remaining crude oil passes through a second vacuum distillation, where the lubrication oil components are separated. The various base oils are cleaned from the undesired components by means of solvent extraction. The base oil is dissolved in a volatile solvent in order to remove the wax as well as many other undesired components. Finally, the base oil is recovered from the solvent and passed through a process of hydrogenation to improve its oxidation stability.

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

3.3

49

BASE OIL COMPONENTS

Base oil components are compounds of hydrogen and carbon referred to as hydrocarbon compounds. The most common types are parafﬁn and naphthene compounds. Chemists refer to these two types as saturated mineral oils, while the third type, the aromatic compounds are unsaturated. Saturated mineral oils have proved to have better oxidation resistance, resulting in lubricants with long life and minimum sludge. A general property required of all mineral oils (as well as other lubricants) is that they be able to operate and ﬂow at low temperature (low pour point). For example, if motor oils became too thick in cold weather, it would be impossible to start our cars. In the past, Pennsylvania crude oil was preferred, because it contains a higher fraction of parafﬁn hydrocarbons, which have the desired lubrication characteristics. Today, however, it is feasible to extract small desired fractions of base oils from other crude oils, because modern reﬁning processes separate all crude oils into their many components, which are ultimately used for various applications. But even today, certain crude oils are preferred for the production of base oils. The following properties are the most important in base-oil components.

3.3.1

Viscosity Index

The viscosity index (VI), already discussed in Chapter 2, is a common measure to describe the relationship of viscosity, m, versus temperature, T . The curve of log m versus log T is approximately linear, and the slope of the curve indicates the sensitivity of the viscosity to temperature variations. The viscosity index number is inversely proportional to the slope of the viscosity–temperature (m T ) curve in logarithmic coordinates. A high VI number is desirable, and the higher the VI number the ﬂatter the m T curve, that is, the lubricant’s viscosity is less sensitive to changes in temperature. Most commercial lubricants contain additives that serve as VI improvers (they increase the VI number by ﬂattening the m T curve). In the old days, only the base oil determined the VI number. Pennsylvania oil was considered to have the best thermal characteristic and was assigned the highest VI, 100. But today’s lubricants contain VI improvers, such as long-chain polymer additives or blends of synthetic lubricants with mineral oils, that can have high-VI numbers approaching 200. In addition, it is important to use high-VI base oils in order to achieve high-quality thermal properties of this order. Parafﬁns are base oil components with a relatively high VI number (Pennsylvania oil has a higher fraction of parafﬁns.) The naphthenes have a medium-to-high VI, while the aromatics have a low VI.

50

Chapter 3

3.3.2

Pour Point

This is a measure of the lowest temperature at which the oil can operate and ﬂow. This property is related to viscosity at low temperature. The pour point is determined by a standard test: The pour point is the lowest temperature at which a certain ﬂow is observed under a prescribed, standard laboratory test. A low pour point is desirable because the lubricant can be useful in cold weather conditions. Parafﬁn is a base-oil component that has medium-to-high pour point, while naphthenes and aromatics have a desirably low pour point.

3.3.3

Oxidation Resistance

Oxidation inhibitors are meant to improve the oxidation resistance of lubricants for high-temperature applications. A detailed discussion of this characteristic is included in this chapter. However, some base oils have a better oxidation resistance for a limited time, depending on the operation conditions. Base oils having a higher oxidation resistance are desirable and are preferred for most applications. The base-oil components of parafﬁn and naphthene types have a relatively good oxidation resistance, while the aromatics exhibit poorer oxidation resistance. The parafﬁns have most of the desired properties. They have a relatively high VI and relatively good oxidation stability. But parafﬁns have the disadvantage of a relatively higher pour point. For this reason, naphthenes are also widely used in blended mineral oils. Naphthenes also have good oxidation resistance, but their only drawback is a low-to-medium VI. The aromatic base-oil components have the most undesirable characteristics, a low VI and low oxidation resistance, although they have desirably low pour points. In conclusion, each component has different characteristics, and lubricant manufacturers attempt to optimize the properties for each application via the proper blending of the various base-oil components.

3.4

SYNTHETIC OILS

A variety of synthetic base oils are currently available for engineering applications, including lubrication and heat transfer ﬂuids. The most widely used are poly-alpha oleﬁns (PAOs), esters, and polyalkylene glycols (PAGs). The PAOs and esters have different types of molecules, but both exhibit good lubrication properties. There is a long list of synthetic lubricants in use, but these three types currently have the largest market penetration. The acceptance of synthetic lubricants in industry and transportation has been slow, for several reasons. The cost of synthetic lubricants is higher (it can be 2–100 times higher than mineral base oils). Although the initial cost of synthetic

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

51

lubricants is higher, in many cases the improvement in performance and the longer life of the oil makes them an attractive long-term economic proposition. Initially, various additives (such as antiwear and oxidation-resistance additives) for mineral oils were adapted for synthetic lubricants. But experience indicated that such additives are not always compatible with the new lubricants. A lot of research has been conducted to develop more compatible additives, resulting in a continuous improvement in synthetic lubricant characteristics. There are other reasons for the slow penetration of synthetic lubricants into the market, the major one being insufﬁcient experience with them. Industry has been reluctant to take the high risk of the breakdown of manufacturing machinery and the loss of production. Synthetic lubricants are continually penetrating the market for motor vehicles; their higher cost is the only limitation for much wider application. The following is a list of the most widely used types of synthetic lubricants in order of their current market penetration: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

3.4.1

Poly-alpha oleﬁns (PAOs) Esters Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs) Alkylated aromatics Polybutenes Silicones Phosphate esters PFPEs Other synthetic lubricants for special applications.

Poly-alpha Ole¢ns (PAOs)

The PAO lubricants can replace, or even be applied in combination with, mineral oils. The PAOs are produced via polymerization of oleﬁns. Their chemical composition is similar to that of parafﬁns in mineral oils. In fact, they are synthetically made pure parafﬁns, with a narrower molecular weight distribution in comparison with parafﬁns extracted from crude oil. The processing causes a chemical linkage of oleﬁns in a parafﬁn-type oil. The PAO lubricants have a reduced volatility, because they have a narrow molecular weight range, making them superior in this respect to parraﬁnic mineral oils derived from crude oil, which have much wider molecular weight range. A fraction of low-molecularweight parafﬁn (light fraction) is often present in mineral oils derived from crude oil. This light fraction in mineral oils causes an undesired volatility, whereas this fraction is not present in synthetic oils. Most important, PAOs have a high viscosity index (the viscosity is less sensitive to temperature variations) and much better low-temperature characteristics (low pour point) in comparison to mineral oils.

52

3.4.2

Chapter 3

Esters

This type of lubricant, particularly polyol esters (for example, pentaerithritol and trimethyrolpropane) is widely used in aviation ﬂuids and automotive lubricants. Also, it is continually penetrating the market for industrial lubricants. Esters comprise two types of synthetic lubricants. The ﬁrst type is dibasic acid esters, which are commonly substituted for mineral oils and can be used in combination with mineral oils. The second type is hindered polyol esters, which are widely used in high-temperature applications, where mineral oils are not suitable.

3.4.3

Polyalkylene Glycols (PAGs)

This type of base lubricant is made of linear polymers of ethylene and propylene oxides. The PAGs have a wide range of viscosity, including relatively high viscosity (in comparison to mineral oils) at elevated temperatures. The polymers can be of a variety of molecular weights. The viscosity depends on the range of the molecular weight of the polymer. Polymers of higher molecular weight exhibit higher viscosity. Depending on the chemical composition, these base ﬂuids can be soluble in water or not. These synthetic lubricants are available in a very wide range of viscosities—from 55 to 300,000 SUS at 100 F (12–65,000 centistoke at 38 C). The viscosity of these synthetic base oils is less sensitive to temperature change in comparison to petroleum oils. The manufacturers provide viscosity vs. temperature charts that are essential for any lubricant application. In addition, polyalkylene-glycols base polymers have desirably low pour points in comparison to petroleum oils. Similar to mineral oils, they usually contain a wide range of additives to improve oxidation resistance, lubricity, as well as other lubrication characteristics. The additives must be compatible with the various synthetic oils. Figure 3-1 presents an example of viscosity vs. temperature charts, for several polyalkylene-glycol base oils. The dotted line is a reference curve for petroleum base oil (mineral oil). It is clear that the negative slope of the synthetic oils is less steep in comparison to that of the mineral oil. It means that the viscosity of synthetic oils is less sensitive to a temperature rise. In fact, polyalkylene-glycol base oils can reach the highest viscosity index. The viscosity index of polyalkylene-glycols is between 150 and 290, while the viscosity index of commercial mineral oils ranges from 90 to 140. In comparison, the viscosity index of commercial polyol esters ranges from 120 to 180. Another important property is the change of viscosity with pressure, which is more moderate in certain synthetic oils in comparison to mineral oils. This characteristic is important in the lubrication of rolling bearings and gears (EHD lubrication). The change of viscosity under pressure is signiﬁcant only at very high pressures, such as the point or line contact of rolling elements and races. Figure 3-2 presents an example of viscosity vs. pressure charts, for several

F IG. 3-1 Viscosity vs. temperature charts of commercial polyalkylene-glycol lubricants. (Used by permission of Union Carbide Corp.)

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants 53

FIG. 3-2 Viscosity vs. pressure charts of commercial polyalkylene-glycol lubricants. (Used by permission of ICI Performance Chemicals.)

54 Chapter 3

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

55

commercial polyalkylene-glycols as compared with a mineral oil. This chart is produced by tests that are conducted using a high-pressure viscometer.

3.4.4

Synthetic Lubricants for Special Applications

There are several interesting lubricants produced to solve unique problems in certain applications. An example is the need for a nonﬂammable lubricant for safety in critical applications. Halocarbon oils (such as polychlorotriﬂuoroethylene) can prove a solution to this problem because they are inert and nonﬂammable and at the same time they provide good lubricity. However, these lubricants are not for general use because of their extremely high cost. These lubricants were initially used to separate uranium isotopes during World War II. In general, synthetic oils have many advantages, but they have some limitations as well: low corrosion resistance and incompatibility with certain seal materials (they cause swelling of certain elastomers). However, the primary disadvantage of synthetic base oils is their cost. They are generally several times as expensive in comparison to regular mineral base oils. As a result, they are substituted for mineral oils only when there is ﬁnancial justiﬁcation in the form of signiﬁcant improvement in the lubrication performance or where a speciﬁc requirement must be satisﬁed. In certain applications, the life of the synthetic oil is longer than that of mineral oil, due to better oxidation resistance, which may result in a favorable cost advantage over the complete life cycle of the lubricant.

3.4.5

Summary of Advantages of Synthetic Oils

The advantages of synthetic oils can be summarized as follows: Synthetic oils are suitable for applications where there is a wide range of temperature. The most important favorable characteristics of these synthetic lubricants are: (a) their viscosity is less sensitive to temperature variations (high VI), (b) they have a relatively low pour point, (c) they have relatively good oxidation resistance; and (d) they have the desired low volatility. On the other hand, these synthetic lubricants are more expensive and should be used only where the higher cost can be ﬁnancially justiﬁed. Concerning cost, we should consider not only the initial cost of the lubricant but also the overall cost. If a synthetic lubricant has a longer life because of its better oxidation resistance, it will require less frequent replacement. Whenever the oil serves for a longer period, there are additional savings on labor and downtime of machinery. All this should be considered when estimating the cost involved in a certain lubricant. Better resistance to oxidation is an important consideration, particularly where the oil is exposed to relatively high temperature.

56

3.5

Chapter 3

GREASES

Greases are made of mineral or synthetic oils. The grease is a suspension of oil in soaps, such as sodium, calcium, aluminum, lithium, and barium soaps. Other thickeners, such as silica and treated clays, are used in greases as well. Greases are widely used for the lubrication of rolling-element bearings, where very small quantities of lubricant are required. Soap and thickeners function as a sponge to contain the oil. Inside the operating bearing, the sponge structure is gradually broken down, and the grease is released at a very slow rate. The oil slowly bleeds out, continually providing a very thin lubrication layer on the bearing surfaces. The released oil is not identical to the original oil used to make the grease. The lubrication layer is very thin and will not generate a lubrication ﬁlm adequate enough to separate the sliding surfaces, but it is effective only as a boundary lubricant, to reduce friction and wear. In addition to rolling bearings, greases are used for light-duty journal bearings or plane-sliders. Inside the bearing, the grease gradually releases small quantities of oil. This type of lubrication is easy to apply and reduces the maintenance cost. For journal or plane-slider bearings, greases can be applied only for low PV values, where boundary lubrication is adequate. The oil layer is too thin to play a signiﬁcant role in cooling the bearing or in removing wear debris. For greases, the design of the lubrication system is quite simple. Grease systems and their maintenance are relatively inexpensive. Unlike liquid oil, grease does not easily leak out. Therefore, in all cases where grease is applied there is no need for tight seals. A complex oil bath method with tight seals must be used only for oil lubrication. But for grease, a relatively simple labyrinth sealing (without tight seals) with a small clearance can be used, and this is particularly important where the shaft is not horizontal (such as in a vertical shaft). The drawback of tight seals on a rotating shaft is that the seals wear out, resulting in frequent seal replacement. Moreover, tight seals yield friction-energy losses that add heat to the bearing. Also, in grease lubrication, there is no need to maintain oil levels, and relubrication is less frequent in comparison to oil. When rolling elements in a bearing come in contact with the grease, the thickener structure is broken down gradually, and a small quantity of oil slowly bleeds out to form a very thin lubrication layer on the rolling surfaces. A continuous supply of a small amount of oil is essential because the thin oil layer on the bearing surface is gradually evaporated or deteriorated by oxidation. Therefore, bleeding from the grease must be continual and sufﬁcient; that is, the oil supply should meet the demand. After the oil in the grease is depleted, new grease must be provided via repeated lubrication of the bearing. Similar to liquid oils, greases include many protective additives, such as rust and oxidation inhibitors.

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

57

The temperature of the operating bearing is the most important factor for selecting a grease type. The general-purpose grease covers a wide temperature range for most practical purposes. This range is from 400 C to 1210 C ð400 F to 2500 F). But care must be exercised at very high or very low operating temperatures, where low-temperature greases or extreme high-temperature greases should be applied. It would be incorrect to assume that grease suitable for a high temperature would also be successful at low temperatures, because high-temperature grease will be too hard for low-temperature applications. Greases made of sodium and mixed sodium–calcium soaps greases are suitable as general-purpose greases, although calcium soap is limited to rather low temperatures. For applications requiring water resistance, such as centrifugal pumps, calcium, lithium, and barium soap greases and the nonsoap greases are suitable. Synthetic oils are used to make greases for extremely low or extremely high temperatures. It is important to emphasize that different types of grease should not be mixed, particularly greases based on mineral oil with those based on synthetic oils. Bearings must be thoroughly cleaned before changing to a different grease type.

3.5.1

Grease Groups

a.

General-purpose greases: These greases can operate at temperatures from 40 C to 121 C ð40 F to 250 F). b. High-temperature greases: These greases can operate at temperatures from 18 C to 149 C (0 F to 300 F). c. Medium-temperature greases: These greases can operate at temperatures from 0 C to 93 C ð32 F to 200 F). d. Low-temperature greases: These greases operate at temperatures as low as 55 C ð67 F) and as high as 107 C ð225 F). e. Extremely high-temperature greases: These greases can operate at temperatures up to 230 C to ð450 FÞ.

These ﬁve groups are based only on operating temperature. Other major characteristics that should be considered for the selection of grease for each application include consistency, oxidation resistance, water resistance, and melting point. There are grease types formulated for unique operating conditions, such as heavy loads, high speeds, and highly corrosive or humid environments. Grease manufacturers should be consulted, particularly for heavy-duty applications or severe environments. In the case of dust environments, the grease should be replaced more frequently to remove contaminants from the bearing. Greases for miniature bearings for instruments require a lower contamination level than standard greases.

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Grease characteristics are speciﬁed according to standard tests. For example, the consistency (hardness) of grease, an important characteristic, is determined according to the ASTM D-217 standard penetration test. This test is conducted at 25 C by allowing a cone to penetrate into the grease for 5 seconds, higher penetration means softer grease. Standard worked penetration is determined by repeating the test after working the grease in a standard grease worker for 60 strokes. Prolonged working is testing after 100,000 strokes. The normal worked penetration for general-purpose grease is approximately between 250 and 350. Roller bearings require softer grease (ASTM worked penetration above 300) to reduce the rolling resistance. Other characteristics, such as oxidation stability, dropping point, and dirt count, apply in the same way to grease for roller bearings or ball bearings. The selection of grease depends on the operating conditions, particularly the bearing temperature. The oxidation stability is an important selection criterion at high temperature. Oxidation stability is determined according to the ASTM D942 standard oxidation test. The sensitivity of grease oxidation to temperature is demonstrated by the fact that a rise of 8 C (14 F) nearly doubles the oxidation rate. Commercial high-temperature greases are usually formulated with oxidation inhibitors to provide adequate oxidation resistance at high temperature.

3.6

ADDITIVES TO LUBRICANTS

Lubricants include a long list of additives to improve their characteristics. Lubricating oils are formulated with additives to protect equipment surfaces, enhance oil properties, and to protect the lubricant from degradation. Manufacturers start with blends of base oils with the best characteristics and further improve the desired properties by means of various additives. The following is a general discussion of the desired properties of commercial lubricants and the most common additives.

3.6.1

Additives to Improve the Viscosity Index

Multigrade oils, such as SAE 10W-40, contain signiﬁcant amounts of additives that improve the viscosity index. Chapter 2 discusses the advantage of ﬂattening the viscosity–temperature curve by using viscosity index improvers (VI improvers). These additives are usually long-chain polymeric molecules. They have a relatively high molecular weight, on the order of 25,000–500,000 molecular weight units, which is three orders of magnitude larger than that of the base-oil molecules. Examples of VI improvers are ethylene-propylene copolymers, polymethacrylates, and polyisobutylenes. It is already recognized in the discipline of multiphase ﬂow that small solid particles (such as spheres) in suspension increase the apparent viscosity of the

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

59

base ﬂuid (the suspension has more resistance to ﬂow). Moreover, the viscosity increases with the diameter of the suspended particles. In a similar way, additives of long-chain polymer molecules in a solution of mineral oils increase the apparent viscosity of the base oil. The long-chain molecules coil up into a spherical shape and play a similar role to that of a suspension of solid spheres. However, the diameter of the coils increases with the temperature and tends to raise the apparent viscosity more at higher temperatures. At higher temperatures, polymeric molecules are more soluble in the base because they interact better with it. In turn, the large molecules will uncoil at higher temperature, resulting in a larger coil diameter, and the viscosity of the lubricant increases. On the other hand, at lower temperatures, the polymeric molecules tend to coil up, their diameter decreases, and, in turn, the viscosity of the oil is reduced. This effect tends to diminish the stronger effect of viscosity reduction with increasing temperature of base oils. In summary: When polymer additives are dissolved in base oils, the viscosity of the solution is increased, but the rise in viscosity is much greater at high temperatures than at low temperatures. In conclusion, blending oils with long chain polymers results in a desirable ﬂattening of the viscosity–temperature curve. The long-chain molecules in multigrade oils gradually tear off during operation due to high shear rates in the ﬂuid. This reduces the viscosity of the lubricant as well as the effectiveness of polymers as VI improvers. This phenomenon, often referred to as degradation, limits the useful life of the lubricant. Permanent viscosity loss in thickened oils occurs when some of the polymer molecules break down under high shear rates. The shorter polymer molecules contribute less as VI improvers. The resistance to this type of lubricant degradation varies among various types of polymer molecules. Polymers having more resistance to degradation are usually selected. The advantage of synthetic oils is that they have relatively high VI index, without the drawback of degradation. In certain lubricants, synthetic oils are added to improve the VI index, along with polymer additives. Long-chain polymer additives together with blends of synthetic lubricants can improve signiﬁcantly the VI numbers of base oils. High VI numbers of about 200 are usually obtained for multigrade oils, and maximum value of about 400 for synthetic oils. 3.6.1.1

Viscosity^Shear E¡ects

The long-chain molecule polymer solution of mineral oils is a non-Newtonian ﬂuid. There is no more linearity between the shear stress and the shear-rate. Fluids that maintain the same viscosity at various shear rates are called Newtonian ﬂuids. This is true of most single-viscosity-grade oils. However, multigrade oils are non-Newtonian ﬂuids, and they lose viscosity under high rates of shear. This loss can be either temporary or permanent. In addition to the long-

60

Chapter 3

term effect of degradation, there is an immediate reduction of viscosity at high shear rates. This temporary viscosity loss is due to the elongation and orientation of the polymer molecules in the direction of ﬂow. In turn, there is less internal friction and ﬂow-induced reduction of the viscosity of the lubricant. When the oil is no longer subjected to high shear rates, the molecules return to their preferred spherical geometry, and their viscosity recovers. Equations (2-7) and (2-8) describe such non-Newtonian characteristics via a power-law relation between the shear rate and stress. 3.6.1.2

Viscoelastic Fluids

In addition to the foregoing nonlinearity, long-chain polymer solutions exhibit viscoelastic properties. Viscoelastic ﬂow properties can be described by the Maxwell equation [Eq. (2-9)].

3.6.2

Oxidation Inhibitors

Oxidation can take place in any oil, mineral or synthetic, at elevated temperature whenever the oil is in contact with oxygen in the air. Oil oxidation is undesirable because the products of oxidation are harmful chemical compounds, such as organic acids, that cause corrosion. In addition, the oxidation products contribute to a general deterioration of the properties of the lubricant. Lubricant degradation stems primarily from thermal and mechanical energy. Lubricant degradation is catalyzed by the presence of metals and oxygen. The organic acids, products of oil oxidation, cause severe corrosion of the steel journal and the alloys used as bearing materials. The oil circulates, and the corrosive lubricant can damage other parts of the machine. In addition, the oxidation products increase the viscosity of the oils as well as forming sludge and varnish on the bearing and journal surfaces. Excessive oil oxidation can be observed by a change of oil color and also can be recognized by the unique odors of the oxidation products. At high temperature, oxygen reacts with mineral oils to form hydroperoxides and, later, organic acids. The oxidation process is considerably faster at elevated temperature; in fact, the oxidation rate doubles for a nearly 10 C rise in oil temperature. It is very important to prevent or at least to slow down this undesirable process. Most lubricants include additives of oxidation inhibitors, particularly in machines where the oil serves for relatively long periods of time and is exposed to high temperatures, such as steam turbines and motor vehicle engines. The oxidation inhibitors improve the lubricant’s desirable characteristic of oxidation resistance, in the sense that the chemical process of oxidation becomes very slow. Radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, and metal deactivators are used as inhibitors of the oil degradation process. Two principle types of antioxidants

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

61

that act as radical scavengers are aromatic amines and hindered phenolics. The mechanistic behavior of these antioxidants explains the excellent performance of the aromatic amine type under high-temperature oxidation conditions and the excellent performance of the hindered phenolic type under low-temperature oxidation conditions. Appropriate combinations of both types allow for optimum protection across the widest temperature range. Other widely used additives combine the two properties of oxidation and corrosion resistance, e.g., zinc dithiophosphates and sulfurized oleﬁns. There are several companies that have specialized in the research in and development of oxidation inhibitors. Lubricants in service for long periods of time at elevated temperature, such as engine oils, must include oxidation inhibitors to improve their oxidation resistance. As mentioned earlier, synthetic oils without oxidation inhibitors have better oxidation resistance, but they also must include oxidation inhibitors when used in hightemperature applications, such as steam turbines and engines. For large machines and in manufacturing it is important to monitor the lubricant for depletion of the oxidation inhibitors and possible initiation of corrosion, via periodic laboratory tests. For monitoring the level of acidity during operation, the neutralization number is widely used. The rate of increasing acidity of a lubricating oil is an indication of possible problems in the operation conditions. If the acid content of the oil increases too fast, it can be an indication of contamination by outside sources, such as penetration of acids in chemical plants. Oils containing acids can also be easily diagnosed by their unique odor in comparison to regular oil. In the laboratory, standard tests ASTM D 664 and ASTM D 974 are used to measure the amount of acid in the oil.

3.6.3

Pour-Point Depressants

The pour point is an important characteristic whenever a lubricant is applied at low temperatures, such as when starting a car engine on winter mornings when the temperature is at the freezing point. The oil can solidify at low temperature; that is, it will loose its ﬂuidity. Saturated hydrocarbon compounds of the parafﬁn and naphthene types are commonly used, since they have a relatively low pourpoint temperature. Pour-point depressants are oil additives, which were developed to lower the pour-point temperature. Also, certain synthetic oils were developed that can be applied in a wide range of temperatures and have a relatively very low pour point.

3.6.4

Antifriction Additives

A bearing operating with a full hydrodynamic ﬁlm has low friction and a low wear rate. The lubricant viscosity is the most important characteristic for maintaining effective hydrodynamic lubrication operation. However, certain

62

Chapter 3

bearings are designed to operate under boundary lubrication conditions, where there is direct contact between the asperities of the rubbing surfaces. The asperities deform under the high contact pressure; due to adhesion between the two surfaces, there is a relatively high friction coefﬁcient. Measurements of the friction coefﬁcient, f , versus the sliding velocity U (Stribeck curve) indicate a relatively high friction coefﬁcient at low sliding velocity, in the boundary lubrication region (see Chapter 16). In this region, the friction is reducing at a steep negative slope with velocity. Under such conditions of low velocity, there is a direct contact of the surface asperities. The antifriction characteristic of the lubricant, often referred to as oil lubricity, can be very helpful in reducing high levels of friction. A wide range of oil additives has been developed to improve the antifriction characteristics and to reduce the friction coefﬁcient under boundary lubrication conditions. Much more research work is required to fully understand the role of antifriction additives in reducing boundary lubrication friction. The current explanation is that the additives are absorbed and react with the metal surface and its oxides to form thin layers of low-shear-strength material. The layers are compounds of long-chain molecules such as alcohol, amines, and fatty acids. A common antifriction additive is oleic acid, which reacts with iron oxide to form a thin layer of iron-oleate soap. Antiwear additives such as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are also effective in friction reduction. Theory postulates that the low shear strength of the various long-chain molecular layers, as well as the soap ﬁlm, results in a lower friction coefﬁcient. The thin layer can be compared to a deck of cards that slide easily, relative to each other, in a parallel direction to that of the two rubbing surfaces. But at the same time, the long-chain molecular layers can hold very high pressure in the direction normal to the rubbing surfaces. The thin layers on the surface can reduce the shear force required for relative sliding of the asperities of the two surfaces; thus it reduces the friction coefﬁcient. The friction coefﬁcient, f , in boundary lubrication is usually measured in friction-testing machines, such as four-ball or pin-on-disk testing machines. But these friction measurements for liquid lubricants are controversial because of the steep slope of the f U curve. Moreover, it is not a ‘‘clean’’ measurement of the effect of an antifriction additive. The friction reduction is a combination of two effects, the ﬂuid viscosity combined with the surface treatment by the antifriction additive. A much better measurement is to record the complete Stribeck curve, which clearly indicates the friction in the various lubrication regions. The antifriction performance of various oil additives is tested under conditions of boundary lubrication. A reduction in the maximum friction coefﬁcient is an indication of the effectiveness in improving the antifriction characteristics of the base mineral oil. Experiments with steel sliding on steel indicate a friction coefﬁcient in the range of 0.10–0.15 when lubricated only with a regular mineral

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

63

oil. However, the addition of 2% oleic acid to the oil reduces the friction coefﬁcient to the range of 0.05–0.08. Lubricants having good antifriction characteristics have considerable advantages, even for hydrodynamic bearings, such as the reduction of friction during the start-up of machinery.

3.6.5

Solid Colloidal Dispersions

Recent attempts to reduce boundary lubrication friction include the introduction of very small microscopic solid particles (powders) in the form of colloidal dispersions in the lubricant. More tests are required to verify the effectiveness of colloidal dispersions. These antifriction additives are suspensions of very ﬁne solid particles of graphite, PTFE (Teﬂon), or MoS2, and the particle sizes are much less than 1 mm. More research is required, on the one hand, for testing the magnitude of the reduction in friction and, on the other hand, for accurately explaining the antifriction mechanism of solid colloidal dispersions in the lubricant. Theory postulates that these solid additives form a layer of solid particles on the substrate surface. The particles are physically attracted to the surface by adhesion and form a thin protective ﬁlm that can shear easily but at the same time can carry the high pressure at the contact between the surface asperities (in a similar way to surface layers formed by antifriction liquid additives).

3.6.6

Antiwear Additives

The main objective of antiwear oil additives is to reduce the wear rate in sliding or rolling motion under boundary lubrication conditions. An additional important advantage of antiwear additives is that they can reduce the risk of a catastrophic bearing failure, such as seizure, of sliding or rolling-element bearings. The explanation for the protection mechanism is similar to that for antifriction layers. Antiwear additives form thin layers of organic, metal-organic, or metal salt ﬁlm on the surface. This thin layer formed on the surface is sacriﬁced to protect the metal. The antiwear additives form a thin layer that separates the rubbing surfaces and reduces the adhesion force at the contact between the peaks of the asperities of the two surfaces. Oil tests have indicated that wear debris in the oil contain most of the antiwear-layer material. Zinc dialkyldithio-phosphate (ZDDP) is an effective, widely used antiwear additive. It is applied particularly in automotive engines, as well as in most other applications including hydraulic ﬂuids. Zinc is considered a hazardous waste material, and there is an effort to replace this additive by more environmentally friendly additives. After ZDDP decomposes, several compounds are generated of metal-organic, zinc sulﬁde, or zinc phosphate. The compounds react with the surface of steel shafts and form iron sulﬁde or iron phosphate, which forms an antiwear ﬁlm on the surface. These antiwear ﬁlms are effective in boundary

64

Chapter 3

lubrication conditions. Additional types of antiwear additives are various phosphate compounds, organic phosphates, and various chlorine compounds. Various antiwear additives are commonly used to reduce the wear rate of sliding as well as rolling-element bearings. The effectiveness of antiwear additives can be measured on various commercial wear-testing machines, such as four-ball or pin-on-disk testing machines (similar to those for friction testing). The operating conditions must be close to those in the actual operating machinery. The rate of material weight loss is an indication of the wear rate. Standard tests, for comparison between various lubricants, should operate under conditions described in ASTM G 99-90. We have to keep in mind that laboratory friction-testing machines do not always accurately correlate with the conditions in actual industrial machinery. However, it is possible to design experiments that simulate the operating conditions and measure wear rate under situations similar to those in industrial machines. The results are useful in selecting the best lubricant as well as the antifriction additives for minimizing friction and wear for any speciﬁc application. Long-term lubricant tests are often conducted on site on operating industrial machines. However, such tests are over a long period, and the results are not always conclusive, because the conditions in practice always vary with time. By means of on-site tests, in most cases it is impossible to compare the performance of several lubricants, or additives, under identical operation conditions.

3.6.7

Corrosion Inhibitors

Chemical contaminants can be generated in the oil or enter into the lubricant from contaminated environments. Corrosive ﬂuids often penetrate through the seals into the bearing and cause corrosion inside the bearing. This problem is particularly serious in chemical plants where there is a corrosive environment, and small amounts of organic or inorganic acids usually contaminate the lubricant and cause considerable corrosion. Also, organic acids from the oil oxidation process can cause severe corrosion in bearings. Organic acids from oil oxidation must be neutralized; otherwise, the acids degrade the oil and cause corrosion. Oxygen reacts with mineral oils at high temperature. The oil oxidation initially forms hydroperoxides and, later, organic acids. White metal (babbitt) bearings as well as the steel in rolling-element bearings are susceptible to corrosion by acids. It is important to prevent oil oxidation and contain the corrosion damage by means of corrosion inhibitors in the form of additives in the lubricant. In addition to acids, water can penetrate through seals into the oil (particularly in water pumps) and cause severe corrosion. Water can get into the oil from the outside or by condensation. Penetration of water into the oil can cause premature bearing failure in hydrodynamic bearings and particularly in standard rolling-element bearings. Water in the oil is a common cause for

Fundamental Properties of Lubricants

65

corrosion. Only a very small quantity of water is soluble in the oils, about 80 PPM (parts per million); above this level, even a small quantity of water that is not in solution is harmful. The presence of water can be diagnosed by the unique hazy color of the oil. Water acts as a catalyst and accelerates the oil oxidation process. Water is the cause for corrosion of many common bearing metals and particularly steel shafts; for example, water reacts with steel to form rust (hydrated iron oxide). Therefore in certain applications that involve water penetration, stainless steel shafts and rolling bearings are used. Rust inhibitors can also help in reducing corrosion caused by water penetration. In rolling-element bearings, the corrosion accelerates the fatigue process, referred to as corrosion fatigue. The corrosion introduces small cracks in the metal surface that propagate into the metal via oscillating fatigue stresses. In this way, water promotes contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings. It is well known that water penetration into the bearings is often a major problem in centrifugal pumps; wherever it occurs, it causes an early bearing failure, particularly for rolling-element bearings, which involve high fatigue stresses. Rust inhibitors are oil additives that are absorbed on the surfaces of ferrous alloys in preference to water, thus preventing corrosion. Also, metal deactivators are additives that reduce nonferrous metal corrosion. Similar to rust inhibitors, they are preferentially absorbed on the surface and are effective in protecting it from corrosion. Examples of rust inhibitors are oil-soluble petroleum sulfonates and calcium sulfonate, which can increase corrosion protection.

3.6.8

Antifoaming Additives

Foaming of liquid lubricants is undesirable because the bubbles deteriorate the performance of hydrodynamic oil ﬁlms in the bearing. In addition, foaming adversely affects the oil supply of lubrication systems (it reduces the ﬂow rate of oil pumps). Also, the lubricant can overﬂow from its container (similar to the use of liquid detergent without antifoaming additives in a washing machine). The function of antifoaming additives is to increase the interfacial tension between the gas and the lubricant. In this way, the bubbles collapse, allowing the gas to escape.

Problems 3-1

Find the viscosity of the following three lubricants at 20 C and 100 C: a. SAE 30 b. SAE 10W-30 c. Polyalkylene glycol synthetic oil

66

Chapter 3

3-2

3-3 3-4

3-5

List the three oils according to the sensitivity of viscosity to temperature, based on the ratio of viscosity at 20 C to viscosity at 100 C. Explain the advantages of synthetic oils in comparison to mineral oil. Suggest an example application where there is a justiﬁcation for using synthetic oil of higher cost. List ﬁve of the most widely used synthetic oils. What are the most important characteristics of each of them? Compare the advantages of using greases versus liquid lubricants. Suggest two example applications where you would prefer to use grease for lubrication and two examples where you would prefer to use liquid lubricant. Justify your selection in each case. a. Explain the process of oil degradation by oxidation. b. List the factors that determine the oxidation rate. c. List the various types of oxidation inhibitors.

4 Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

4.1

INTRODUCTION

A hydrodynamic plane-slider is shown in Fig. 1-2 and the widely used hydrodynamic journal bearing is shown in Fig. 1-3. Hydrodynamic lubrication is the ﬂuid dynamic effect that generates a lubrication ﬂuid ﬁlm that completely separates the sliding surfaces. The ﬂuid ﬁlm is in a thin clearance between two surfaces in relative motion. The hydrodynamic effect generates a hydrodynamic pressure wave in the ﬂuid ﬁlm that results in load-carrying capacity, in the sense that the ﬂuid ﬁlm has sufﬁcient pressure to carry the external load on the bearing. The pressure wave is generated by a wedge of viscous lubricant drawn into the clearance between the two converging surfaces or by a squeeze-ﬁlm action. The thin clearance of a plane-slider and a journal bearing has the shape of a thin converging wedge. The ﬂuid adheres to the solid surfaces and is dragged into the converging clearance. High shear stresses drag the ﬂuid into the wedge due to the motion of the solid surfaces. In turn, high pressure must build up in the ﬂuid ﬁlm before the viscous ﬂuid escapes through the thin clearance. The pressure wave in the ﬂuid ﬁlm results in a load-carrying capacity that supports the external load on the bearing. In this way, the hydrodynamic ﬁlm can completely separate the sliding surfaces, and, thus, wear of the sliding surfaces is prevented. Under steady conditions, the hydrodynamic load capacity, W , of a bearing is equal to the external load, F, on the bearing, but it is acting in the opposite direction. The 67

68

Chapter 4

hydrodynamic theory of lubrication solves for the ﬂuid velocity, pressure wave, and resultant load capacity. Experiments and hydrodynamic analysis indicated that the hydrodynamic load capacity is proportional to the sliding speed and ﬂuid viscosity. At the same time, the load capacity dramatically increases for a thinner ﬂuid ﬁlm. However, there is a practical limit to how much the bearing designer can reduce the ﬁlm thickness. A very thin ﬂuid ﬁlm is undesirable, particularly in machines with vibrations. Whenever the hydrodynamic ﬁlm becomes too thin, it results in occasional contact of the surfaces, which results in severe wear. Picking the optimum ﬁlm-thickness is an important decision in the design process; it will be discussed in the following chapters. Tower (1880) conducted experiments and demonstrated for the ﬁrst time the existence of a pressure wave in a hydrodynamic journal bearing. Later, Reynolds (1886) derived the classical theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. A large volume of analytical and experimental research work in hydrodynamic lubrication has subsequently followed the work of Reynolds. The classical theory of Reynolds and his followers is based on several assumptions that were adopted to simplify the mathematical derivations, most of which are still applied today. Most of these assumptions are justiﬁed because they do not result in a signiﬁcant deviation from the actual conditions in the bearing. However, some other classical assumptions are not realistic but were necessary to simplify the analysis. As in other disciplines, the introduction of computers permitted complex hydrodynamic lubrication problems to be solved by numerical analysis and have resulted in the numerical solution of such problems under realistic conditions without having to rely on certain inaccurate assumptions. At the beginning of the twentieth century, only long hydrodynamic journal bearings had been designed. The length was long in comparison to the diameter, L > D; long-bearing theory of Reynolds is applicable to such bearings. Later, however, the advantages of a short bearing were recognized. In modern machinery, the bearings are usually short, L < D; short-bearing theory is applicable. The advantage of a long bearing is its higher load capacity in comparison to a short bearing. Moreover, the load capacity of a long bearing is even much higher per unit of bearing area. In comparison, the most important advantages of a short bearing that make it widely used are: (a) better cooling due to faster circulation of lubricant; (b) less sensitivity to misalignment; and (c) a compact design. Simpliﬁed models are commonly used in engineering to provide insight and simple design tools. Hydrodynamic lubrication analysis is much simpliﬁed if the bearing is assumed to be inﬁnitely long or inﬁnitely short. But for a ﬁnite-length bearing, there is a three-dimensional ﬂow that requires numerical solution by computer. In order to simplify the analysis, long journal bearings, L > D, are often solved as inﬁnitely long bearings, while short bearings, L < D, are often solved as inﬁnitely short bearings.

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4.2

69

ASSUMPTIONS OF HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION THEORY

The ﬁrst assumption of hydrodynamic lubrication theory is that the ﬂuid ﬁlm ﬂow is laminar. The ﬂow is laminar at low Reynolds number (Re). In ﬂuid dynamics, the Reynolds number is useful for estimating the ratio of the inertial and viscous forces. For a ﬂuid ﬁlm ﬂow, the expression for the Reynolds number is

Re ¼

U rh Uh ¼ m n

ð4-1Þ

Here, h is the average magnitude of the variable ﬁlm thickness, r is the ﬂuid density, m is the ﬂuid viscosity, and n is the kinematic viscosity. The transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow in hydrodynamic lubrication initiates at about Re ¼ 1000, and the ﬂow becomes completely turbulent at about Re ¼ 1600. The Reynolds number at the transition can be lower if the bearing surfaces are rough or in the presence of vibrations. In practice, there are always some vibrations in rotating machinery. In most practical bearings, the Reynolds number is sufﬁciently low, resulting in laminar ﬂuid ﬁlm ﬂow. An example problem is included in Chapter 5, where Re is calculated for various practical cases. That example shows that in certain unique applications, such as where water is used as a lubricant (in certain centrifugal pumps or in boats), the Reynolds number is quite high, resulting in turbulent ﬂuid ﬁlm ﬂow. Classical hydrodynamic theory is based on the assumption of a linear relation between the ﬂuid stress and the strain-rate. Fluids that demonstrate such a linear relationship are referred to as Newtonian ﬂuids (see Chapter 2). For most lubricants, including mineral oils, synthetic lubricants, air, and water, a linear relationship between the stress and the strain-rate components is a very close approximation. In addition, liquid lubricants are considered to be incompressible. That is, they have a negligible change of volume under the usual pressures in hydrodynamic lubrication. Differential equations are used for theoretical modeling in various disciplines. These equations are usually simpliﬁed under certain conditions by disregarding terms of a relatively lower order of magnitude. Order analysis of the various terms of an equation, under speciﬁc conditions, is required for determining the most signiﬁcant terms, which capture the most important effects. A term in an equation can be disregarded and omitted if it is lower by one or several orders of magnitude in comparison to other terms in the same equation. Dimensionless analysis is a useful tool for determining the relative orders of magnitude of the terms in an equation. For example, in ﬂuid dynamics, the

70

Chapter 4

dimensionless Reynolds number is a useful tool for estimating the ratio of inertial and viscous forces. In hydrodynamic lubrication, the ﬂuid ﬁlm is very thin, and in most practical cases the Reynolds number is low. Therefore, the effect of the inertial forces of the ﬂuid (ma) as well as gravity forces (mg) are very small and can be neglected in comparison to the dominant effect of the viscous stresses. This assumption is applicable for most practical hydrodynamic bearings, except in unique circumstances. The ﬂuid is assumed to be continuous, in the sense that there is continuity (no sudden change in the form of a step function) in the ﬂuid ﬂow variables, such as shear stresses and pressure distribution. In fact, there are always very small air bubbles in the lubricant that cause discontinuity. However, this effect is usually negligible, unless there is a massive ﬂuid foaming or ﬂuid cavitation (formation of bubbles when the vapor pressure is higher than the ﬂuid pressure). In general, classical ﬂuid dynamics is based on the continuity assumption. It is important for mathematical derivations that all functions be continuous and differentiable, such as stress, strain-rate, and pressure functions. The following are the basic ten assumptions of classical hydrodynamic lubrication theory. The ﬁrst nine were investigated and found to be justiﬁed, in the sense that they result in a negligible deviation from reality for most practical oil bearings (except in some unique circumstances). The tenth assumption however, has been introduced only for the purpose of simplifying the analysis.

Assumptions of classical hydrodynamic lubrication theory 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

The ﬂow is laminar because the Reynolds number, Re, is low. The ﬂuid lubricant is continuous, Newtonian, and incompressible. The ﬂuid adheres to the solid surface at the boundary and there is no ﬂuid slip at the boundary; that is, the velocity of ﬂuid at the solid boundary is equal to that of the solid. The velocity component, n, across the thin ﬁlm (in the y direction) is negligible in comparison to the other two velocity components, u and w, in the x and z directions, as shown in Fig. 1-2. Velocity gradients along the ﬂuid ﬁlm, in the x and z directions, are small and negligible relative to the velocity gradients across the ﬁlm because the ﬂuid ﬁlm is thin, i.e., du=dy du=dx and dw=dy dw=dz. The effect of the curvature in a journal bearing can be ignored. The ﬁlm thickness, h, is very small in comparison to the radius of curvature, R, so the effect of the curvature on the ﬂow and pressure distribution is relatively small and can be disregarded.

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

7.

8. 9.

71

The pressure, p, across the ﬁlm (in the y direction) is constant. In fact, pressure variations in the y direction are very small and their effect is negligible in the equations of motion. The force of gravity on the ﬂuid is negligible in comparison to the viscous forces. Effects of ﬂuid inertia are negligible in comparison to the viscous forces. In ﬂuid dynamics, this assumption is usually justiﬁed for lowReynolds-number ﬂow.

These nine assumptions are justiﬁed for most practical hydrodynamic bearings. In contrast, the following additional tenth assumption has been introduced only for simpliﬁcation of the analysis.

10.

The ﬂuid viscosity, m, is constant.

It is well known that temperature varies along the hydrodynamic ﬁlm, resulting in a variable viscosity. However, in view of the signiﬁcant simpliﬁcation of the analysis, most of the practical calculations are still based on the assumption of a constant equivalent viscosity that is determined by the average ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature. The last assumption can be applied in practice because it has already been veriﬁed that reasonably accurate results can be obtained for regular hydrodynamic bearings by considering an equivalent viscosity. The average temperature is usually determined by averaging the temperature of the bearing inlet and outlet lubricant. Various other methods have been suggested to calculate the equivalent viscosity. A further simpliﬁcation of the analysis can be obtained for very long and very short bearings. If a bearing is very long, the ﬂow in the axial direction (z direction) can be neglected, and the three-dimensional ﬂow reduces to a much simpler two-dimensional ﬂow problem that can yield a closed form of analytical solution. A long journal bearing is where the bearing length is much larger than its diameter, L D, and a short journal bearing is where L D. If L D, the bearing is assumed to be inﬁnitely long; if L D, the bearing is assumed to be inﬁnitely short. For a journal bearing whose length L and diameter D are of a similar order of magnitude, the analysis is more complex. This three-dimensional ﬂow analysis is referred to as a ﬁnite-length bearing analysis. Computer-aided numerical analysis is commonly applied to solve for the ﬁnite bearing. The results are summarized in tables that are widely used for design purposes (see Chapter 8).

72

4.3

Chapter 4

HYDRODYNAMIC LONG BEARING

The coordinates of a long hydrodynamic journal bearing are shown in Fig. 4-1. The velocity components of the ﬂuid ﬂow, u, v, and w are in the x; y, and z directions, respectively. A journal bearing is long if the bearing length, L, is much larger than its diameter, D. A plane-slider (see Fig. 1-2) is long if the bearing width, L, in the z direction is much larger than the length, B, in the x direction (the direction of the sliding motion), or L B. In addition to the ten classical assumptions, there is an additional assumption for a long bearing—it can be analyzed as an inﬁnitely long bearing. The pressure gradient in the z direction (axial direction) can be neglected in comparison to the pressure gradient in the x direction (around the bearing). The pressure is assumed to be constant along the z direction, resulting in twodimensional ﬂow, w ¼ 0. In fact, in actual long bearings there is a side ﬂow from the bearing edge, in the z direction, because the pressure inside the bearing is higher than the ambient pressure. This side ﬂow is referred to as an end effect. In addition to ﬂow, there are other end effects, such as capillary forces. But for a long bearing, these effects are negligible in comparison to the constant pressure along the entire length.

4.4

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF FLUID MOTION

The following analysis is based on ﬁrst principles. It does not use the Navier– Stokes equations or the Reynolds equation and does not require in-depth knowledge of ﬂuid dynamics. The following self-contained derivation can help in understanding the physical concepts of hydrodynamic lubrication. An additional merit of a derivation that does not rely on the Navier–Stokes equations is that it allows extending the theory to applications where the Navier– Stokes equations do not apply. An example is lubrication with non-Newtonian ﬂuids, which cannot rely on the classical Navier–Stokes equations because they

F IG. 4-1

Coordinates of a long journal bearing.

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

73

assume the ﬂuid is Newtonian. Since the following analysis is based on ﬁrst principles, a similar derivation can be applied to non-Newtonian ﬂuids (see Chapter 19). The following hydrodynamic lubrication analysis includes a derivation of the differential equation of ﬂuid motion and a solution for the ﬂow and pressure distribution inside a ﬂuid ﬁlm. The boundary conditions of the velocity and the conservation of mass (or the equivalent conservation of volume for an incompressible ﬂow) are considered for this derivation. The equation of the ﬂuid motion is derived by considering the balance of forces acting on a small, inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid element having the shape of a rectangular parallelogram of dimensions dx and dy, as shown in Fig. 4-2. This elementary ﬂuid element inside the ﬂuid ﬁlm is shown in Fig. 1-2. The derivation is for a two-dimensional ﬂow in the x and y directions. In an inﬁnitely long bearing, there is no ﬂow or pressure gradient in the z direction. Therefore, the third dimension of the parallelogram (in the z direction) is of unit length (1). The pressure in the x direction and the shear stress, t, in the y direction are shown in Fig. 4-2. The stresses are subject to continuous variations. A relation between the pressure and shear-stress gradients is derived from the balance of forces on the ﬂuid element. The forces are the product of stresses, or pressures, and the corresponding areas. The ﬂuid inertial force (ma) is very small and is therefore neglected in the classical hydrodynamic theory (see assumptions listed earlier), allowing the derivation of the following force equilibrium equation in a similar way to a static problem: ðt þ dtÞdx 1 t dx 1 ¼ ð p þ dpÞ dy 1 ¼ p dy 1

ð4-2Þ

Equation (4-2) reduces to dt dx ¼ dp dy

F IG. 4-2

Balance of forces on an inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid element.

ð4-3Þ

74

Chapter 4

After substituting the full differential expression dt ¼ ð@t=@yÞdy in Eq. (4-3) and substituting the equation t ¼ m ð@u=@yÞ for the shear stress, Eq. (4-3) takes the form of the following differential equation: dp @2 u ¼m 2 dx @y

ð4-4Þ

A partial derivative is used because the velocity, u, is a function of x and y. Equation (4-4), is referred to as the equation of ﬂuid motion, because it can be solved for the velocity distribution, u, in a thin ﬂuid ﬁlm of a hydrodynamic bearing. Comment. In fact, it is shown in Chapter 5 that the complete equation for the shear stress is t ¼ mðdu=dy þ dv=dxÞ. However, according to our assumptions, the second term is very small and is neglected in this derivation.

4.5

FLOW IN A LONG BEARING

The following simple solution is limited to a ﬂuid ﬁlm of steady geometry. It means that the geometry of the ﬂuid ﬁlm does not vary with time relative to the coordinate system, and it does not apply to time-dependent ﬂuid ﬁlm geometry such as a bearing under dynamic load. A more universal approach is possible by using the Reynolds equation (see Chapter 6). The Reynolds equation applies to all ﬂuid ﬁlms, including time-dependent ﬂuid ﬁlm geometry.

Example Problems 4-1 Journal Bearing In Fig. 4-1, a journal bearing is shown in which the bearing is stationary and the journal turns around a stationary center. Derive the equations for the ﬂuid velocity and pressure gradient. The variable ﬁlm thickness is due to the journal eccentricity. In hydrodynamic bearings, h ¼ hðxÞ is the variable ﬁlm thickness around the bearing. The coordinate system is attached to the stationary bearing, and the journal surface has a constant velocity, U ¼ oR, in the x direction. Solution The coordinate x is along the bearing surface curvature. According to the assumptions, the curvature is disregarded and the ﬂow is solved as if the boundaries were a straight line. Equation (4-4) can be solved for the velocity distribution, u ¼ uðx; yÞ. Following the assumptions, variations of the pressure in the y direction are negligible (Assumption 6), and the pressure is taken as a constant across the ﬁlm

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

75

thickness because the ﬂuid ﬁlm is thin. Therefore, in two-dimensional ﬂow of a long bearing, the pressure is a function of x only. In order to simplify the solution for the velocity, u, the following substitution is made in Eq. (4-4): 2mðxÞ ¼

1 dp m dx

ð4-5Þ

where mðxÞ is an unknown function of x that must be solved in order to ﬁnd the pressure distribution. Equation 4-4 becomes @u2 ¼ 2mðxÞ @y2

ð4-6Þ

Integrating Eq. (4-6) twice yields the following expression for the velocity distribution, u, across the ﬂuid ﬁlm (n and k are integration constants): u ¼ my2 þ ny þ k

ð4-7Þ

Here, m, n, and k are three unknowns that are functions of x only. Three equations are required to solve for these three unknowns. Two equations are obtained from the two boundary conditions of the ﬂow at the solid surfaces, and the third equation is derived from the continuity condition, which is equivalent to the conservation of mass of the ﬂuid (or conservation of volume for incompressible ﬂow). The ﬂuid adheres to the solid wall (no slip condition), and the ﬂuid velocity at the boundaries is equal to that of the solid surface. In a journal bearing having a stationary bearing and a rotating journal at surface speed U ¼ oR (see Fig. 4-1), the boundary conditions are at y ¼ 0: at y ¼ hðxÞ:

u¼0 u ¼ U cos a U

ð4-8Þ

The slope between the tangential velocity U and the x direction is very small; therefore, cos a 1, and we can assume that at y ¼ hðxÞ, u U . The third equation, which is required for the three unknowns, m; n, and k, is obtained from considerations of conservation of mass. For an inﬁnitely long bearing, there is no ﬂow in the axial direction, z; therefore, the amount of mass ﬂow through each cross section of the ﬂuid ﬁlm is constant (the cross-sectional plane is normal to the x direction). Since the ﬂuid is incompressible, the volume ﬂow rate is also constant at any cross section. The constant-volume ﬂow rate, q, per unit of bearing length is obtained by integration of the velocity component, u, along the ﬁlm thickness, as follows: ðh q¼ u dy ¼ constant ð4-9Þ 0

76

Chapter 4

Equation (4-9) is applicable only for a steady ﬂuid ﬁlm geometry that does not vary with time. The pressure wave around the journal bearing is shown in Fig. 1-3. At the peak of the pressure wave, dp=dx ¼ 0, and the velocity distribution, u ¼ uð yÞ, at that point is linear according to Eq. (4-4). The linear velocity distribution in a simple shear ﬂow (in the absence of pressure gradient) is shown in Fig. 4-3. If the ﬁlm thickness at the peak pressure point is h ¼ h0 , the ﬂow rate, q, per unit length is equal to the area of the velocity distribution triangle: q¼

Uh0 2

ð4-10Þ

The two boundary conditions of the velocity as well as the conservation of mass condition form the following three equations, which can be solved for m, n and k: 0 ¼ m02 þ n0 þ k ) k ¼ 0 U ¼ mh2 þ nh ðh Uh0 ¼ ðmy2 þ nyÞ dy 2 0

ð4-11Þ

After solving for m, n, and k and substituting these values into Eq. (4-7), the following equation for the velocity distribution is obtained:

1 h0 2 3h0 2 u ¼ 3U 2 3 y þ U y h h h h2

F IG. 4-3

ð4-12Þ

Linear velocity distribution for a simple shear ﬂow (no pressure gradient).

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

77

From the value of m, the expression for the pressure gradient, dp=dx, is solved [see Eq. (4-5)]: dp h h0 ¼ 6U m dx h3

ð4-13Þ

Equation (4-13) still contains an unknown constant, h0 , which is the ﬁlm thickness at the peak pressure point. This will be solved from additional information about the pressure wave. Equation (4-13) can be integrated for the pressure wave.

Example Problem 4-2 Inclined Plane Slider As discussed earlier, a steady-ﬂuid-ﬁlm geometry (relative to the coordinates) must be selected for a simple derivation of the pressure gradient. The second example is of an inclined plane-slider having a conﬁguration as shown in Fig. 44. This example is of a converging viscous wedge similar to that of a journal bearing; however, the lower part is moving in the x direction and the upper plane is stationary while the coordinates are stationary. This bearing conﬁguration is selected because the geometry of the clearance (and ﬂuid ﬁlm) does not vary with time relative to the coordinate system. Find the velocity distribution and the equation for the pressure gradient in the inclined plane-slider shown in Fig 4-4. Solution In this case, the boundary conditions are: at y ¼ 0: at y ¼ hðxÞ:

u¼U u¼0

In this example, the lower boundary is moving and the upper part is stationary. The coordinates are stationary, and the geometry of the ﬂuid ﬁlm does not vary

F IG. 4-4

Inclined plane-slider (converging ﬂow in the x direction).

78

Chapter 4

relative to the coordinates. In this case, the ﬂow rate is constant, in a similar way to that of a journal bearing. This ﬂow rate is equal to the area of the velocity distribution triangle at the point of peak pressure, where the clearance thickness is h0 . The equation for the constant ﬂow rate is ðh u dy ¼

q¼ 0

h0 U 2

The two boundary conditions of the velocity and the constant ﬂow-rate condition form the three equations for solving for m, n, and k: U ¼ m02 þ n0 þ k

)

k¼U

0 ¼ mh þ nh þ U ðh Uh0 ¼ ðmy2 þ ny þ U Þdy 2 0 2

After solving for m, n, and k and substituting these values into Eq. (4-7), the following equation for the velocity distribution is obtained: 1 h 3h0 4 yþU u ¼ 3U 2 03 y2 þ U h h h h2 From the value of m, an identical expression to Eq. (4-13) for the pressure gradient, dp=dx, is obtained for @h=@x < 0 (a converging slope in the x direction): dp h h0 ¼ 6U m dx h3

for

@h < 0 ðnegative slopeÞ @x

This equation applies to a converging wedge where the coordinate x is in the direction of a converging clearance. It means that the clearance reduces along x as shown in Fig. 4-4. In a converging clearance near x ¼ 0, the clearance slope is negative, @h=@x < 0. This means that the pressure increases near x ¼ 0. At that point, h > h0 , resulting in dp=dx > 0. If we reverse the direction of the coordinate x, the expression for the pressure gradient would have an opposite sign: dp h h ¼ 6U m 0 3 dx h

for

@h > 0 ðpositive slopeÞ @x

This equation applies to a plane-slider, as shown in Fig 4-5, where the coordinate x is in the direction of increasing clearance. The unknown constant, h0 , will be determined from the boundary conditions of the pressure wave.

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

F IG. 4-5

4.6

79

Inclined plane-slider (x coordinate in the direction of a diverging clearance).

PRESSURE WAVE

4.6.1

Journal Bearing

The pressure wave along the x direction is solved by integration of Eq. (4-13). The two unknowns, h0 , and the integration constant are solved from the two boundary conditions of the pressure wave. In a plane-slider, the locations at the start and end of the pressure wave are used as pressure boundary conditions. These locations are not obvious when the clearance is converging and diverging, such as in journal bearings, and other boundary conditions of the pressure wave are used for solving h0 . Integrating the pressure gradient, Eq. (4-13), results in the following equation for a journal bearing: ðx h h0 p ¼ 6mU dx þ p0 ð4-14aÞ h3 0 Here, the pressure p0 represents the pressure at x ¼ 0. In a journal bearing, the lubricant is often fed into the clearance through a hole in the bearing at x ¼ 0. In that case, p0 is the supply pressure.

4.6.2

Plane-Slider

In the case of an inclined slider, p0 is the atmospheric pressure. Pressure is commonly measured with reference to atmospheric pressure (gauge pressure), resulting in p0 ¼ 0 for an inclined slider. The pressure wave, pðxÞ, can be solved for any bearing geometry, as long as the ﬁlm thickness, h ¼ hðxÞ, is known. The pressure wave can be solved by analytical or numerical integration. The analytical integration of complex func-

80

Chapter 4

tions has been a challenge in the past. However, the use of computers makes numerical integration a relatively easy task. An inclined plane slider is shown in Fig. 4-5, where the inclination angle is a. The ﬂuid ﬁlm is equivalent to that in Fig. 4-4, although the x is in the opposite direction, @h=@x > 0, and the pressure wave is ðx p ¼ 6mU x1

h0 h dx h3

ð4-14bÞ

In order to have concise equations, the slope of the plane-slider is substituted by a ¼ tan a, and the variable ﬁlm thickness is given by the function hðxÞ ¼ ax

ð4-15Þ

Here, x is measured from the point of intersection of the plane-slider and the bearing surface. The minimum and maximum ﬁlm thicknesses are h1 and h2, respectively, as shown in Fig. 4-5. In order to solve the pressure distribution in any converging ﬂuid ﬁlm, Eq. (4-14) is integrated after substituting the value of h according to Eq. (4-15). After integration, there are two unknowns: the constant h0 in Eq. (4-10) and the constant of integration, po . The two unknown constants are solved for the two boundary conditions of the pressure wave. At each end of the inclined plane, the pressure is equal to the ambient (atmospheric) pressure, p ¼ 0. The boundary conditions are: at h ¼ h1 : at h ¼ h2 :

p¼0 p¼0

ð4-16Þ

The solution can be analytically performed in closed form or by numerical integration (see Appendix B). The numerical integration involves iterations to ﬁnd h0 . Hydrodynamic lubrication equations require frequent use of computer programming to perform the trial-and-error iterations. An example of a numerical integration is shown in Example Problem 4-4. Analytical Solution. For an inﬁnitely long plane-slider, L B, analytical integration results in the following pressure wave along the x direction (between x ¼ h1 =a and x ¼ h2 =a): p¼

6mU ðh1 axÞðax h2 Þ a3 ðh1 þ h2 Þx2

ð4-17Þ

At the boundaries h ¼ h1 and h ¼ h2, the pressure is zero (atmospheric pressure).

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4.7

81

PLANE-SLIDER LOAD CAPACITY

Once the pressure wave is solved, it is possible to integrate it again to solve for the bearing load capacity, W . For a plane-slider, the integration for the load capacity is according to the following equation: ð x2 W ¼L p dx ð4-18Þ x1

The foregoing integration of the pressure wave can be derived analytically, in closed form. However, in many cases, the derivation of an analytical solution is too complex, and a computer program can perform a numerical integration. It is beneﬁcial for the reader to solve this problem numerically, and writing a small computer program for this purpose is recommended. An analytical solution for the load capacity is obtained by substituting the pressure in Eq. (4-17) into Eq. (4-18) and integrating in the boundaries between x1 ¼ h1 =a and x2 ¼ h2 =a. The ﬁnal analytical expression for the load capacity in a plane-slider is as follows: W ¼

2 6mULB2 1 2ðb 1Þ ln b b1 bþ1 h22

ð4-19Þ

where b is the ratio of the maximum and minimum ﬁlm thickness, h2 =h1 . A similar derivation can be followed for nonﬂat sliders, such as in the case of a slider having a parabolic surface in Problem 4-2, at the end of this chapter.

4.8

VISCOUS FRICTION FORCE IN A PLANESLIDER

The friction force, Ff , is obtained by integrating the shear stress, t over any crosssectional area along the ﬂuid ﬁlm. For convenience, a cross section is selected along the bearing stationary wall, y ¼ 0. The shear stress at the wall, tw , at y ¼ 0 can be obtained via the following equation: tw ¼ m

du j dy ðy¼0Þ

ð4-20Þ

The velocity distribution can be substituted from Eq. (4-12), and after differentiation of the velocity function according to Eq. (4-20), the shear stress at the wall, y ¼ 0, is given by 3h0 2 tw ¼ mU ð4-21Þ h h2

82

Chapter 4

The friction force, Ff , for a long plane-slider is obtained by integration of the shear stress, as follows: ð x2 Ff ¼ L t dx ð4-22Þ x1

4.8.1

Friction Coe⁄cient

The bearing friction coefﬁcient, f , is deﬁned as the ratio of the friction force to the bearing load capacity: f ¼

Ff W

ð4-23Þ

An important objective of a bearing design is to minimize the friction coefﬁcient. The friction coefﬁcient is usually lower with a thinner minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn (in a plane-slider, hn ¼ h1 ). However, if the minimum ﬁlm thickness is too low, it involves the risk of severe wear between the surfaces. Therefore, the design involves a compromise between a low-friction requirement and a risk of severe wear. Determination of the desired minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , requires careful consideration. It depends on the surface ﬁnish of the sliding surfaces and the level of vibrations and disturbances in the machine. This part of the design process is discussed in the following chapters.

4.9

FLOW BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL PLATES

Example Problem 4-3 Derive the equation of the pressure gradient in a unidirectional ﬂow inside a thin clearance between two stationary parallel plates as shown in Fig. 4-6. The ﬂow is parallel, in the x direction only. The constant clearance between the plates is h0 , and the rate of ﬂow is Q, and the x axis is along the center of the clearance.

F IG. 4-6

Flow between two parallel plates.

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Solution In a similar way to the solution for hydrodynamic bearing, the parallel ﬂow in the x direction is derived from Eq. (4-4), repeated here as Eq. (4-24): dp @2 u ¼m 2 dx @y

ð4-24Þ

This equation can be rewritten as @u2 1 dp ¼ @y2 m dx

ð4-25Þ

The velocity proﬁle is solved by a double integration. Integrating Eq. (4-25) twice yields the expression for the velocity u: u¼

1 dp 2 y þ ny þ k 2m dx

ð4-26Þ

Here, n and k are integration constants obtained from the two boundary conditions of the ﬂow at the solid surfaces (no-slip condition). The boundary conditions at the wall of the two plates are: at y ¼

h0 : 2

u¼0

ð4-27Þ

The ﬂow is symmetrical, and the solution for n and k is 2 h k ¼ m 0 2

n ¼ 0;

The ﬂow equation becomes 1 dp 2 h2 y u¼ 2m dx 4

ð4-28Þ

ð4-29Þ

The parabolic velocity distribution is shown in Fig. 4-6. The pressure gradient is obtained from the conservation of mass. For a parallel ﬂow, there is no ﬂow in the z direction. For convenience, the y coordinate is measured from the center of the clearance. The constant-volume ﬂow rate, Q, is obtained by integrating the velocity component, u, along the ﬁlm thickness, as follows: ð h=2 Q ¼ 2L

u dy 0

ð4-30Þ

84

Chapter 4

Here, L is the width of the parallel plates, in the direction normal to the ﬂow (in the z direction). Substituting the ﬂow in Eq. (4-29) into Eq. (4-30) and integrating yields the expression for the pressure gradient as a function of ﬂow rate, Q: dp 12m ¼ 3Q dx bh0

ð4-31Þ

This equation is useful for the hydrostatic bearing calculations in Chapter 10. The negative sign means that a negative pressure slope in the x direction is required for a ﬂow in the same direction.

4.10

FLUID FILM BETWEEN A CYLINDER AND A FLAT PLATE

There are important applications of a full ﬂuid ﬁlm at the rolling contact of a cylinder and a ﬂat plate and at the contact of two parallel cylinders. Examples are cylindrical rolling bearings, cams, and gears. A very thin ﬂuid ﬁlm that separates the surfaces is shown in Fig. 4-7. In this example, the cylinder is stationary and the ﬂat plate has a velocity U in the x direction. In Chapter 6, this problem is extended to include rolling motion of the cylinder over the plate. The problem of a cylinder and a ﬂat plate is a special case of the general problem of contact between two parallel cylinders. By using the concept of equivalent radius (see Chapter 12), the equations for a cylinder and a ﬂat plate can be extended to that for two parallel cylinders. Fluid ﬁlms at the contacts of rolling-element bearings and gear teeth are referred to as elastohydrodynamic (EHD) ﬁlms. The complete analysis of a ﬂuid ﬁlm in actual rolling-element bearings and gear teeth is quite complex. Under load, the high contact pressure results in a signiﬁcant elastic deformation of the contact surfaces as well as a rise of viscosity with pressure (see Chapter 12).

F IG. 4.7

Fluid ﬁlm between a cylinder and a ﬂat-plate.

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

85

However, the following problem is for a light load where the solid surfaces are assumed to be rigid and the viscosity is constant. The following problem considers a plate and a cylinder with a minimum clearance, hmin . In it we consider the case of a light load, where the elastic deformation is very small and can be disregarded (cylinder and plate are assumed to be rigid). In addition, the values of maximum and minimum pressures are sufﬁciently low, and there is no ﬂuid cavitation. The viscosity is assumed to be constant. The cylinder is stationary, and the ﬂat plate has a velocity U in the x direction as shown in Fig. 4-7. The cylinder is long in comparison to the ﬁlm length, and the long-bearing analysis can be applied.

4.10.1

Film Thickness

The ﬁlm thickness in the clearance between a ﬂat plate and a cylinder is given by hðyÞ ¼ hmin þ Rð1 cos yÞ

ð4-32Þ

where y is a cylinder angle measured from the minimum ﬁlm thickness at x ¼ 0. Since the minimum clearance, hmin , is very small (relative to the cylinder radius), the pressure is generated only at a very small region close to the minimum ﬁlm thickness, where x R, or x=R 1. For a small ratio of x=R, the equation of the clearance, h, can be approximated by a parabolic equation. The following expression is obtained by expanding Eq. (4-32) for h into a Taylor series and truncating terms that include powers higher than ðx=RÞ2 . In this way, the expression for the ﬁlm thickness h can be approximated by hðxÞ ¼ hmin þ

4.10.2

x2 2R

ð4-33aÞ

Pressure Wave

The pressure wave can be derived from the expression for the pressure gradient, dp=dx, in Eq. (4-13). The equation is dp h h ¼ 6mU 0 3 dx h The unknown h0 can be replaced by the unknown x0 according to the equation h0 ðxÞ ¼ hmin þ

x20 2R

ð4-33bÞ

86

Chapter 4

After substituting the value of h according to Eqs. (4-33), the solution for the pressure wave can be obtained by the following integration: ðx x20 x2 2 pðxÞ ¼ 24mUR dx ð4-34Þ 2 3 1 ð2Rhmin þ x Þ The unknown x0 is solved by the following boundary conditions of the pressure wave: at x ¼ 1: at x ¼ 1:

p¼0 p¼0

ð4-35Þ

For numerical integration, the inﬁnity can be replaced by a relatively large ﬁnite value, where pressure is very small and can be disregarded. Remark: The result is an antisymmetrical pressure wave (on the two sides of the minimum ﬁlm thickness), and there will be no resultant load capacity. In actual cases, the pressures are high, and there is a cavitation at the diverging side. A solution that considers the cavitation with realistic boundary conditions is presented in Chapter 6.

4.11

SOLUTION IN DIMENSIONLESS TERMS

If we perform a numerical integration of Eq. (4-34) for solving the pressure wave, the solution would be limited to a speciﬁc bearing geometry of cylinder radius R and minimum clearance hmin . The numerical integration must be repeated for a different bearing geometry. For a universal solution, there is obvious merit to performing a solution in dimensionless terms. For conversion pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃto ﬃ dimensionless terms, we normalize the x coordinate by dividing it by 2Rhmin and deﬁne a dimensionless coordinate as x x ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Rhmin

ð4-36Þ

In addition, a dimensionless clearance ratio is deﬁned: h h ¼ hmin

ð4-37Þ

The equation for the variable clearance ratio as a function of the dimensionless coordinate becomes h ¼ 1 þ x 2

ð4-38Þ

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87

Let us recall that the unknown h0 is the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness at the point of peak pressure. It is often convenient to substitute it by the location of the peak pressure, x0 , and the dimensionless relation then is h 0 ¼ 1 þ x 20

ð4-39Þ

In addition, if the dimensionless pressure is deﬁned as h2min 1 ﬃ p p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Rhmin 6mU then the following integration gives the dimensionless pressure wave: ð ð x x 2 x 20 d x p ¼ d p ¼ 2 Þ3 1 ð1 þ x

ð4-40Þ

ð4-41Þ

For a numerical integration of the pressure wave according to Eq. (4-41), the boundary x ¼ 1 is replaced by a relatively large ﬁnite dimensionless value, where pressure is small and can be disregarded, such as x ¼ 4. An example of numerical integration is given in Example Problem 4. In a similar way, for a numerical solution of the unknown x0 and the load capacity, it is possible to replace inﬁnity with a ﬁnite number, for example, the following mathematical boundary conditions of the pressure wave of a full ﬂuid ﬁlm between a cylinder and a plane: at x ¼ 1: at x ¼ 1:

p ¼ 0 p ¼ 0

ð4-42aÞ

These conditions are replaced by practical numerical boundary conditions: at x ¼ 4: p ¼ 0 at x ¼ þ4: p ¼ 0

ð4-42bÞ

These practical numerical boundary conditions do not introduce a signiﬁcant error because a signiﬁcant hydrodynamic pressure is developed only near the minimum ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness, at x ¼ 0.

Example Problem 4-4 Ice Sled An ice sled is shown in Fig. 4-8. On the left-hand side, there is a converging clearance that is formed by the geometry of a quarter of a cylinder. A ﬂat plate continues the curved cylindrical shape. The ﬂat part of the sled is parallel to the ﬂat ice. It is running parallel over the ﬂat ice on a thin layer of water ﬁlm of a constant thickness h0 .

FIG. 4-8 Ice sled.

88 Chapter 4

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89

Derive and plot the pressure wave at the entrance region of the ﬂuid ﬁlm and under the ﬂat ice sled as it runs over the ice at velocity U. Derive the equation of the sled load capacity. Solution The long-bearing approximation is assumed for the sled similar to the converging slope in Fig. 4-4. The ﬂuid ﬁlm equation for an inﬁnitely long bearing is dp h h0 ¼ 6mU dx h3 In the parallel region, h ¼ h0 , and it follows from the foregoing equation that dp ¼0 dx

ðalong the parallel region of constant clearanceÞ

In this case, h0 ¼ hmin , and the equation for the variable clearance at the converging region is hðxÞ ¼ h0 þ

x2 2R

This means that for a wide sled, the pressure is constant within the parallel region. This is correct only if L B, where L is the bearing width (in the z direction) and B is along the sled in the x direction. Fluid ﬂow in the converging region generates the pressure, which is ultimately responsible for supporting the load of the sled. Through the adhesive force of viscous shear, the ﬂuid is dragged into the converging clearance, creating the pressure in the parallel region. Substituting hðxÞ into the pressure gradient equation yields x2 h0 h0 þ dp 2R ¼ 6mU 3 dx x2 h0 þ 2R or dp x2 ¼ 24mUR2 dx ð2Rh0 þ x2 Þ3 Applying the limits of integration and the boundary condition, we get the following for the pressure distribution: ðx x2 dx pðxÞ ¼ 24mUR2 2 3 1 ð2Rh0 þ x Þ

90

Chapter 4

This equation can be integrated analytically or numerically. For numerical integration, since a signiﬁcant pressure is generated only at a low x value, the inﬁnity boundary of integration is replaced by a ﬁnite magnitude. Conversion to a Dimensionless Equation. As discussed earlier, there is an advantage in solving the pressure distribution in dimensionless terms. A regular pressure distribution curve is limited to the speciﬁc bearing data of given radius R and clearance h0 . The advantage of a dimensionless curve is that it is universal and applies to any bearing data. For conversion of the pressure gradient to pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ dimensionless terms, we normalize x by dividing by 2Rh0 and deﬁne dimensionless terms as follows: x x ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ; 2Rh0

h h ¼ ; h0

h ¼ 1 þ x 2

Converting to dimensionless terms, the pressure gradient equation gets the form dp 6mU h 1 ¼ 2 dx h0 ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 Here, h0 ¼ hmin is the minimum ﬁlm thickness at x ¼ 0. Substituting for the dimensionless clearance and rearranging yields x 2 h2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ0 dp ¼ dx ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 2Rh0 6mU The left-hand side of this equation is deﬁned as the dimensionless pressure. Dimensionless pressure is equal to the following integral: ð ðx x 2 h20 1 p p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ dp ¼ d x 2 Þ3 2Rh0 6mU 0 1 ð1 þ x Numerical Integration. The dimensionless pressure is solved by an analytical or numerical integration of the preceding function within the speciﬁed boundaries (see Appendix B). The pressure p0 under the ﬂat plate is obtained by integration to the limit x ¼ 0: x X h20 1 x2i p0 ¼ Dxi p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 3 2Rh0 6mU 3 ð1 þ xi Þ

The pressure is signiﬁcant only near x ¼ 0. Therefore, for the numerical integration, a ﬁnite number replaces inﬁnity. The resulting pressure distribution is shown in Fig. 4-9. Comparison with Analytical Integration. The maximum pressure at x ¼ 0 as well as along the constant clearance, x > 0, can also be solved by analytical

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

F IG. 4-9

91

Dimensionless pressure wave.

integration of the following equation: ð0 x 2 p 0 ¼ d x 2 Þ3 1 ð1 þ x Using integration tables, the following integral solution is obtained: x x arctanðxÞ0 p ¼ 0:196 þ þ ¼ p ¼ 2 2Þ 2 8ð1 þ x 8 2 8 4ð1 þ x Þ 1 This result is equal to that obtained by a numerical integration. Load Capacity. The ﬁrst step is to ﬁnd the pressure p0 from the dimensionless pressure wave, which is equal to 0.196. The converging entrance area is small in comparison to the area under the ﬂat plate. Neglecting the pressure in the entrance region, the equation for the load capacity, W , becomes W ¼ p0 BL Here, B and L are the dimensions of the ﬂat-plate area. Calculation of Film Thickness. When the load capacity of the sled W is known, it is possible to solve for the ﬁlm thickness, h0 ¼ hmin . Substituting in the equation, W ¼ p0 BL, the equation of the constant pressure p0 under the ﬂat plate as a function of the clearance h0 can allow us to solve for the constant ﬁlm thickness. The constant pressure p0 is derived from its dimensionless counterpart: h20 1 p0 ¼ 0:196 p 0 ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Rh0 6mU

92

Chapter 4

If the load, cylinder radius, water viscosity, and sled velocity are known, it is possible to solve for the ﬁlm thickness, h0 .

Example Problem 4-5 Derive the equation for the pressure gradient of a journal bearing if the journal and bearing are both rotating around their stationary centers. The surface velocity of the bearing bore is Uj ; ¼ oj R, and the surface velocity of the journal is Ub ¼ ob R1 . Solution Starting from Eq. (4-4): dp @2 u ¼m 2 dx @y and integrating twice (in a similar way to a stationary bearing) yields u ¼ my2 þ ny þ k However, the boundary conditions and continuity conditions are as follows: at y ¼ 0: at y ¼ hðxÞ:

u ¼ ob R1 u ¼ oj R

In this case, the constant-volume ﬂow rate, q, per unit of bearing length at the point of peak pressure is ðh ðob R1 þ oj RÞh0 q ¼ u dy ¼ 2 0 Solving for m, n and k and substituting in a similar way to the previous problem while also assuming R1 R, the following equation for the pressure gradient is obtained: dp h h0 ¼ 6Rðob þ oj Þm dx h3

Problems 4-1

A long plane-slider, L ¼ 200 mm and B ¼ 100 mm, is sliding at velocity of 0.3 m=s. The minimum ﬁlm thickness is h1 ¼ 0:005 mm and the maximum ﬁlm thickness is h2 ¼ 0:010 mm. The ﬂuid is SAE 30, and the operating temperature of the lubricant is assumed a constant 30 C. a.

Assume the equation for an inﬁnitely long bearing, and use numerical integration to solve for the pressure wave (use

Principles of Hydrodynamic Lubrication

93

trial and error to solve for x0 ). Plot a curve of the pressure distribution p ¼ pðxÞ. b. Use numerical integration to ﬁnd the load capacity. Compare this to the load capacity obtained from Eq. (419). c. Find the friction force and the friction coefﬁcient. 4-2

A slider is machined to have a parabolic surface. The slider has a horizontal velocity of 0.3 m=s. The minimum ﬁlm hmin ¼ 0:020 mm, and the clearance varies with x according to the following equation: h ¼ 0:020 þ 0:01x2 The slider velocity is U ¼ 0:5 m=s. The length L ¼ 300 mm and the width in the sliding direction B ¼ 100 mm. The lubricant is SAE 40 and the temperature is assumed constant, T ¼ 40 C. Assume the equation for an inﬁnitely long bearing. a.

Use numerical integration and plot the dimensionless pressure distribution, p ¼ pðxÞ. b. Use numerical integration to ﬁnd the load capacity. c. Find the friction force and the friction coefﬁcient.

4-3

A blade of a sled has the geometry shown in the Figure 4-8. The sled is running over ice on a thin layer of water ﬁlm. The total load (weight of the sled and person) is 1500 N. The sled velocity is 20 km=h, the radius of the inlet curvature is 30 cm, and the sled length B ¼ 30 cm, and width is L ¼ 100 cm. The viscosity of water is m ¼ 1:792 103 N-s=m2 . Find the ﬁlm thickness ðh0 ¼ hmin Þ of the thin water layer shown in Fig. 4-8. Direction: The clearance between the plate and disk is h ¼ hmin þ x2 =2R, and assume that p ¼ 0 at x ¼ R.

5 Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

5.1

NAVIER^STOKES EQUATIONS

The pressure distribution and load capacity of a hydrodynamic bearing are analyzed and solved by using classical ﬂuid dynamics equations. In a thin ﬂuid ﬁlm, the viscosity is the most important ﬂuid property determining the magnitude of the pressure wave, while the effect of the ﬂuid inertia (ma) is relatively small and negligible. Reynolds (1894) introduced classical hydrodynamic lubrication theory. Although a lot of subsequent research has been devoted to this discipline, Reynolds’ equation still forms the basis of most analytical research in hydrodynamic lubrication. The Reynolds equation can be derived from the Navier– Stokes equations, which are the fundamental equations of ﬂuid motion. The derivation of the Navier–Stokes equations is based on several assumptions, which are included in the list of assumptions (Sec. 4.2) that forms the basis of the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication. An important assumption for the derivation of the Navier–Stokes equations is that there is a linear relationship between the respective components of stress and strain rate in the ﬂuid. In the general case of three-dimensional ﬂow, there are nine stress components referred to as components of the stress tensor. The directions of the stress components are shown in Fig 5-1. 94

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

F IG. 5-1

95

Stress components acting on a rectangular ﬂuid element.

The stress components sx , sy , sz are of tension or compression (if the sign is negative), as shown in Fig. 5-1. However, the mixed components txy , tzy , txz are shear stresses parallel to the surfaces. It is possible to show by equilibrium considerations that the shear components are symmetrical: txy ¼ tyx ;

tyz ¼ tzy ;

txz ¼ tzx

ð5-1Þ

Due to symmetry, the number of stress components is reduced from nine to six. In rectangular coordinates the six stress components are @u @x @v ¼ p þ 2m @y @w ¼ p þ 2m @z @v @u þ ¼ tyx ¼ m @x @y @w @v þ ¼ tzy ¼ m @y @z @u @w þ ¼ txz ¼ m @z @x

sx ¼ p þ 2m sy sz txy tyz tzx

ð5-2Þ

A ﬂuid that can be described by Eq. (5-2) is referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. This equation is based on the assumption of a linear relationship between the stress and strain-rate components. For most lubricants, such a linear relationship

96

Chapter 5

is an adequate approximation. However, under extreme conditions, e.g., very high pressure of point or line contacts, this assumption is no longer valid. An assumption that is made for convenience is that the viscosity, m, of the lubricant is constant. Also, lubrication oils are practically incompressible, and this property simpliﬁes the Navier–Stokes equations because the density, r, can be assumed to be constant. However, this assumption cannot be applied to air bearings. Comment. As mentioned earlier, in thin ﬁlms the velocity component n is small in comparison to u and w, and two shear components can be approximated as follows: @v @u @u þ

m txy ¼ tyx ¼ m @x @y @y ð5-3Þ @w @v @w tyz ¼ tzy ¼ m þ

m @y @z @y The Navier–Stokes equations are based on the balance of forces acting on a small, inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid element having the shape of a rectangular parallelogram with dimensions dx, dy, and dz, as shown in Fig. 5-1. The force balance is similar to that in Fig. 4-1; however, the general balance of forces is of three dimensions, in the x; y and z directions. The surface forces are the product of stresses, or pressures, and the corresponding areas. When the ﬂuid is at rest there is a uniform hydrostatic pressure. However, when there is ﬂuid motion, there are deviatoric normal stresses s0x , s0y , s0z that are above the hydrostatic (average) pressure, p. Each of the three normal stresses is the sum of the average pressure, and the deviatoric normal stress (above the average pressure), as follows: sx ¼ p þ s0x ;

sy ¼ p þ s0y ;

sz ¼ p þ s0z

ð5-4aÞ

According to Newton’s second law, the sum of all forces acting on a ﬂuid element, including surface forces in the form of stresses and body forces such as the gravitational force, is equal to the product of mass and acceleration (ma) of the ﬂuid element. After dividing by the volume of the ﬂuid element, the equations of the force balance become du @p @s0 @txy @xz ¼X þ xþ þ dt @x @x @y @z dv @p @tyx @s0y @tyz þ þ r ¼Y þ dt @y @y @y @z dw @p @tzx @tzy @s0z ¼Z þ þ þ r dt @z @x @y @z r

ð5-4bÞ

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

97

Here, p is the pressure, u, v, and w are the velocity components in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. The three forces X ; Y ; Z are the components of a body force, per unit volume, such as the gravity force that is acting on the ﬂuid. According to the assumptions, the ﬂuid density, r, and the viscosity, m, are considered constant. The derivation of the Navier–Stokes equations is included in most ﬂuid dynamics textbooks (e.g., White, 1985). For an incompressible ﬂow, the continuity equation, which is derived from the conservation of mass, is @u @v @w þ þ ¼0 @x @y @z

ð5-5Þ

After substituting the stress components of Eq. (5-2) into Eq. (5-4b), using the continuity equation (5-5) and writing in full the convective time derivative of the acceleration components, the following Navier–Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates for a Newtonian incompressible and constant-viscosity ﬂuid are obtained 2 @u @u @u @u @p @ u @2 u @2 u r þu þv þw ð5-6aÞ ¼X þm þ þ @t @x @y @z @x @x2 @y2 @z2 2 @v @v @v @v @p @ v @2 v @2 v þu þv þw ð5-6bÞ ¼Y ¼ þm þ þ r @t @x @y @z @y @x2 @y2 @z2 2 @w @w @w @w @p @ w @2 w @2 w þu þv þw ¼Z þm ð5-6cÞ þ þ r @t @x @y @z @z @x2 @y2 @z2

The Navier–Stokes equations can be solved for the velocity distribution. The velocity is described by its three components, u, v, and w, which are functions of the location (x, y, z) and time. In general, ﬂuid ﬂow problems have four unknowns: u, v, and w and the pressure distribution, p. Four equations are required to solve for the four unknown functions. The equations are the three Navier–Stokes equations, the fourth equation is the continuity equation (5-5).

5.2

REYNOLDS HYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION EQUATION

Hydrodynamic lubrication involves a thin-ﬁlm ﬂow, and in most cases the ﬂuid inertia and body forces are very small and negligible in comparison to the viscous forces. Therefore, in a thin-ﬁlm ﬂow, the inertial terms [all terms on the left side of Eqs. (5.6)] can be disregarded as well as the body forces X , Y , Z. It is well known in ﬂuid dynamics that the ratio of the magnitude of the inertial terms relative to the viscosity terms in Eqs. (5-6) is of the order of magnitude of the

98

Chapter 5

Reynolds number, Re. For a lubrication ﬂow (thin-ﬁlm ﬂow), Re 1, the Navier–Stokes equations reduce to the following simple form: 2 @p @ u @2 u @2 u þ þ ¼m @x @x2 @y2 @z2 2 @p @ v @2 v @2 v ¼m þ þ @y @x2 @y2 @z2 2 @p @ w @2 w @2 w ¼m þ þ @z @x2 @y2 @z2

ð5-7aÞ ð5-7bÞ ð5-7cÞ

These equations indicate that viscosity is the dominant effect in determining the pressure distribution in a ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing. The assumptions of classical hydrodynamic lubrication theory are summarized in Chapter 4. The velocity components of the ﬂow in a thin ﬁlm are primarily u and w in the x and z directions, respectively. These directions are along the ﬂuid ﬁlm layer (see Fig. 1-2). At the same time, there is a relatively very slow velocity component, v, in the y direction across the ﬂuid ﬁlm layer. Therefore, the pressure gradient in the y direction in Eq. (5-7b) is very small and can be disregarded. In addition, Eqs. (5-7a and c) can be further simpliﬁed because the order of magnitude of the dimensions of the thin ﬂuid ﬁlm in the x and z directions is much higher than that in the y direction across the ﬁlm thickness. The orders of magnitude are

x ¼ OðBÞ y ¼ OðhÞ

ð5-8aÞ

z ¼ OðLÞ

Here, the symbol O represents order of magnitude. The dimension B is the bearing length along the direction of motion (x direction), and h is an average ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness. The width L is in the z direction of an inclined slider. In a journal bearing, L is in the axial z direction and is referred to as the bearing length. In hydrodynamic bearings, the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness is very small in comparison to the bearing dimensions, h B and h L. By use of Eqs. (5-8b), a comparison can be made between the orders of magnitude of the second

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

99

derivatives of the various terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (5-7a), which are as follows: @2 u U ¼O 2 @y2 h @2 u U ¼O 2 @x2 B @2 u U ¼O 2 2 @z L

ð5-8bÞ

In conventional ﬁnite-length bearings, the ratios of dimensions are of the following orders: L ¼ Oð1Þ B h ¼ Lð103 Þ B

ð5-9Þ

Equations (5-8) and (5-9) indicate that the order of the term @2 u=@y2 is larger by 106 , in comparison to the order of the other two terms, @2 u=@x2 and @2 u=@z2 . Therefore, the last two terms can be neglected in comparison to the ﬁrst one in Eq. (5-7a). In the same way, only the term @2 w=@y2 is retained in Eq. (5-7c). According to the assumptions, the pressure gradient across the ﬁlm thickness, @p=@y, is negligible, and the Navier–Stokes equations reduce to the following two simpliﬁed equations: @p @2 u ¼m 2 @x @y

and

@p @2 w ¼m 2 @z @y

ð5-10Þ

The ﬁrst equation is identical to Eq. (4-4), which was derived from ﬁrst principles in Chapter 4 for an inﬁnitely long bearing. In a long bearing, there is a signiﬁcant pressure gradient only in the x direction; however, for a ﬁnite-length bearing, there is a pressure gradient in the x and z directions, and the two Eqs. (5-10) are required for solving the ﬂow and pressure distributions. The two Eqs. (5-10) together with the continuity Eq. (5-5) and the boundary condition of the ﬂow are used to derive the Reynolds equation. The derivation of the Reynolds equation is included in several books devoted to the analysis of hydrodynamic lubrication see Pinkus (1966), and Szeri (1980). The Reynolds equation is widely used for solving the pressure distribution of hydrodynamic bearings of ﬁnite length. The Reynolds equation for Newtonian

100

Chapter 5

incompressible and constant-viscosity ﬂuid in a thin clearance between two rigid surfaces of relative motion is given by @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h @ þ ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 6 ðU1 þ U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x @x ð5-11Þ The velocity components of the two surfaces that form the ﬁlm boundaries are shown in Fig. 5-2. The tangential velocity components, U1 and U2, in the x direction are of the lower and upper sliding surfaces, respectively (two ﬂuid ﬁlm boundaries). The normal velocity components, in the y direction, V1 and V2, are of the lower and upper boundaries, respectively. In a journal bearing, these components are functions of x (or angle y) around the journal bearing. The right side of Eq. (5-11) must be negative in order to result in a positive pressure wave and load capacity. Each of the three terms on the right-hand side of Eq. (5-11) has a physical meaning concerning the generation of the pressure wave. Each term is an action that represents a speciﬁc type of relative motion of the surfaces. Each action results in a positive pressure in the ﬂuid ﬁlm. The various actions are shown in Fig. 5-3. These three actions can be present in a bearing simultaneously, one at a time or in any other combination. The following are the various actions. Viscous wedge action: This action generates positive pressure wave by dragging the viscous ﬂuid into a converging wedge. Elastic stretching or compression of the boundary surface: This action generates a positive pressure by compression of the boundary. The compression of the surface reduces the clearance volume and the viscous ﬂuid is squeezed out, resulting in a pressure rise. This action is

F IG. 5-2 Directions of the velocity components of ﬂuid-ﬁlm boundaries in the Reynolds equation.

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

F IG. 5-3

101

Viscous ﬁlm actions that result in a positive pressure wave.

negligible in practical rigid bearings. Continuous stretching or compression of the boundaries does not exist in steady-state operation. It can act only as a transient effect, under dynamic condition, for an elastomer

102

Chapter 5

bearing material. This action is usually not considered for rigid bearing materials. Squeeze-ﬁlm action: The squeezing action generates a positive pressure by reduction of the ﬂuid ﬁlm volume. The incompressible viscous ﬂuid is squeezed out through the thin clearance. The thin clearance has resistance to the squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow, resulting in a pressure buildup to overcome the ﬂow resistance (see Problem 5-3). In most practical bearings, the surfaces are rigid and there is no stretching or compression action. In that case, the Reynolds equation for an incompressible ﬂuid and constant viscosity reduces to @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ð5-12Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x As indicated earlier, the two right-hand terms must be negative in order to result in a positive pressure wave. On the right side of the Reynolds equation, the ﬁrst term of relative sliding motion ðU1 U2 Þ describes a viscous wedge effect. It requires inclined surfaces, @h=@x, to generate a ﬂuid ﬁlm wedge action that results in a pressure wave. Positive pressure is generated if the ﬁlm thickness reduces in the x direction (negative @h=@x). The second term on the right side of the Reynolds equation describes a squeeze-ﬁlm action. The difference in the normal velocity ðV2 V1 Þ represents the motion of surfaces toward each other, referred to as squeeze-ﬁlm action. A positive pressure builds up if ðV2 V1 Þ is negative and the surfaces are approaching each other. The Reynolds equation indicates that a squeeze-ﬁlm effect is a viscous effect that can generate a pressure wave in the ﬂuid ﬁlm, even in the case of parallel boundaries. It is important to mention that the Reynolds equation is objective, in the sense that the pressure distribution must be independent of the selection of the coordinate system. In Fig. 5-2 the coordinates are stationary and the two surfaces are moving relative to the coordinate system. However, the same pressure distribution must result if the coordinates are attached to one surface and are moving and rotating with it. For convenience, in most problems we select a stationary coordinate system where the x coordinate is along the bearing surface and the y coordinate is normal to this surface. In that case, the lower surface has only a tangential velocity, U1 , and there is no normal component, V1 ¼ 0. The value of each of the velocity components of the ﬂuid boundary, U1 , U2 , V1 , V2 , depends on the selection of the coordinate system. Surface velocities in a stationary coordinate system would not be the same as those in a moving coordinate system. However, velocity differences on the right-hand side of the Reynolds equation, which represent relative motion, are independent of the selection of the coordinate system. In journal bearings under dynamic conditions,

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

103

the journal center is not stationary. The velocity of the center must be considered for the derivation of the right-hand side terms of the Reynolds equation.

5.3

WIDE PLANE-SLIDER

The equation of a plane-slider has been derived from ﬁrst principles in Chapter 4. Here, this equation will be derived from the Reynolds equation and compared to that in Chapter 4. A plane-slider and its coordinate system are shown in Fig. 1-2. The lower plate is stationary, and the velocity components at the lower wall are U1 ¼ 0 and V1 ¼ 0. At the same time, the velocity at the upper wall is equal to that of the slider. The slider has only a horizontal velocity component, U2 ¼ U , where U is the plane-slider velocity. Since the velocity of the slider is in only the x direction and there is no normal component in the y direction, V2 ¼ 0. After substituting the velocity components of the two surfaces into Eq. (5-11), the Reynolds equation will reduce to the form @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h ð5-13Þ þ ¼ 6U @x m @x @z m @z @x For a wide bearing, L B, we have @p=@z ﬃ 0, and the second term on the left side of Eq. (5-13) can be omitted. The Reynolds equation reduces to the following simpliﬁed form: @ h3 @p @h ð5-14Þ ¼ 6U @x m @x @x For a plane-slider, if the x coordinate is in the direction of a converging clearance (the clearance reduces with x), as shown in Fig. 4-4, integration of Eq. (5-14) results in a pressure gradient expression equivalent to that of a hydrodynamic journal bearing or a negative-slope slider in Chapter 4. The following equation is the expression for the pressure gradient for a converging clearance, @h=@x < 0 (negative slope): dp h h0 ¼ 6U m dx h3

for initial

@h < 0 ðnegative slope in Fig: 4-4Þ @x

ð5-15Þ

The unknown constant h0 (constant of integration) is determined from additional information concerning the boundary conditions of the pressure wave. The meaning of h0 is discussed in Chapter 4—it is the ﬁlm thickness at the point of a peak pressure along the ﬂuid ﬁlm. In a converging clearance such as a journal bearing near x ¼ 0, the clearance slope is negative, @h=@x < 0. The result is that the pressure increases at the start of the pressure wave (near x ¼ 0). At that point, the pressure gradient dp=dx > 0 because h > h0 .

104

Chapter 5

However, if the x coordinate is in the direction of a diverging clearance (the clearance increases with x), as shown in Fig. (1-2), Eq. (5-15) changes its sign and takes the following form: dp h h ¼ 6U m 0 3 dx h

5.4

for initial

@h > 0 ðpositive slope in Fig: 4-5Þ @x

ð5-15Þ

FLUID FILM BETWEEN A FLAT PLATE AND A CYLINDER

A ﬂuid ﬁlm between a plate and a cylinder is shown in Fig. 5-4. In Chapter 4, the pressure wave for relative sliding is derived, where the cylinder is stationary and a ﬂat plate has a constant velocity in the x direction. In the following example, the previous problem is extended to a combination of rolling and sliding. In this case, the ﬂat plate has a velocity U in the x direction and the cylinder rotates at an angular velocity o around its stationary center. The coordinate system (x, y) is stationary. In Sec. 4.8, it is mentioned that there is a signiﬁcant pressure wave only in the region close to the minimum ﬁlm thickness. In this region, the slope between the two surfaces (the ﬂuid ﬁlm boundaries), as well as between the two surface velocities, is of a very small angle a. For a small a, we can approximate that cos a 1.

F IG. 5-4

Fluid ﬁlm between a moving plate and a rotating cylinder.

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105

In Fig. 5-4, the surface velocity of the cylinder is not parallel to the x direction and it has a normal component V2 . The surface velocities on the rotating cylinder surface are U2 ¼ oR cos a oR

V2 oR

@h @x

ð5-16Þ

At the same time, on the lower plate there is only velocity U in the x direction and the boundary velocity is U1 ¼ U

V1 ¼ 0

ð5-17Þ

Substituting Eqs. (5-16) and (5-17) into the right side of Eq. (5-11), yields 6ðU1 U2 Þ

@h @h @h þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ¼ 6ðU oRÞ þ 12oR @x @x @x @h ¼ 6ðU þ oRÞ @x

ð5-18Þ

The Reynolds equation for a ﬂuid ﬁlm between a plate and a cylinder becomes @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h ð5-19Þ þ ¼ 6ðU þ oRÞ @x m @x @z m @z @x For a long bearing, the pressure gradient in the axial direction is negligible, @p=@z ﬃ 0. Integration of Eq. (5-19) yields dp h h0 ¼ 6mðU þ oRÞ dx h3

ð5-20Þ

This result indicates that the pressure gradient, the pressure wave, and the load capacity are proportional to the sum of the two surface velocities in the x direction. The sum of the plate and cylinder velocities is ðU þ oRÞ. In the case of pure rolling, U ¼ oR, the pressure wave, and the load capacity are twice the magnitude of that generated by pure sliding. Pure sliding is when the cylinder is stationary, o ¼ 0, and only the plate has a sliding velocity U. The unknown constant h0 , (constant of integration) is the ﬁlm thickness at the point of a peak pressure, and it can be solved from the boundary conditions of the pressure wave.

5.5

TRANSITION TO TURBULENCE

For the estimation of the Reynolds number, Re, the average radial clearance, C, is taken as the average ﬁlm thickness. The Reynolds number for the ﬂow inside the clearance of a hydrodynamic journal bearing is Re ¼

U rC UC ¼ m n

ð5-21Þ

106

Chapter 5

Here, U is the journal surface velocity, as shown in Fig. 1-2 and n is the kinematic viscosity n ¼ m=r. In most cases, hydrodynamic lubrication ﬂow involves low Reynolds numbers. There are other examples of thin-ﬁlm ﬂow in ﬂuid mechanics, such as the boundary layer, where Re is low. The ﬂow in hydrodynamic lubrication is laminar at low Reynolds numbers. Experiments in journal bearings indicate that the transition from laminar to turbulent ﬂow occurs between Re ¼ 1000 and Re ¼ 1600. The value of the Reynolds number at the transition to turbulence is not the same in all cases. It depends on the surface ﬁnish of the rotating surfaces as well as the level of vibrations in the bearing. The transition is gradual: Turbulence starts to develop at about Re ¼ 1000; and near Re ¼ 1600, full turbulent behavior is maintained. In hydrodynamic bearings, turbulent ﬂow is undesirable because it increases the friction losses. Viscous friction in turbulent ﬂow is much higher in comparison to laminar ﬂow. The effect of the turbulence is to increase the apparent viscosity; that is, the bearing performance is similar to that of a bearing having laminar ﬂow and much higher lubricant viscosity. In journal bearings, Taylor vortexes can develop at high Reynolds numbers. The explanation for the initiation of Taylor vortexes involves the centrifugal forces in the rotating ﬂuid inside the bearing clearance. At high Re, the ﬂuid ﬁlm becomes unstable because the centrifugal forces are high relative to the viscous resistance. Theory indicates that in concentric cylinders, Taylor vortexes would develop only if the inner cylinder is rotating relative to the outer, stationary cylinder. This instability gives rise to vortexes (Taylor vortexes) in the ﬂuid ﬁlm. Taylor (1923) published his classical work on the theory of stability between rotating cylinders. According to this theory, a stable laminar ﬂow in a journal bearing is when the Reynolds number is below the following ratio: 1=2 R Re < 41 C

ð5-22Þ

In journal bearings, the order of R=C is 1000; therefore, the limit of the laminar ﬂow is Re ¼ 1300, which is between the two experimental values of Re ¼ 1000 and Re ¼ 1600, mentioned earlier. If the clearance C were reduced, it would extend the Re limit for laminar ﬂow. The purpose of the following example problem is to illustrate the magnitude of the Reynolds number for common journal bearings with various lubricants. In addition to Taylor vortexes, transition to turbulence can be initiated due to high-Reynolds-number ﬂow, in a similar way to instability in the ﬂow between two parallel plates.

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107

Example Problem 5-1 Calculation of the Reynolds Number The value of the Reynolds number, Re, is considered for a common hydrodynamic journal bearing with various ﬂuid lubricants. The journal diameter is d ¼ 50 mm; the radial clearance ratio is C=R ¼ 0:001. The journal speed is 10,000 RPM. Find the Reynolds number for each of the following lubricants, and determine if Taylor vortices can occur. a.

The lubricant is mineral oil, SAE 10, and its operating temperature is 70 C. The lubricant density is r ¼ 860 kg=m3 . b. The lubricant is air, its viscosity is m ¼ 2:08 105 N-s=m2 , and its density is r ¼ 0:995 kg=m3 . c. The lubricant is water, its viscosity is m ¼ 4:04 104 N-s=m2 , and its density is r ¼ 978 kg=m3 . d. For mineral oil, SAE 10, at 70 C (in part a) ﬁnd the journal speed at which instability, in the form of Taylor vortices, initiates.

Solution The journal bearing data is as follows: Journal speed, N ¼ 10;000 RPM Journal diameter d ¼ 50 mm, R ¼ 25 103 , and C=R ¼ 0:001 C ¼ 25 106 m The journal surface velocity is calculated from U¼ a.

pdN pð0:050 10;000Þ ¼ ¼ 26:18 m=s 60 60

For estimation of the Reynolds number, the average clearance C is used as the average ﬁlm thickness, and Re is calculated from (5-22): 1=2 U rC R < 41 Re ¼ m C The critical Re for Taylor vortices is 1=2 R ¼ 41 ð1000Þ0:5 ¼ 1300 Re ðcriticalÞ ¼ 41 C For SAE 10 oil, the lubricant viscosity (from Fig. 2-2) and density are: Viscosity: m ¼ 0:01 N-s=m2 Density: r ¼ 860 kg=m3

108

Chapter 5

The Reynolds number is Re ¼

U rC 26:18 860 25 106 ¼ ¼ 56:3 ðlaminar flowÞ m 0:01

This example shows that a typical journal bearing lubricated by mineral oil and operating at relatively high speed is well within the laminar ﬂow region. b. The Reynolds number for air as lubricant is calculated as follows: U rC 26:18 0:995 25 106 ¼ m 2:08 105 ¼ 31:3 ðlaminar flowÞ

Re ¼

c.

The Reynolds number for water as lubricant is calculated as follows: U rC 26:18 978 25 106 ¼ m 4:04 104 ¼ 1584 ðturbulent flowÞ

Re ¼

The kinematic viscosity of water is low relative to that of oil or air. This results in relatively high Re and turbulent ﬂow in journal bearings. In centrifugal pumps or bearings submerged in water in ships, there are design advantages in using water as a lubricant. However, this example indicates that water lubrication often involves turbulent ﬂow. d. The calculation of journal speed where instability in the form of Taylor vortices initiates is obtained from 1=2 U rC R ¼ 41 ¼ 41 ð1000Þ0:5 ¼ 1300 Re ¼ m C Surface velocity U is derived as unknown in the following equation: 1300 ¼

U rC U 860 25 106 ¼ ) U ¼ 604:5 m=s m 0:01

and the surface velocity at the transition to Taylor instability is U¼

pdN pð0:050ÞN ¼ ¼ 604:5 m=s 60 60

The journal speed N where instability in the form of Taylor vortices initiates is solved from the preceding equation: N ¼ 231;000 RPM This speed is above the range currently applied in journal bearings.

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

109

Example Problem 5-2 Short Plane-Slider Derive the equation of the pressure wave in a short plane-slider. The assumption of an inﬁnitely short bearing can be applied where the width L (in the z direction) is very short relative to the length B ðL BÞ. In practice, an inﬁnitely short bearing can be assumed where L=B ¼ Oð101 Þ. Solution Order-of-magnitude considerations indicate that in an inﬁnitely short bearing, dp=dx is very small and can be neglected in comparison to dp=dz. In that case, the ﬁrst term on the left side of Eq. (5.12) is small and can be neglected in comparison to the second term. This omission simpliﬁes the Reynolds equation to the following form: @ h3 @p @h ð5-23Þ ¼ 6U @z m @z @x Double integration results in the following parabolic pressure distribution, in the z direction: p¼

3mU dh 2 z þ C1 z þ C2 h3 dx

ð5-24Þ

The two constants of integration can be obtained from the boundary conditions of the pressure wave. At the two ends of the bearing, the pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, p ¼ 0. These boundary conditions can be written as L at z ¼ : 2

p¼0

ð5-25Þ

The following expression for the pressure distribution in a short plane-slider (a function of x and z) is obtained: 2 0 L h pðx; zÞ ¼ 3mU z2 3 ð5-26Þ 4 h Here, h0 ¼ @h=@x. In the case of a plane-slider, @h=@x ¼ tan a, the slope of the plane-slider. Comment. For a short bearing, the result indicates discontinuity of the pressure wave at the front and back ends of the plane-slider (at h ¼ h1 and h ¼ h2 ). In fact, the pressure at the front and back ends increases gradually, but this has only a small effect on the load capacity. This deviation from the actual pressure wave is similar to the edge effect in an inﬁnitely long bearing.

110

5.6

Chapter 5

CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES

There are many problems that are conveniently described in cylindrical coordinates, and the Navier–Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates are useful for that purpose. The three coordinates r, f, z are the radial, tangential, and axial coordinates, respectively, vr , vf , vz are the velocity components in the respective directions. For hydrodynamic lubrication of thin ﬁlms, the inertial terms are disregarded and the three Navier–Stokes equations for an incompressible, Newtonian ﬂuid in cylindrical coordinates are as follows: 2 @p @ vr 1 @2 vr vr 1 @2 vf 2 @vf @2 vr ¼m þ þ þ @r @r2 r @r r2 r2 @f2 r2 @f @z2 2 @ vf 1 @vf vf 1 @2 vf 2 @vr @2 vf 1 @p ¼m 2þ 2 2 þ 2 þ 2 þ r @f r @r r @f r @f @r2 r @z 2 2 2 @p @ vz 1 @vz 1 @ vz @ vz ¼m þ þ þ @z @r2 r @r r2 @f2 @z2

ð5-27Þ

Here, vr , vf , vz are the velocity components in the radial, tangential, and vertical directions r, f, and z, respectively. The constant density is r, the variable pressure is p, and the constant viscosity is m. The equation of continuity in cylindrical coordinates is @vr vr 1 @vy @vz þ þ þ ¼0 @r r r @y @z

ð5-28Þ

In cylindrical coordinates, the six stress components are @vr @r 1 @vf vr þ sf ¼ p þ 2m r @f r @v sz ¼ r þ 2m z @z @vr @vz trz ¼ m þ @z @r @ vf 1 @vr trf ¼ m r þ @r r r @f @vf 1 @vz þ tfz ¼ m r @f @z sr ¼ p þ 2m

ð5-29Þ

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

5.7

111

SQUEEZE-FILM FLOW

An example of the application of cylindrical coordinates to the squeeze-ﬁlm between two parallel, circular, concentric disks is shown in Fig. 5-5. The ﬂuid ﬁlm between the two discs is very thin. The disks approach each other at a certain speed. This results in a squeezing of the viscous thin ﬁlm and in a radial pressure distribution in the clearance and a load capacity that resists the motion of the moving disk. For a thin ﬁlm, further simpliﬁcation of the Navier–Stokes equations is similar to that in the derivation of Eq. (5-10). The pressure is assumed to be constant across the ﬁlm thickness (in the z direction), and the dimension of z is much smaller than that of r or rf. For a problem of radial symmetry, the Navier– Stokes equations reduce to the following: dp @2 v ¼ m 2r dr @z

ð5-30Þ

Here, vr is the ﬂuid velocity in the radial direction.

Example Problem 5-3 A ﬂuid is squeezed between two parallel, circular, concentric disks, as shown in Fig. 5-5. The ﬂuid ﬁlm between the two discs is very thin. The upper disk has

F IG. 5-5

Squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow between two concentric, parallel disks.

112

Chapter 5

velocity V, toward the lower disk, and this squeezes the ﬂuid so that it escapes in the radial direction. Derive the equations for the radial pressure distribution in the thin ﬁlm and the resultant load capacity. Solution The ﬁrst step is to solve for the radial velocity distribution, vr , in the ﬂuid ﬁlm. In a similar way to the hydrodynamic lubrication problem in the previous chapter, we can write the differential equation in the form @2 vr dp 1 ¼ 2m ¼ dr m @z2 Here, m is a function of r only; m ¼ mðrÞ is a substitution that represents the pressure gradient. By integration the preceding equation twice, the following parabolic distribution of the radial velocity is obtained: vr ¼ mz2 þ nz þ k Here, m, n, and k are functions of r only. These functions are solved by the boundary conditions of the radial velocity and the conservation of mass as well as ﬂuid volume for incompressible ﬂow. The two boundary conditions of the radial velocity are at z ¼ 0: vr ¼ 0 at z ¼ h: vr ¼ 0 In order to solve for the three unknowns m, n and k, a third equation is required; this is obtained from the ﬂuid continuity, which is equivalent to the conservation of mass. Let us consider a control volume of a disk of radius r around the center of the disk. The downward motion of the upper disk, at velocity V, reduces the volume of the ﬂuid per unit of time. The ﬂuid is incompressible, and the reduction of volume is equal to the radial ﬂow rate Q out of the control volume. The ﬂow rate Q is the product of the area of the control volume pr2 and the downward velocity V : Q ¼ pr2 V The same ﬂow rate Q must apply in the radial direction through the boundary of the control volume. The ﬂow rate Q is obtained by integration of the radial velocity distribution of the ﬁlm radial velocity, vr , along the z direction, multiplied by the circumference of the control volume ð2prÞ. The ﬂow rate Q becomes ðh vr dz Q ¼ 2pr 0

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

113

Since the ﬂuid is incompressible, the ﬂow rate of the ﬂuid escaping from the control volume is equal to the ﬂow rate of the volume displaced by the moving disk: ðh vr dz V pr2 ¼ 2pr 0

Use of the boundary conditions and the preceding continuity equation allows the solution of m, n, and k. The solution for the radial velocity distribution is 3rV z2 z vr ¼ h h2 h and the pressure gradient is )

dp r ¼ 6mV 3 dr h

The negative sign means that the pressure is always decreasing in the r direction. The pressure gradient is a linear function of the radial distance r, and this function can be integrated to solve for the pressure wave: ð ð 6mV 3mV r dr ¼ 3 r2 þ C p ¼ dp ¼ 3 h h Here, C is a constant of integration that is solved by the boundary condition that states that at the outside edge of the disks, the ﬂuid pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, which can be considered to be zero: at r ¼ R:

p¼0

Substituting in the preceding equation yields: 0¼

3mV 2 3mV R þ C ) C ¼ 3 R2 h3 h

The equation for the radial pressure distribution is therefore 3mV 2 3mV 2 3mV )p¼ 3 r þ R ¼ 3 ðR2 r2 Þ h h3 h The pressure has its maximum value at the center of the disk radius: Pmax ¼

3mV 2 3mV ½R ð0Þ2 ¼ 3 R2 h3 h

The parabolic pressure distribution is shown in Fig. 5-6.

114

Chapter 5

F IG. 5-6

Radial pressure distribution in squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow.

Now that the pressure distribution has been solved, the load capacity is obtained by the following integration: ðR ð ð 3mV 2 pdA ¼ ðR r2 Þ2prdr W ¼ dW ¼ 3 h A 0 ðR ðR 6pmV ¼ 3 R2 r dr r3 dr h 0 0 ;)W ¼

3pmVR4 2h3

The load capacity equation indicates that a squeeze-ﬁlm arrangement can act as a damper that resists the squeezing motion. The load capacity increases dramatically as the ﬁlm thickness becomes thinner, thus preventing the disks from coming into contact. Theoretically, at h ¼ 0 the load capacity is approaching inﬁnity. In practice, there is surface roughness and there will be contact by a ﬁnite force.

Example Problem 5-4 Two parallel circular disks of 30-mm diameter, as shown in Fig. 5-5, operate as a damper. The clearance is full of SAE 30 oil at a temperature of 50 C. The damper is subjected to a shock load of 7000 N. a.

Find the ﬁlm thickness h if the load causes a downward speed of the upper disk of 10 m=s. b. What is the maximum pressure developed due to the impact of the load?

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115

Solution a.

The viscosity of the lubricant is obtained from the viscosity–temperature chart: mSAE30@50 C ¼ 5:5 102 N-s=m2 The ﬁlm thickness is derived from the load capacity equation: W ¼

3pmVR4 2h3

The instantaneous ﬁlm thickness, when the disk speed is 10 m=s, is 1 3p 5:5 102 10 15 103 3 h¼ 2 7000 h ¼ 0:266 mm b.

The maximum pressure at the center is pmax ¼

3mV 2 3ð5:5 102 N-s=m2 Þð10 msÞð15 103 mÞ2 R ¼ h3 ð0:266 103 mÞ3

¼ 1:97 107 Pa ¼ 19:7 MPa

Problems 5-1

Two long cylinders of radii R1 and R2, respectively, have parallel centrelines, as shown in Fig. 5-7. The cylinders are submerged in ﬂuid and are rotating in opposite directions at angular speeds of o1 and o2, respectively. The minimum clearance between the cylinders is hn . If the ﬂuid viscosity is m, derive the Reynolds equation, and write the expression for the pressure gradient around the minimum clearance. The equation of the clearance is hðxÞ ¼ hn þ

x2 2Req

For calculation of the variable clearance between two cylinders having a convex contact, the equation for the equivalent radius Req is 1 1 1 ¼ þ Req R1 R2 5-2

Two long cylinders of radii R1 and R2, respectively, in concave contact

116

F IG. 5-7

Chapter 5

Two parallel cylinders, convex contact.

are shown in Fig. 5-8. The cylinders have parallel centerlines and are in rolling contact. The angular speed of the large (external) cylinder is o, and the angular speed of the small (internal) cylinder is such that there is rolling without sliding. There is a small minimum clearance between the cylinders, hn . If the ﬂuid viscosity is m, derive the Reynolds equation, and write the expression for the pressure gradient around the minimum clearance. For a concave contact (Fig. 5-8) the equivalent radius Req is 1 1 1 ¼ Req R1 R2

F IG. 5-8

Two parallel cylinders, concave contact.

Basic Hydrodynamic Equations

5-3

117

The journal diameter of a hydrodynamic bearing is d ¼ 100 mm, and the radial clearance ratio is C=R ¼ 0:001. The journal speed is N ¼ 20;000 RPM. The lubricant is mineral oil, SAE 30, at 70 C. The lubricant density at the operating temperature is r ¼ 860 kg=m3 . a. Find the Reynolds number. b. Find the journal speed, N , where instability in the form of Taylor vortices initiates.

5-4

Two parallel circular disks of 100-mm diameter have a clearance of 1 mm between them. Under load, the downward velocity of the upper disk is 2 m=s. At the same time, the lower disk is stationary. The clearance is full of SAE 10 oil at a temperature of 60 C. a.

Find the load on the upper disk that results in the instantaneous velocity of 2 m=s. b. What is the maximum pressure developed due to that load? 5-5

Two parallel circular disks (see Fig. 5-5) of 200-mm diameter have a clearance of h ¼ 2 mm between them. The load on the upper disk is 200 N. The lower disk is stationary, and the upper disk has a downward velocity V. The clearance is full of oil, SAE 10, at a temperature of 60 C. a.

Find the downward velocity of the upper disk at that instant. b. What is the maximum pressure developed due to that load?

6 Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

6.1

INTRODUCTION

A hydrodynamic journal bearing is shown in Fig. 6-1. The journal is rotating inside the bore of a sleeve with a thin clearance. Fluid lubricant is continuously supplied into the clearance. If the journal speed is sufﬁciently high, pressure builds up in the ﬂuid ﬁlm that completely separates the rubbing surfaces. Hydrodynamic journal bearings are widely used in machinery, particularly in motor vehicle engines and high-speed turbines. The sleeve is mounted in a housing that can be a part of the frame of a machine. For successful operation, the bearing requires high-precision machining. For most applications, the mating surfaces of the journal and the internal bore of the bearing are carefully made with precise dimensions and a good surface ﬁnish. The radial clearance, C, between the bearing bore of radius R1 and of the journal radius, R, is C ¼ R1 R (see Fig. 6-1). In most practical cases, the clearance, C, is very small relative to the journal radius, R. The following order of magnitude is applicable for most design purposes: C

103 R

ð6-1Þ

A long hydrodynamic bearing is where the bearing length, L, is long in comparison to the journal radius ðL RÞ. Under load, the center of the journal, 118

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

F IG. 6-1

119

Hydrodynamic journal bearing (clearance exaggerated).

O1 , is displaced in the radial direction relative to the bearing center, O, as indicated in Fig. 6-1. The distance O O1 is the eccentricity, e, and the dimensionless eccentricity ratio, e, is deﬁned as e ð6-2Þ E¼ C If the journal is concentric to the bearing bore, there is a uniform clearance around the bearing. But due to the eccentricity, there is a variable-thickness clearance around the bearing. The variable clearance, h, is equal to the lubricant ﬁlm thickness. The clearance is converging (h decreases) along the region from y ¼ 0 to y ¼ p, where the clearance has its minimum thickness, hn . After that, the clearance is diverging (h increases) along the region from y ¼ p to y ¼ 2p, where the clearance has a maximum thickness, hm . The clearance, h, is a function of the coordinate y in the direction of the rotation of the journal. The coordinate y is measured from the point of maximum clearance on the centerline O O. An approximate equation for the thin clearance in a journal bearing is hðyÞ ¼ Cð1 þ e cos yÞ

ð6-3Þ

The minimum and maximum clearances are hn and hm, respectively, along the symmetry line O O1 . They are derived from Eq. (6-3) as follows: hn ¼ Cð1 eÞ

and

hm ¼ Cð1 þ eÞ

ð6-4Þ

Whenever e approaches 1 (one), hn approaches zero, and there is an undesirable contact between the journal and bearing bore surfaces, resulting in severe wear,

120

Chapter 6

particularly in a high-speed journal bearing. Therefore, for proper design, the bearing must operate at eccentricity ratios well below 1, to allow adequate minimum ﬁlm thickness to separate the sliding surfaces. Most journal bearings operate under steady conditions in the range from e ¼ 0:6 to e ¼ 0:8. However, the most important design consideration is to make sure the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , will be much higher than the size of surface asperities or the level of journal vibrations during operation.

6.2

REYNOLDS EQUATION FOR A JOURNAL BEARING

In Chapter 4, the hydrodynamic equations of a long journal bearing were derived from ﬁrst principles. In this chapter, the hydrodynamic equations are derived from the Reynolds equation. The advantage of the present approach is that it can apply to a wider range of problems, such as bearings under dynamic conditions. Let us recall that the general Reynolds equation for a Newtonian incompressible thin ﬂuid ﬁlm is @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x

ð6-5Þ

Here, U1 and U2 are velocity components, in the x direction, of the lower and upper sliding surfaces, respectively (ﬂuid ﬁlm boundaries), while the velocities components V1 and V2 are of the lower and upper boundaries, respectively, in the y direction (see Fig. 5-2). The difference in normal velocity ðV1 V2 Þ is of relative motion (squeeze-ﬁlm action) of the surfaces toward each other. For most journal bearings, only the journal is rotating and the sleeve is stationary, U1 ¼ 0; V1 ¼ 0 (as shown in Fig. 6-1). The second ﬂuid ﬁlm boundary is at the journal surface that has a velocity U ¼ oR. However, the velocity U is not parallel to the x direction (the x direction is along the bearing surface).

F IG. 6-2

Velocity components of the ﬂuid ﬁlm boundaries.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

121

Therefore, it has two components (as shown in Fig. 6-2), U2 and V2, in the x and y directions, respectively: U2 ¼ U cos a V2 ¼ U sin a

ð6-6Þ

Here, the slope a is between the bearing and journal surfaces. In a journal bearing, the slope a is very small; therefore, the following approximations can be applied: U2 ¼ U cos a U V2 ¼ U sin a U tan a

ð6-7Þ

The slope a can be expressed in terms of the function of the clearance, h: tan a ¼

@h @x

ð6-8Þ

The normal component V2 becomes V2 U

@h @x

ð6-9Þ

After substituting Eqs. (6.7) and (6.9) into the right-hand side of the Reynolds equation, it becomes 6ðU1 U2 Þ

@h @h @h @h þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ¼ 6ð0 U Þ þ 12U ¼ 6U @x @x @x @x

ð6-10Þ

The Reynolds equation for a Newtonian incompressible ﬂuid reduces to the following ﬁnal equation: @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h ð6-11Þ þ ¼ 6U @x m @x @z m @z @x For an inﬁnitely long bearing, @p=@z ﬃ 0; therefore, the second term on the lefthand side of Eq. (6-11) can be omitted, and the Reynolds equation reduces to the following simpliﬁed one-dimensional equation: @ h3 @p @h ð6-12Þ ¼ 6U @x m @x @x

6.3

JOURNAL BEARING WITH ROTATING SLEEVE

There are many practical applications where the sleeve is rotating as well as the journal. In that case, the right-hand side of the Reynolds equation is not the same as for a common stationary bearing. Let us consider an example, as shown in Fig.

122

Chapter 6

6-3, where the sleeve and journal are rolling together like internal friction pulleys. The rolling is similar to that in a cylindrical rolling bearing. The internal sleeve and journal surface are rolling together without slip, and both have the same tangential velocity oj R ¼ ob R1 ¼ U. The tangential velocities of the ﬁlm boundaries, in the x direction, of the two surfaces are U1 ¼ U U2 ¼ U cos a U

ð6-13Þ

The normal velocity components, in the y direction, of the ﬁlm boundaries (the journal and sleeve surfaces) are V1 ¼ 0 V2 U

ð6-14Þ

@h @x

The right-hand side of the Reynolds equation becomes 6ðU1 U2 Þ

@h @h @h @h þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ¼ 6ðU U Þ þ 12ðU 0Þ ¼ 12U @x @x @x @x ð6-15Þ

For the rolling action, the Reynolds equation for a journal bearing with a rolling sleeve is given by @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h ð6-16Þ þ ¼ 12U @x m @x @z m @z @x The right-hand side of Eq. (6-16) indicates that the rolling action will result in a doubling of the pressure wave of a common journal bearing of identical geometry as well as a doubling its load capacity. The physical explanation is that the ﬂuid is squeezed faster by the rolling action.

6.4

COMBINED ROLLING AND SLIDING

In many important applications, such as gears, there is a combination of rolling and sliding of two cylindrical surfaces. Also, there are several unique applications where a hydrodynamic journal bearing operates in a combined rolling-and-sliding mode. A combined bearing is shown in Fig. 6-3, where the journal surface velocity is Roj while the sleeve inner surface velocity is R1 ob . The coefﬁcient x is the ratio of the rolling and sliding velocity. In terms of the velocities of the two surfaces, the ratio is, x¼

R1 ob Roj

ð6-17Þ

F IG. 6.3

Journal bearing with a rotating sleeve.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings 123

124

Chapter 6

The journal surface velocity is U ¼ Roj , and the sleeve surface velocity is the product xU , where x is the rolling-to-sliding ratio. The common journal bearing has a pure sliding and x ¼ 0, while in pure rolling, x ¼ 1. For all other combinations, 0 < x < 1. The tangential velocities (in the x direction) of the ﬂuid–ﬁlm boundaries of the two surfaces are U1 ¼ R1 ob ¼ xRoj U2 ¼ Roj cos a Roj

ð6-18Þ

The normal components, in the y direction, of the velocity of the ﬂuid ﬁlm boundaries (journal and sleeve surfaces) are V1 ¼ 0 V2 ¼ Roj

@h @x

ð6-19Þ

For the general case of a combined rolling and sliding, the expression on the right-hand side of Reynolds equation is obtained by substituting the preceding components of the surface velocity: 6ðU1 U2 Þ

@h @h @h þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ¼ 6ðxU U Þ þ 12ðU 0Þ @x @x @x @h ¼ 6U ð1 þ xÞ @x

ð6-20Þ

Here, U ¼ Roj is the journal surface velocity. Finally, the Reynolds equation for a combined rolling and sliding of a journal bearing is as follows: @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h ð6-21aÞ þ ¼ 6Roj ð1 þ xÞ @x m @x @z m @z @x For x ¼ 0 and x ¼ 1, the right-hand-side of the Reynolds equation is in agreement with the previous derivations for pure sliding and pure rolling, respectively. The right-hand side of Eq. (6-21a) indicates that pure rolling action doubles the pressure wave in comparison to a pure sliding. Equation (6-21a) is often written in the basic form: @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h ð6-21bÞ þ ¼ 6Rðoj þ ob Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x In journal bearings, the difference between the journal radius and the bearing radius is small and we can assume that R1 R.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

6.5

125

PRESSURE WAVE IN A LONG JOURNAL BEARING

For a common long journal bearing with a stationary sleeve, the pressure wave is derived by a double integration of Eq. (6.12). After the ﬁrst integration, the following explicit expression for the pressure gradient is obtained: dp h þ C1 ¼ 6U m dx h3

ð6-22Þ

Here, C1 is a constant of integration. In this equation, a regular derivative replaces the partial one, because in a long bearing, the pressure is a function of one variable, x, only. The constant, C1 , can be replaced by h0 , which is the ﬁlm thickness at the point of peak pressure. At the point of peak pressure, dp ¼0 dx

at

h ¼ h0

ð6-23Þ

Substituting condition (6-23), in Eq. (6-22) results in C1 ¼ h0 , and Eq. (6-22) becomes dp h h0 ¼ 6U m dx h3

ð6-24Þ

Equation (6-24) has one unknown, h0 , which is determined later from additional information about the pressure wave. The expression for the pressure distribution (pressure wave) around a journal bearing, along the x direction, is derived by integration of Eq. (6-24), and there will be an additional unknown—the constant of integration. By using the two boundary conditions of the pressure wave, we solve the two unknowns, h0 , and the second integration constant. The pressures at the start and at the end of the pressure wave are usually used as boundary conditions. However, in certain cases the locations of the start and the end of the pressure wave are not obvious. For example, the ﬂuid ﬁlm of a practical journal bearing involves a ﬂuid cavitation, and other boundary conditions of the pressure wave are used for solving the two unknowns. These boundary conditions are discussed in this chapter. The solution method of two unknowns for these boundary conditions is more complex and requires computer iterations. Replacing x by an angular coordinate y, we get x ¼ Ry

ð6-25Þ

126

Chapter 6

Equation (6-24) takes the form dp h h0 ¼ 6URm h3 dy

ð6-26Þ

For the integration of Eq. (6-26), the boundary condition at the start of the pressure wave is required. The pressure wave starts at y ¼ 0, and the magnitude of pressure at y ¼ 0 is p0 . The pressure, p0 , can be very close to atmospheric pressure, or much higher if the oil is fed into the journal bearing by an external pump. The ﬁlm thickness, h, as a function of y for a journal bearing is given in Eq. (6-3), hðyÞ ¼ Cð1 þ e cos yÞ. After substitution of this expression into Eq. (6-26), the pressure wave is given by C2 ðp p0 Þ ¼ 6mUR

ðy 0

dy h 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ2 C

ðy 0

dy ð1 þ e cos yÞ3

ð6-27Þ

The pressure, p0 , is determined by the oil supply pressure (inlet pressure). In a common journal bearing, the oil is supplied through a hole in the sleeve, at y ¼ 0. The oil can be supplied by gravitation from an oil container or by a high-pressure pump. In the ﬁrst case, p0 is only slightly above atmospheric pressure and can be approximated as p0 ¼ 0. However, if an external pump supplies the oil, the pump pressure (at the bearing inlet point) determines the value of p0 . In industry, there are often central oil circulation systems that provide oil under pressure for the lubrication of many bearings. The two integrals on the right-hand side of Eq. (6-27) are functions of the eccentricity ratio, e. These integrals can be solved by numerical or analytical integration. Sommerfeld (1904) analytically solved these integrals for a full (360 ) journal bearing. Analytical solutions of these two integrals are included in integral tables of most calculus textbooks. For a full bearing, it is possible to solve for the load capacity even in cases where p0 can’t be determined. This is because p0 is an extra constant hydrostatic pressure around the bearing, and, similar to atmospheric pressure, it does not contribute to the load capacity. In a journal bearing, the pressure that is predicted by integrating Eq. (6-27) increases (above the inlet pressure, p0 ) in the region of converging clearance, 0 < y < p. However, in the region of a diverging clearance, p < y < 2p, the pressure wave reduces below p0 . If the oil is fed at atmospheric pressure, the pressure wave that is predicted by integration of Eq. (6-27) is negative in the divergent region, p < y < 2p. This analytical solution is not always valid, because a negative pressure would result in a ‘‘ﬂuid cavitation.’’ The analysis may predict negative pressures below the absolute zero pressure, and that, of course, is physically impossible.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

127

A continuous ﬂuid ﬁlm cannot be maintained at low negative pressure (relative to the atmospheric pressure) due to ﬂuid cavitation. This effect occurs whenever the pressure reduces below the vapor pressure of the oil, resulting in an oil ﬁlm rupture. At low pressures, the boiling process can take place at room temperature; this phenomenon is referred to as ﬂuid cavitation. Moreover, at low pressure, the oil releases its dissolved air, and the oil foams in many tiny air bubbles. Antifoaming agents are usually added into the oil to minimize this effect. As a result of cavitation and foaming, the ﬂuid is not continuous in the divergent clearance region, and the actual pressure wave cannot be predicted anymore by Eq. (6-27). In fact, the pressure wave is maintained only in the converging region, while the pressure in most of the diverging region is close to ambient pressure. Cole and Hughes (1956) conducted experiments using a transparent sleeve. Their photographs show clearly that in the divergent region, the ﬂuid ﬁlm ruptures into ﬁlaments separated by air and lubricant vapor. Under light loads or if the supply pressure, p0 , is high, the minimum predicted pressure in the divergent clearance region is not low enough to generate a ﬂuid cavitation. In such cases, Eq. (6-27) can be applied around the complete journal bearing. The following solution referred to as the Sommerfeld solution, is limited to cases where there is a full ﬂuid ﬁlm around the bearing.

6.6

SOMMERFELD SOLUTION OF THE PRESSURE WAVE

Sommerfeld (1904) solved Eq. (6-27) for the pressure wave and load capacity of a full hydrodynamic journal bearing (360 ) where a ﬂuid ﬁlm is maintained around the bearing without any cavitation. This example is of a special interest because this was the ﬁrst analytical solution of a hydrodynamic journal bearing based on the Reynolds equation. In practice, a full hydrodynamic lubrication around the bearing is maintained whenever at least one of the following two conditions are met: a.

The feed pressure, p0 , (from an external oil pump), into the bearing is quite high in order to maintain positive pressures around the bearing and thus prevent cavitation. b. The journal bearing is lightly loaded. In this case, the minimum pressure is above the critical value of cavitation.

Sommerfeld assumed a periodic pressure wave around the bearing; namely, the pressure is the same at y ¼ 0 and y ¼ 2p: pðy¼0Þ ¼ pðy¼2pÞ

ð6-28Þ

128

Chapter 6

The unknown, h0 , that represents the ﬁlm thickness at the point of a peak pressure can be solved from Eq. (6-27) and the Sommerfeld boundary condition in Eq. (6-28). After substituting p p0 ¼ 0, at y ¼ 2p, Eq. (6-27) yields ð ð 2p dy h0 2p dy ¼0 ð6-29Þ 2 C 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ3 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ This equation can be solved for the unknown, h0 . The following substitutions for the values of the integrals can simplify the analysis of hydrodynamic journal bearings: ð 2p dy Jn ¼ ð6-30Þ n 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ ð 2p cos y dy ð6-31Þ In ¼ n 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ Equation (6-29) is solved for the unknown, h0 , in terms of the integrals Jn : h0 J 2 ¼ C J3

ð6-32Þ

Here, the solutions for the integrals Jn are: 2p ð1 e2 Þ1=2 2p J2 ¼ ð1 e2 Þ3=2 1 2p J3 ¼ 1 þ e2 2 ð1 e2 Þ5=2 3 2p J4 ¼ 1 þ e2 2 ð1 e2 Þ7=2

J1 ¼

ð6-33Þ ð6-34Þ ð6-35Þ ð6-36Þ

The solutions of the integrals In are required later for the derivation of the expression for the load capacity. The integrals In can be obtained from Jn by the following equation: In ¼

Jn1 Jn e

ð6-37Þ

Sommerfeld solved for the integrals in Eq. (6-27), and obtained the following equation for the pressure wave around an inﬁnitely long journal bearing with a full ﬁlm around the journal bearing: p p0 ¼

6mUR eð2 þ e cos yÞ sin y C 2 ð2 þ e2 Þð1 þ e cos yÞ2

ð6-38Þ

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

129

The curves in Fig. 6-4 are dimensionless pressure waves, relative to the inlet pressure, for various eccentricity ratios, e. The pressure wave is an antisymmetrical function on both sides of y ¼ p. The curves indicate that the peak pressure considerably increases with the eccentricity ratio, e. According to Eq. (6-38), the peak pressure approaches inﬁnity when e approaches 1. However, this is not possible in practice because the surface asperities prevent a complete contact between the sliding surfaces.

6.7

JOURNAL BEARING LOAD CAPACITY

Figure 6-5 shows the load capacity, W , of a journal bearing and its two components, Wx and Wy . The direction of Wx is along the bearing symmetry line O O1 . This direction is inclined at an attitude angle, f, from the direction of the external force and load capacity, W . In Fig. 6-5 the external force is in a vertical direction. The direction of the second component, Wy is normal to the Wx direction. The elementary load capacity, dW , acts in the direction normal to the journal surface. It is the product of the ﬂuid pressure, p, and an elementary area,

F IG. 6-4 solution.

Pressure waves in an inﬁnitely long, full bearing according to the Sommerfeld

130

Chapter 6

F IG. 6-5

Hydrodynamic bearing force components.

dA ¼ LR dy, of the journal surface bounded by a small journal angle, dy. An elementary ﬂuid force (dW ¼ p dA) is given by, dW ¼ pLR dy

ð6-39Þ

The pressure is acting in the direction normal to the journal surface, and dW is a radial elementary force vector directed toward the journal center, as shown in Fig. 6-5. In a plane-slider, the pressure is acting in one direction and the load capacity has been derived by integration of the pressure wave. However, in a journal bearing, the direction of the pressure varies around the bearing, and simple summation of the elementary forces, dW , will not yield the resultant force. In order to allow summation, the elementary force, dW , is divided into two components, dWx and dWy, in the directions of Wx and Wy, respectively. By using force components, it is possible to have a summation (by integration) of each component around the bearing. The elementary force components are:

dWx ¼ pLR cos y dy dWy ¼ pLR sin y dy

ð6-40Þ ð6-41Þ

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

131

The two components of the load capacity, Wx and Wy, are in the X and Y directions, respectively, as indicated in Fig. 6-5. Note the negative sign in Eq. (6-40), since dWx is opposite to the Wx direction. The load components are: ð 2p p cos y dy ð6-42Þ Wx ¼ LR 0

ð 2p Wy ¼ LR

p sin y dy

ð6-43Þ

The attitude angle f in Fig. 6-5 is determined by the ratio of the force components: tan f ¼

6.8

Wy Wx

ð6-44Þ

LOAD CAPACITY BASED ON SOMMERFELD CONDITIONS

The load capacity components can be solved by integration of Eqs. (6-42 and (6-43), where p is substituted from Eq. (6-38). However, the derivation can be simpliﬁed if the load capacity components are derived directly from the basic Eq. (6-24) of the pressure gradient. In this way, there is no need to integrate the complex Eq. (6-38) of the pressure wave. This can be accomplished by employing the following identity for product derivation: ðuvÞ0 ¼ uv0 þ vu0 Integrating and rearranging Eq. (6-45) results in ð ð uv0 ¼ uv u0 v

ð6-45Þ

ð6-46Þ

In order to simplify the integration of Eq. (6-42) for the load capacity component Wx , the substitutions u ¼ p and v0 ¼ cos y are made. This substitution allows the use of the product rule in Eq. (6-46), and the integral in Eq. (6-42) results in the following terms: ð ð dp p cos y dy ¼ p sin y sin y dy ð6-47Þ dy In a similar way, for the load capacity component, Wy , in Eq. (6-43), the substitutions u ¼ p and v0 ¼ sin y result in ð ð dp cos y dy ð6-48Þ p sin y dy ¼ p cos y þ dy

132

Chapter 6

Equations (6-47) and (6-48) indicate that the load capacity components in Eqs. (6-42) and (6-43) can be solved directly from the pressure gradient. By using this method, it is not necessary to solve for the pressure wave in order to ﬁnd the load capacity components (it offers the considerable simpliﬁcation of one simple integration instead of a complex double integration). The ﬁrst term, on the righthand side in Eqs. (6-47) and (6-48) is zero, when integrated around a full bearing, because the pressure, p, is the same at y ¼ 0 and y ¼ 2p. Integration of the last term in Eq. (6-47), in the boundaries y ¼ 0 and y ¼ 2p, indicates that the load component, Wx , is zero. This is because it is an integration of the antisymmetrical function around the bearing (the function is antisymmetric on the two sides of the centerline O O1 , which cancel each other). Therefore: Wx ¼ 0

ð6-49Þ

Integration of Eq. (6-43) with the aid of identity (6-48), and using the value of h0 in Eq. 6-32 results in 6mUR2 L J2 ð6-50Þ I2 I3 Wy ¼ C2 J3 Substituting for the values of In and Jn as a function of e yields the following expression for the load capacity component, Wy . The other component is Wx ¼ 0; therefore, for the Sommerfeld conditions, Wy is equal to the total load capacity, W ¼ Wy : W ¼

12pmUR2 L e 2 2 C ð2 þ e Þð1 e2 Þ1=2

ð6-51Þ

The attitude angle, f, is derived from Eq. (6-44). For Sommerfeld’s conditions, Wx ¼ 0 and tan f ! 1; therefore, f¼

p 2

ð6-52Þ

Equation (6-52) indicates that in this case, the symmetry line O O1 is normal to the direction of the load capacity W.

6.9

FRICTION IN A LONG JOURNAL BEARING

The bearing friction force, Ff , is the viscous resistance force to the rotation of the journal due to high shear rates in the ﬂuid ﬁlm. This force is acting in the tangential direction of the journal surface and results in a resistance torque to the

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

133

rotation of the journal. The friction force is deﬁned as the ratio of the friction torque, Tf , to the journal radius, R: Ff ¼

Tf R

ð6-53Þ

The force is derived by integration of the shear stresses over the area of the journal surface, at y ¼ h, around the bearing. The shear stress distribution at the journal surface (shear at the wall, tw ) around the bearing, is derived from the velocity gradient, as follows: du tw ¼ m ð6-54Þ dy ðy¼hÞ The friction force is obtained by integration: ð Ff ¼ tðy¼hÞ dA

ð6-55Þ

A

After substituting dA ¼ RL dy in Eq. (6-55), the friction force becomes ð 2p tðy¼hÞ dy ð6-56Þ Ff ¼ mRL 0

Substitution of the value of the shear stress, Eq. (6-56) becomes ð 2p 4 3h0 Ff ¼ mURL dy h h2 0

ð6-57Þ

If we apply the integral deﬁnitions in Eq. (6-30), the expression for the friction force becomes mRL J2 4 J1 3 2 Ff ¼ ð6-58Þ C J3 The integrals Jn are functions of the eccentricity ratio. Substituting the solution of the integrals, Jn , in Eqs. (6.33) to (6.37) results in the following expression for the friction force: Ff ¼

mURL 4pð1 þ 2e2 Þ C ð2 þ e2 Þð1 e2 Þ1=2

ð6-59Þ

Let us recall that the bearing friction coefﬁcient, f , is deﬁned as f ¼

Ff W

ð6-60Þ

134

Chapter 6

Substitution of the values of the friction force and load in Eq. (6-60) results in a relatively simple expression for the coefﬁcient of friction of a long hydrodynamic journal bearing: f ¼

C 1 þ 2e2 R 3e

ð6-61Þ

Comment: The preceding equation for the friction force in the ﬂuid ﬁlm is based on the shear at y ¼ h. The viscous friction force around the bearing bore surface, at y ¼ 0, is not equal to that around the journal surface, at y ¼ h. The viscous friction torque on the journal surface is unequal to that on the bore surface because the external load is eccentric to the bore center, and it is an additional torque. However, the friction torque on the journal surface is the actual total resistance to the journal rotation, and it is used for calculating the friction energy losses in the bearing.

6.10

POWER LOSS ON VISCOUS FRICTION

The energy loss, per unit of time (power loss) E_ f , is determined from the friction torque, or friction force, by the following equations: E_ f ¼ Tf o ¼ Ff U

ð6-62Þ

where o ðrad=sÞ is the angular velocity of the journal. Substituting Eq. (6-59) into Eq. (6-62) yields mU 2 RL 4pð1 þ 2e2 Þ E_ f ¼ C ð2 þ e2 Þð1 e2 Þ1=2

ð6-63Þ

The friction energy losses are dissipated in the lubricant as heat. Knowledge of the amount of friction energy that is dissipated in the bearing is very important for ensuring that the lubricant does not overheat. The heat must be transferred from the bearing by adequate circulation of lubricant through the bearing as well as by conduction of heat from the ﬂuid ﬁlm through the sleeve and journal.

6.11

SOMMERFELD NUMBER

Equation (6-51) is the expression for the bearing load capacity in a long bearing operating at steady conditions with the Sommerfeld boundary conditions for the pressure wave. This result was obtained for a full ﬁlm bearing without any cavitation around the bearing. In most practical cases, this is not a realistic expression for the load capacity, since there is ﬂuid cavitation in the diverging clearance region of negative pressure. The Sommerfeld solution for the load capacity has been improved by applying a more accurate analysis with realistic

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

135

boundary conditions of the pressure wave. This solution requires iterations performed with the aid of a computer. In order to simplify the design of hydrodynamic journal bearings, the realistic results for the load capacity are provided in dimensionless form in tables or graphs. For this purpose, a widely used dimensionless number is the Sommerfeld number, S. Equation (6-51) can be converted to dimensionless form if all the variables with dimensions are placed on the left-hand side of the equations and the dimensionless function of e on the right-hand side. Also, it is the tradition in this discipline to have the Sommerfeld dimensionless group as a function of journal speed, n, in revolutions per second, and the average bearing pressure, P, according to the following substitutions: U ¼ 2pRn

ð6-64Þ

W ¼ 2RLP

ð6-65Þ

By substituting Eqs. (6.64) and (6.65) into Eq. (6.51), we obtain the following dimensionless form of the Sommerfeld number for an inﬁnitely long journal bearing where cavitation is disregarded: 2 mn R ð2 þ e2 Þð1 e2 Þ1=2 ð6-66Þ S¼ ¼ P C 12p2 e The dimensionless Sommerfeld number is a function of e only. For an inﬁnitely long bearing and the Sommerfeld boundary conditions, the number S can be calculated via Eq. (6-66). However, for design purposes, we use the realistic conditions for the pressure wave. The values of S for various ratios of length and diameter, L=D, have been computed; the results are available in Chapter 8 in the form of graphs and tables for design purposes.

6.12

PRACTICAL PRESSURE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

The previous discussion indicates that for most practical applications in machinery the pressures are very high and cavitation occurs in the diverging region of the clearance. For such cases, the Sommerfeld boundary conditions do not apply and the pressure distribution can be solved for more realistic conditions. In an actual journal bearing, there is no full pressure wave around the complete bearing, and there is a positive pressure wave between y1 and y2 . Outside this region, there is cavitation and low negative pressure that can be ignored for the purpose of calculating the load capacity. The value of y2 is unknown, and an additional condition must be applied for the solution. The boundary condition commonly used is that the pressure gradient is zero at the end of the pressure wave, at y2 .

136

Chapter 6

This is equivalent to the assumption that there is no ﬂow, u, in the x direction at y2 . When the lubricant is supplied at y1 at a pressure p0 , the following boundary conditions can be applied: p ¼ p0 at y ¼ y1 dp ¼ 0 at y ¼ y2 dy p ¼ 0 at y ¼ y2

ð6-67Þ

In most cases, the feed pressure is close to ambient pressure at y ¼ 0, and the ﬁrst boundary condition is p ¼ 0 at y ¼ 0. The pressure wave with the foregoing boundary conditions is shown in Fig. 6-6. The location of the end of the pressure wave, y2 , is solved by iterations. The solution is performed by guessing a value for y2 that is larger then 180 , then integrating Eq. (6-27) at the boundaries from 0 to y2 . The solution is obtained when the pressure at y2 is very close to zero. Figure 6-6 indicates that the angle y2 and the angle of the peak pressure are symmetrical on both sides of y ¼ p; therefore both have an equal ﬁlm thickness h (or clearance thickness). The constant, h0 , representing the ﬁlm thickness at the maximum pressure is h0 ¼ Cð1 þ cos y2 Þ

ð6-68Þ

After the integration is completed, the previous guess for y2 is corrected until a satisfactory solution is obtained (the pressure at y2 is very close to zero). Preparation of a small computer program to solve for y2 by iterations is recommended as a beneﬁcial exercise for the reader. After h0 is solved the pressure wave can be plotted.

F IG. 6-6

Pressure wave plot under realistic boundary conditions.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

137

Example Problem 6-1 Ice Sled Two smooth cylindrical sections support a sled as shown in Fig. 6-7. The sled is running over ice on a thin layer of water ﬁlm. The total load (weight of the sled and the person) is 1000 N. This load is acting at equal distances between the two blades. The sled velocity is 15 km=h, the radius of the blade is 30 cm, and its width is L ¼ 90 cm. The viscosity of water m ¼ 1:792 103 N-s=m2. a.

Find the pressure distribution at the entrance region of the ﬂuid ﬁlm under the ski blade as it runs over the ice. Derive and plot the pressure wave in dimensionless form. b. Find the expression for the load capacity of one blade. c. Find the minimum ﬁlm thickness ðhn ¼ hmin Þ of the thin water layer.

Solution a.

Pressure Distribution and Pressure Wave

For hn =R 1, the pressure wave is generated only near the minimum-ﬁlm region, where x R, or x=R 1. For a small value of x=R, the equation for the clearance, between the quarter-cylinder and the ice, h ¼ hðxÞ, can be approximated by a parabolic wedge. The following expression is obtained by expanding the equation for the variable clearance, hðxÞ, which is equal to the ﬂuid-ﬁlm thickness, into a Taylor series and truncating powers higher than x2 (see Chapter 4). If the minimum thickness of the ﬁlm is hn ¼ hmin , the equation for the variable clearance becomes hðxÞ ¼ hn þ

F IG. 6-7

x2 2R

Sled made of two quarter-cylinder.

138

Chapter 6

For dimensionless analysis, the clearance function is written as x2 hðxÞ ¼ hn 1 þ 2Rhn The width, L (in the direction normal to the sled speed), is very large in comparison to the ﬁlm length in the x direction. Therefore, it can be considered an inﬁnitely long bearing, and the pressure gradient is dp h h0 ¼ 6mU dx h3 The unknown, h0 , is the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness at the point of peak pressure, where dp=dx ¼ 0. Conversion to Dimensionless Terms. The conversion to dimensionless terms pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃis similar to that presented in Chapter 4. The length, x, is normalized by 2Rhn , and the dimensionless terms are deﬁned as x x ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Rhn

and

h h ¼ hn

The dimensionless clearance gets a simple form: h ðxÞ ¼ 1 þ x 2 Using the preceding substitutions, the pressure gradient equation takes the form dp 6mU h h 0 ¼ 2 dx hn ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 Here the unknown, h0 , is replaced by h 0 ¼ 1 þ x 20 The unknown, h0 , is replaced by unknown x0 , which describes the location of the peak pressure. Using the foregoing substitutions, the pressure gradient equation is reduced to dp 6mU x 2 x 20 ¼ 2 dx hn ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 Converting dx into dimensionless form produces pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ dx ¼ 2Rhn d x The dimensionless differential equation for the pressure takes the form x 2 x 20 h2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃn dp ¼ d x ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 2Rhn 6mU

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

139

Here, the dimensionless pressure is p ¼

h2 pnﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ p 6U m 2Rhn

The ﬁnal equation for integration of the dimensionless pressure is ð ðx 2 x x 20 h2n 1 p p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ dp ¼ d x þ p0 2 Þ3 2Rhn 6mU 0 1 ð1 þ x Here p0 is a constant of integration, which is atmospheric pressure far from the minimum clearance. In this equation, p0 and x0 are two unknowns that can be solved for by the following boundary conditions of the pressure wave: at x ¼ 1; at x ¼ 0;

p¼0 p¼0

The ﬁrst boundary condition, p ¼ 0 at x ¼ 1, yields p0 ¼ 0. The second unknown, x0 , is solved for by iterations (trial and error). The value of x0 is varied until the second boundary condition of the pressure wave, p ¼ 0 at x ¼ 0, is satisﬁed. Numerical Solution by Iterations. For numerical integration, the boundary x ¼ 1 is replaced by a relatively large ﬁnite dimensionless value where pressure is small and can be disregarded, such as x ¼ 4. The numerical solution involves iterations for solving for x0. Each one of the iterations involves integration in the boundaries from 4 to 0. The solution for x0 is obtained when the pressure at x ¼ 0 is sufﬁciently close to zero. Using trial and error, we select each time a value for x0 and integrate. This is repeated until the value of the dimensionless pressure is nearly zero at x ¼ 0. The solution of the dimensionless pressure wave is plotted in Fig. 6-8. The maximum dimensionless pressure occurs at a dimensionless distance x ¼ 0:55, and the maximum dimensionless pressure is p ¼ 0:109. h2n 1 p Dimensionless Pressure; p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 6mU 2Rhn Discussion of Numerical Iterations. The method of iteration is often referred to as the shooting method. In order to run iteration, we guess a certain value of x 0 , and, using this value, we integrate and attempt to hit the target point x ¼ 0, p ¼ 0. For the purpose of illustrating the shooting method, three iterations are shown in Fig. 6-9. The iteration for x 0 ¼ 0:25 results in a pressure that is too high at x ¼ 0; for x 0 ¼ 0:85, the pressure is too low at x ¼ 0. When the ﬁnal iteration of x 0 ¼ 0:55 is made, the target point x ¼ 0, p ¼ 0 is reached with sufﬁcient accuracy. The solution requires a small computer program.

F IG. 6-8 Dimensionless pressure wave.

140 Chapter 6

141

F IG. 6-9

Solution by iterations.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

142

b.

Chapter 6

Load Capacity

The load capacity for one cylindrical section is solved by the equation ð W ¼L

p dx ðAÞ

Converting to dimensionless terms, the equation for the load capacity becomes pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð 2Rhn p d x 6mU 2Rhn W ¼L h2n ðAÞ For the practical boundaries of the pressure wave, the equation takes the form 2R W ¼ L 6mU hn

c.

ð0 p d x 4

Minimum Film Thickness

Solving for hn, the minimum thickness between the ice and sled blade is 12LRmU hn ¼ W

ð0 p d x 4

Numerical integration is performed based on the previous results of the dimensionless pressure in Fig. 6-8. The result for the load capacity is obtained by numerical integration, in the boundaries 4 to 0: ð0

p d x S p i Dxi ¼ 0:147 4

4

The minimum ﬁlm thickness is hn ¼

12 0:9 m 0:3 m 1:792 103 ðN-s=m2 Þ 4:2 m=s ð0:147Þ 500 N

hn ¼ 7:27 106 m ¼ 7:27 103 mm The result is: hn ¼ 7:27 mm.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

143

Example Problem 6-2 Cylinder on a Flat Plate A combination of a long cylinder of radius R and a ﬂat plate surface are shown in Fig. 5-4. The cylinder rotates and slides on a plane (there is a combination of rolling and sliding), such as in the case of gears where there is a theoretical line contact with a combination of rolling and sliding. However, due to the hydrodynamic action, there is a small minimum clearance, hn . The viscosity, m, of the lubricant is constant, and the surfaces of the cylinder and ﬂat plate are rigid. Assume practical pressure boundary conditions [Eqs. (6-67)] and solve the pressure wave (use numerical iterations). Plot the dimensionless pressure-wave for various rolling and sliding ratios x. Solution In Chapter 4, the equation for the pressure gradient was derived. The following is the integration for the pressure wave. The clearance between a cylinder of radius R and a ﬂat plate is discussed in Chapter 4; see Eq. (4-33). For a ﬂuid ﬁlm near the minimum clearance, the approximation for the clearance is hðxÞ ¼ hmin þ

x2 2R

The case of rolling and sliding is similar to that of Eq. (6-20), (see Section 6.4). The Reynolds equation is in the form @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6U ð1 þ xÞ @x m @x @z m @z @x Here, the coefﬁcient x is the ratio of rolling and sliding. In terms of the velocities of the two surfaces, the ratio is x¼

oR U

The ﬂuid ﬁlm is much wider in the z direction in comparison to the length in the x direction. Therefore, the pressure gradient in the axial direction can be neglected in comparison to that in the x direction. The Reynolds equation is simpliﬁed to the form @ h3 @p @h ¼ 6U ð1 þ xÞ @x m @x @x

144

Chapter 6

The preceding equation is converted into dimensionless terms (see Example Problem 6-1): x x ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ; 2Rhn

h h ¼ ; hn

and

h0 ¼

h0 hn

dp 6mU ð1 þ xÞ x 2 x 20 ¼ dx h2n ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 Converting the pressure gradient to dimensionless form yields x 2 x 20 h2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃn dp ¼ ð1 þ xÞ d x ð1 þ x 2 Þ3 2Rhn 6mU The left hand side of the equation is the dimensionless pressure: ðx ð x 2 x 20 h2n 1 p p ¼ ð1 þ xÞ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ dp ¼ ð1 þ xÞ d x þ p0 2 Þ3 2RHn 6mU 0 1 ð1 þ x Here, p0 is a constant of integration, which is atmospheric pressure far from the minimum clearance. In this equation, p0 and x0 are two unknowns that can be solved for by the practical boundary conditions of the pressure wave; compare to Eqs. (6-67): p ¼ p0 at x ¼ x1 dp ¼ 0 at x ¼ x2 dx p ¼ 0 at x ¼ x2 Atmospheric pressure is zero, and the ﬁrst boundary condition results in p0 ¼ 0. The location of the end of the pressure wave, x2 , is solved by iterations. The solution is performed by guessing a value for x ¼ x2 ; then x0 is taken as x2 , because at that point the pressure gradient is zero. The solution requires iterations in order to ﬁnd x0 ¼ x2, which satisﬁes the boundary conditions. For each iteration, integration is performed in the boundaries from 0 to x2 , and the solution is obtained when the pressure at x2 is very close to zero. For numerical integration, the boundary x 1, where the pressure is zero, is taken as a small value, such as x 1 ¼ 4. The solution is presented in Fig. 6-10. The curves indicate that the pressure wave is higher for higher rolling ratios. This means that the rolling plays a stronger role in hydrodynamic pressure generation in comparison to sliding.

Long Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings

145

F IG. 6-10 Pressure wave along a ﬂuid ﬁlm between a cylinder and a ﬂat plate for various rolling-to-sliding ratios.

Problems 6-1

A journal bearing is fed a by high-pressure external pump. The pump pressure is sufﬁcient to avoid cavitation. The bearing length L ¼ 2D. The diameter D ¼ 100 mm, the shaft speed is 6000 RPM, and the clearance ratio is C=R ¼ 0:001. Assume that the inﬁnitely-long-bearing analysis can be approximated for this bearing, and ﬁnd the maximum load capacity for lubricant SAE 10 at average ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature of 80 C, if the maximum allowed eccentricity ratio e ¼ 0:7.

146

Chapter 6

6-2

A ﬂat plate slides on a lubricated cylinder as shown in Fig. 4-7. The cylinder radius is R, the lubricant viscosity is m, and the minimum clearance between the stationary cylinder and plate is hn . The elastic deformation of the cylinder and plate is negligible. 1.

2.

Apply numerical iterations, and plot the dimensionless pressure wave. Assume practical boundary conditions of the pressure, according to Eq. 6.67. Find the expression for the load capacity by numerical integration.

6-3

In problem 6-2, the cylinder diameter is 250 mm, the plate slides at U ¼ 0:5 m=s, and the minimum clearance is 1 mm (0.001 mm). The lubricant viscosity is constant, m ¼ 104 N-s=m2 . Find the hydrodynamic load capacity.

6-4

Oil is fed into a journal bearing by a pump. The supply pressure is sufﬁciently high to avoid cavitation. The bearing operates at an eccentricity ratio of e ¼ 0:85, and the shaft speed is 60 RPM. The bearing length is L ¼ 3D, the journal diameter is D ¼ 80 mm, and the clearance ratio is C=R ¼ 0:002. Assume that the pressure is constant along the bearing axis and there is no axial ﬂow (longbearing theory). a.

Find the maximum load capacity for a lubricant SAE 20 operating at an average ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature of 60 C. b. Find the bearing angle y where there is a peak pressure. c. What is the minimum supply pressure from the pump in order to avoid cavitation and to have only positive pressure around the bearing?

6-5

An air bearing operates inside a pressure vessel that has sufﬁciently high pressure to avoid cavitation in the bearing. The average viscosity of the air inside the bearing is m ¼ 2 104 N-s=m2 . The bearing operates at an eccentricity ratio of e ¼ 0:85. The bearing length is L ¼ 2D, the journal diameter is D ¼ 30 mm, and the clearance ratio is C=R ¼ 8 104 . Assume that the pressure is constant along the bearing axis and there is no axial ﬂow (long-bearing theory). a.

Find the journal speed in RPM that is required for a bearing load capacity of 200 N. Find the bearing angle y where there is a peak pressure. b. What is the minimum ambient pressure around the bearing (inside the pressure vessel) in order to avoid cavitation and to have only positive pressure around the bearing?

7 Short Journal Bearings

7.1

INTRODUCTION

The term short journal bearing refers to a bearing of a short length, L, in comparison to the diameter, D, ðL DÞ. The bearing geometry and coordinates are shown in Fig. 7-1. Short bearings are widely used and perform successfully in various machines, particularly in automotive engines. Although the load capacity, per unit length, of a short bearing is lower than that of a long bearing, it has the following important advantages. 1.

2.

3.

In comparison to a long bearing, a short bearing exhibits improved heat transfer, due to faster oil circulation through the bearing clearance. The ﬂow rate of lubricant in the axial direction through the bearing clearance of a short bearing is much faster than that of a long bearing. This relatively high ﬂow rate improves the cooling by continually replacing the lubricant that is heated by viscous shear. Overheating is a major cause for bearing failure; therefore, operating temperature is a very important consideration in bearing design. A short bearing is less sensitive to misalignment errors. It is obvious that short bearings reduce the risk of damage to the journal and the bearing edge resulting from misalignment of journal and bearing bore centrelines. Wear is reduced, because abrasive wear particles and dust are washed away by the oil more easily in short bearings. 147

148

Chapter 7

F IG. 7-1

4.

Short hydrodynamic journal bearing.

Short bearings require less space and result in a more compact design. The trend in machine design is to reduce the size of machines. Short hydrodynamic journal bearings compete with rolling-element bearings, which are usually short relative to their diameter.

For all these reasons, short bearings are commonly used today. Long bearings were widely used a few decades ago and are still operating, mostly in old machines or in special applications where high load capacity is required. The analysis of inﬁnitely short hydrodynamic bearings has been introduced by Dubois and Ocvirk (1953). Unlike the analysis of a long bearing with realistic boundary conditions or of a ﬁnite bearing, short-bearing analysis results in a closed-form equation for the pressure wave and load capacity and does not require complex numerical analysis. Also, the closed-form expression of the bearing load capacity simpliﬁes the analysis of a short bearing under dynamic conditions, such as unsteady load and speed. Dubois and Ocvirk assumed that the pressure gradient around the bearing (in the x direction in Fig. 7-1) is small and can be neglected in comparison to the pressure gradient in the axial direction (z direction). In short bearings, the oil ﬁlm pressure gradient in the axial direction, dp=dz, is larger by an order of magnitude or more in comparison to the pressure gradient, dp=dx, around the bearing: dp dp dz dx

ð7-1Þ

By disregarding dp=dx in comparison to dp=dz, it is possible to simplify the Reynolds equation. This allows a closed-form analytical solution for the ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure distribution and load capacity. The resulting closed-form expression of the load capacity can be conveniently applied in bearing design as well as in dynamical analysis. One should keep in mind that when the bearing is not very short and the bearing length, L, approaches the diameter size, D, the true load capacity is, in fact, higher than that predicted by the short-bearing analysis. If we

Short Journal Bearings

149

use the short-bearing equation to calculate ﬁnite-length bearings, the bearing design will be on the safe side, with high safety coefﬁcient. For this reason, the short-journal equations are widely used by engineers for the design of hydrodynamic journal bearings, even for bearings that are not very short, if there is no justiﬁcation to spend too much time on elaborate calculations to optimize the bearing design.

7.2

SHORT-BEARING ANALYSIS

The starting point of the derivation is the Reynolds equation, which was discussed in Chapter 5. Let us recall that the Reynolds equation for incompressible Newtonian ﬂuids is @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ð7-2Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x Based on the assumption that the pressure gradient in the x direction can be disregarded, we have @ h3 @p

0 ð7-3Þ @x m @x Thus, the Reynolds equation (7-2) reduces to the following simpliﬁed form: @ h3 @p @h ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ð7-4Þ @z m @z @x In a journal bearing, the surface velocity of the journal is not parallel to the x direction along the bore surface, and it has a normal component V2 (see diagram of velocity components in Fig. 6-2). The surface velocity components of the journal surface are U2 U ;

V2 U

@h @x

ð7-5Þ

On the stationary sleeve, the surface velocity components are zero: U1 ¼ 0;

V1 ¼ 0

ð7-6Þ

After substituting Eqs. (7-5) and (7-6) into the right-hand side of Eq. (7-4), it becomes 6ðU1 U2 Þ

@h @h @h @h þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ ¼ 6ð0 U Þ þ 12U ¼ 6U @x @x @x @x

ð7-7Þ

FIG. 7-2

Pressure wave at z ¼ 0 in a short bearing for various values of e.

150 Chapter 7

Short Journal Bearings

151

The Reynolds equation for a short journal bearing is ﬁnally simpliﬁed to the form @ h3 @p @h ¼ 6U @z m @z @x

ð7-8Þ

The ﬁlm thickness h is solely a function of x and is constant for the purpose of integration in the z direction. Double integration results in the following parabolic pressure distribution, in the z direction, with two constants, which can be obtained from the boundary conditions of the pressure wave: p¼

6mU dh z2 þ C1 z þ C2 h3 dx 2

ð7-9Þ

At the two ends of the bearing, the pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure, p ¼ 0. These boundary conditions can be written as p¼0

at z ¼

L 2

ð7-10Þ

Solving for the integration constants, and substituting the function for h in a journal bearing, hðyÞ ¼ Cð1 þ e cos y), the following expression for the pressure distribution in a short bearing (a function of y and z) is obtained: pðy; zÞ ¼

3mU L2 e sin y 2 z RC 2 4 ð1 þ e cosÞ3

ð7-11Þ

In a short journal bearing, the ﬁlm thickness h is converging (decreasing h vs. y) in the region ð0 < y < pÞ, resulting in a viscous wedge and a positive pressure wave. At the same time, in the region ðp < y < 2pÞ, the ﬁlm thickness h is diverging (increasing h vs. y). In the diverging region ðp < y < 2pÞ, Eq. (7-11) predicts a negative pressure wave (because sin y is negative). The pressure according to Eq. (7-11) is an antisymmetrical function on the two sides of y ¼ p. In an actual bearing, in the region of negative pressure ðp < y < 2pÞ, there is ﬂuid cavitation and the ﬂuid continuity is breaking down. There is ﬂuid cavitation whenever the negative pressure is lower than the vapor pressure. Therefore, Eq. (7-11) is no longer valid in the diverging region. In practice, the contribution of the negative pressure to the load capacity can be disregarded. Therefore in a short bearing, only the converging region with positive pressure ð0 < y < pÞ is considered for the load capacity of the oil ﬁlm (see Fig. 7-2). Similar to a long bearing, the load capacity is solved by integration of the pressure wave around the bearing. But in the case of a short bearing, the pressure is a function of z and y. The following are the two equations for the integration

152

Chapter 7

for the load capacity components in the directions of Wx and Wy of the bearing centerline and the normal to it: ð p ð L=2 ð mUL3 p e sin y cos y p cos y R dy dz ¼ dy ð7-12aÞ Wx ¼ 2 2C 2 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ3 0 0 ð ð p ð L=2 mUL3 p e sin2 y Wy ¼ 2 p sin y dy dz ¼ dy ð7-12bÞ 2C 2 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ3 0 0 The following list of integrals is useful for short journal bearings. ðp sin2 y p J11 ¼ dy ¼ 3 2ð1 e2 Þ3=2 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ ðp sin y cos y 2e J12 ¼ dy ¼ 3 ð1 e2 Þ2 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ ðp cos2 y pð1 þ 2e2 Þ dy ¼ J22 ¼ 3 2ð1 e2 Þ5=2 0 ð1 þ e cos yÞ

ð7-13aÞ ð7-13bÞ ð7-13cÞ

The load capacity components are functions of the preceding integrals: mUL3 e J12 2C 2 mUL3 Wy ¼ e J11 2C 2

Wx ¼

ð7-14Þ ð7-15Þ

Using Eqs. (7-13) and substitution of the values of the integrals results in the following expressions for the two load components: Wx ¼

mUL3 e2 C 2 ð1 e2 Þ2

ð7-16aÞ

Wy ¼

mUL3 pe 2 4C ð1 e2 Þ3=2

ð7-16bÞ

Equations (7-16) for the two load components yield the resultant load capacity of the bearing, W : W ¼

mUL3 e ½p2 ð1 e2 Þ þ 16e2 1=2 2 4C ð1 e2 Þ2

ð7-17Þ

The attitude angle, f, is determined from the two load components: tan f ¼

Wy Wx

ð7-18Þ

Short Journal Bearings

153

Via substitution of the values of the load capacity components, the expression for the attitude angle of a short bearing becomes tan f ¼

7.3

p ð1 e2 Þ1=2 4 e

ð7-19Þ

FLOW IN THE AXIAL DIRECTION

The velocity distribution of the ﬂuid in the axial, z, direction is w ¼ 3U

zh0 2 ð y hyÞ Rh3

ð7-20Þ

Here, h0 ¼

dh dx

ð7-21Þ

The gradient h0 is the clearance slope (wedge angle), which is equal to the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness slope in the direction of x ¼ Ry (around the bearing). This gradient must be negative in order to result in a positive pressure wave as well as positive ﬂow, w, in the z direction. Positive axial ﬂow is directed outside the bearing (outlet ﬂow from the bearing). There is positive axial ﬂow where h is converging (decreasing h vs. x) in the region ð0 < y < pÞ. At the same time, there is inlet ﬂow, directed from outside into the bearing, where h is diverging (increasing h vs. y) in the region ðp < y < 2pÞ. In the diverging region, h0 > 0, there is ﬂuid cavitation that is causing deviation from the theoretical axial ﬂow predicted in Eq. (7-20). However, in principle, the lubricant enters into the bearing in the diverging region and leaves the bearing in the converging region. In a short bearing, there is much faster lubricant circulation relative to that in a long bearing. Fast lubricant circulation reduces the peak temperature of the lubricant. This is a signiﬁcant advantage of the short bearing, because high peak temperature can cause bearing failure.

7.4

SOMMERFELD NUMBER OF A SHORT BEARING

The deﬁnition of the dimensionless Sommerfeld number for a short bearing is identical to that for a long bearing; however, for a short journal bearing, the expression of the Sommerfeld number is given as, 2 2 mn R D ð1 e2 Þ2 ¼ ð7-22Þ S¼ P C L pe½p2 ð1 e2 Þ þ 16e2 1=2

154

Chapter 7

Let us recall that the Sommerfeld number of a long bearing is only a function of e. However, for a short bearing, the Sommerfeld number is a function of e as well as the ratio L=D.

7.5

VISCOUS FRICTION

The friction force around a bearing is obtained by integration of the shear stresses. The shear stress in a short bearing is t¼m

U h

ð7-23Þ

For the purpose of computing the friction force, the shear stresses are integrated around the complete bearing. The ﬂuid is present in the diverging region (p < y < 2p), and it is contributing to the viscous friction, although its contribution to the load capacity has been neglected. The friction force, Ff , is obtained by integration of the shear stress, t, over the complete surface area of the journal: ð Ff ¼ t dA ð7-24Þ ðAÞ

Substituting dA ¼ LR dy, the friction force becomes ð 2p Ff ¼ RL t dy

ð7-25Þ

To solve for the friction force, we substitute the expression for h into Eq. (7-23) and substitute the resulting equation of t into Eq. (7-25). For solving the integral, the following integral equation is useful: ð 2p 1 2p dy ¼ J1 ¼ ð7-26Þ ð1 e2 Þ1=2 0 1 þ cos y Note that J1 has the limits of integration 0 2p, while for the ﬁrst three integrals in Eqs. (7-13), the limits are 0 p. The ﬁnal expression for the friction force is ð mLRU 2p dy mLRU 2p ¼ Ff ¼ ð7-27Þ C 1 þ e cos y C ð1 e2 Þ1=2 0 The bearing friction coefﬁcient f is deﬁned as f ¼

Ff W

ð7-28Þ

The friction torque Tf is Tf ¼ Ff R;

Tf ¼

mLR2 U 2p C ð1 e2 Þ1=2

ð7-29Þ

Short Journal Bearings

155

The energy loss per unit of time, E_ f is determined by the following: E_ f ¼ Ff U

ð7-30aÞ

Substituting Eq. (7-27) into Eq. (7-30a) yields the following expression for the power loss on viscous friction: mLRU 2 2p E_ f ¼ C ð1 e2 Þ1=2

7.6

ð7-30bÞ

JOURNAL BEARING STIFFNESS

Journal bearing stiffness, k, is the rate of increase of load W with displacement e in the same direction, dW =de (similar to that of a spring constant). High stiffness is particularly important in machine tools, where any displacement of the spindle centerline during machining would result in machining errors. Hydrodynamic journal bearings have low stiffness at low eccentricity (under light load). The displacement of a hydrodynamic bearing is not in the same direction as the force W . In such cases, the journal bearing has cross-stiffness components. The stiffness components are presented as four components related to the force components Wx and Wy and the displacement components in these directions. In a journal bearing, the load is divided into two components, Wx and Wy, and the displacement of the bearing center, e, is divided into two components, ex and ey . The two components of the journal bearing stiffness are kx ¼

dWx ; dex

ky ¼

dWy dey

ð7-31Þ

and the two components of the cross-stiffness are deﬁned as kxy ¼

dWx ; dey

ky ¼

dWy dex

ð7-32Þ

Cross-stiffness components cause instability, in the form of an oil whirl in journal bearings.

Example Problem 7-1 A short bearing is designed to operate with an eccentricity ratio e ¼ 0:8. The journal diameter is 60 mm, and its speed is 1500 RPM. The journal is supported by a short hydrodynamic bearing of length L=D ¼ 0:5, and clearance ratio C=R ¼ 103 . The radial load on the bearing is 1 metric ton (1 metric ton ¼ 9800 [N]). a.

Assume that inﬁnitely-short-bearing theory applies to this bearing, and ﬁnd the Sommerfeld number.

156

Chapter 7

b. Find the minimum viscosity of the lubricant for operating at e ¼ 0:8. c. Select a lubricant if the average bearing operating temperature is 80 C. Solution a. Sommerfeld Number The Sommerfeld number is 2 2 mn R D ð1 e2 Þ2 ¼ S¼ P C L pe½p2 ð1 e2 Þ þ 16e2 1=2 From the right-hand side of the equation, S ¼ ð2Þ2

b.

ð1 0:82 Þ2 0:362 ¼ 0:0139 ¼ 1=2 p 0:8 3:71 p0:8½p2 ð1 0:82 Þ þ 16 0:82

Minimum Viscosity

The average pressure is P¼

W 9800 ¼ ¼ 5:44 106 Pa LD 0:06 0:03

The load in SI units (newtons) is 9800 [N], and the speed is n ¼ 1500=60 ¼ 25 RPS. The viscosity is determined by equating: 2 mn R S¼ ¼ 0:0139 P C 5:44 106 0:0139 ¼ 0:0030 ½N-s=m2

m¼ 25 106 c.

Lubricant

For lubricant operating temperature of 80 C, mineral oil SAE 10 has suitable viscosity of 0.003 [N-s=m2 ] (Fig. 2-3). This is the minimum required viscosity for the operation of this bearing with an eccentricity ratio no higher than e ¼ 0:8.

Example Problem 7-2 A journal of 75-mm diameter rotates at 3800 RPM. The journal is supported by a short hydrodynamic bearing of length L ¼ D=4 and a clearance ratio C=R ¼ 103 . The radial load on the bearing is 0.5 metric ton, (1 metric ton ¼ 9800 [N]). The lubricant is SAE 40, and the operating temperature of the lubricant in the bearing is 80 C.

Short Journal Bearings

157

a.

Assume inﬁnitely-short-bearing theory, and ﬁnd the eccentricity ratio, e, of the bearing (use a graphic method to solve for e) and the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn . b. Derive the equation for the pressure wave around the bearing, at the center of the width (at z ¼ 0). c. Find the hydrodynamic friction torque and the friction power losses (in watts). Solution The following conversion is required for calculation in SI units: Speed of shaft: n ¼ 3800=60 ¼ 63:3 [RPS] Radial load: W ¼ 0:5 9800 ¼ 4900 [N] Axial length of shaft: L ¼ D=4 ¼ 0:075=4 ¼ 0:01875 [m] C=R ¼ 103 ; hence R=C ¼ 103 . a.

Eccentricity Ratio and Minimum Film Thickness

For an operating temperature of T ¼ 80 C, the viscosity of SAE-40 oil is obtained from the viscosity–temperature chart: m ¼ 0:0185 ½N-s=m2 . The equation for the load capacity is applied to solve for the eccentricity ratio, e, the only unknown in the following equation: W ¼

mUL3 e ½p2 ð1 e2 Þ þ 16e2 1=2 4C 2 ð1 e2 Þ2

ð7-32Þ

To simplify the mathematical derivation of e, the following substitution is helpful: f ðeÞ ¼

e ½p2 ð1 e2 Þ þ 16e2 1=2 ð1 e2 Þ2

ð7-33Þ

First, we can solve for f ðeÞ, and later we can obtain the value of e from the graph of f ðeÞ vs. e (Fig. 7-3). Equations (7-32) and (7-33) yield f ðeÞ ¼

4WC 2 4W ð103 D=2Þ2 4 16 4900 106 ¼ ¼ ¼ 15:15 mUL3 mpnDðD=4Þ3 0:0185p 63:3ð0:075Þ2

According to the curve of f ðeÞ vs. e, for f ðeÞ ¼ 15:15, the eccentricity of the bearing is e ¼ 0:75.

158

Chapter 7

F IG. 7-3

Graph of f ðeÞ vs. e, describing Eq. (7-33).

We ﬁnd the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hmin , as follows: 3 3 0:075 hmin ¼ Cð1 eÞ ¼ 10 Rð1 0:75Þ ¼ 10 0:25 2 hmin

b.

¼ 9:4 106 m ¼ 9:4 mm

Pressure Wave

The pressure is a function of y and z, according to the equation 3mU dh 2 L2 Z p¼ 3 h dx 4 where h ¼ Cð1 þ e cos yÞ, x ¼ Ry, and dx ¼ Rdy. The clearance slope is dh dh dy Ce sin y ¼ ¼ dx dy dx R

Short Journal Bearings

159

The pressure wave at the width center, z ¼ 0, is 3mUL2 Ce sin y R 4h3 3 0:0185 p 63:3 0:075 0:0752 0:75 pðyÞ ðat z ¼ 0Þ ¼ 64 103 sin y ð1 þ 0:75 cos yÞ3 5:5 108 sin y pðyÞ ðat z ¼ 0Þ ¼ ð1 þ 0:75 cos yÞ3 pðyÞ ¼

c.

Friction Torque and Friction Power Loss

We ﬁnd the friction torque as follows: mLR2 U 2p C ð1 e2 Þ1=2 0:0185 0:01875 ð0:075=2Þ p 0:075 63:3 2p ¼ 3 10 ð1 0:752 Þ1=2

Tf ¼ F f R ¼

Tf ¼ 1:80 N-m The friction power loss is found as follows: E_ f ¼ Tf o mLRU 2 2p E_ f ¼ C ð1 e2 Þ1=2 0:0185 0:01875 ðp 63:3 0:075Þ2 2p ¼ 733 ½W

E_ f ¼ 3 10 ð1 0:752 Þ1=2

Problems 7-1

7-2 7-3

A short bearing is designed to operate with an eccentricity ratio of e ¼ 0:7. Find the journal diameter if the speed is 30,000 RPM and the radial load on the bearing is 8000 N. The bearing length ratio L=D ¼ 0:6, and the clearance ratio is C=R ¼ 103 . The lubricant is SAE 30 and the average operating temperature in the bearing is 70 C. Assume that inﬁnitely-short-bearing theory applies. Plot the dimensionless pressure distribution (function of y) at the bearing center, z ¼ 0, in Example Problem 7-2. A short bearing is designed to operate with an eccentricity ratio of e ¼ 0:75. The journal is 80 mm in diameter, and its speed is

160

Chapter 7

3500 RPM. The journal is supported by a short hydrodynamic bearing of length D=L ¼ 4 and a clearance ratio of C=R ¼ 103 . The radial load on the bearing is 1000 N. a.

Assume that inﬁnitely-short-bearing theory applies to this bearing, and ﬁnd the minimum viscosity of the lubricant. b. Select a lubricant for an average operating temperature in the bearing of 60 C. 7-4

The journal speed of a 100 mm diameter journal is 2500 RPM. The journal is supported by a short hydrodynamic bearing of length L ¼ 0:6D and a clearance ratio of C=R ¼ 103 . The radial load on the bearing is 10,000 [N]. The lubricant is SAE 30, and the operating temperature of the lubricant in the bearing is 70 C. a.

Assume inﬁnitely-short-bearing theory, and ﬁnd the eccentricity ratio, e, of the bearing and the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn (use a graphic method to solve for e). b. Derive the equation and plot the pressure distribution around the bearing, at the center of the width (at z ¼ 0). c. Find the hydrodynamic friction torque and the friction power losses (in watts) for each bearing.

8 Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

8.1

INTRODUCTION

In the preceding chapters, the analysis of inﬁnitely long and short journal bearings have been presented. In comparison, the solution of a ﬁnite-length journal bearing (e.g., L=D ¼ 1) is more complex and requires a computer program for a numerical solution of the Reynolds equation. The ﬁrst numerical solution of the Reynolds equation for a ﬁnite-length bearing was performed by Raimondi and Boyd (1958). The results were presented in the form of dimensionless charts and tables, which are required for journal bearing design. The presentation of the results in the form of dimensionless charts and tables is convenient for design purposes because one does not need to repeat the numerical solution for each bearing design. The charts and tables present various dimensionless performance parameters, such as minimum ﬁlm thickness, friction, and temperature rise of the lubricant as a function of the Sommerfeld number, S. Let us recall that the dimensionless Sommerfeld number is deﬁned as S¼

2 R mn C P

ð8-1Þ

161

162

Chapter 8

where n is the speed of the journal in revolutions per second (RPS), R is the journal radius, C is the radial clearance, and P is the average bearing pressure (load, F, per unit of projected contact area of journal and bearing), given by P¼

F F ¼ 2RL DL

ð8-2Þ

Note that S is a dimensionless number, and any system of units can be applied for its calculation as long as one is consistent with the units. For instance, if the Imperial unit system is applied, length should be in inches, force in lbf, and m in reynolds [lbf-s=in.2 ]. In SI units, length is in meters, force in newtons, and the viscosity, m, in [N-s=m2 ]. The journal speed, n, should always be in revolutions per second (RPS), irrespective of the system of units used, and the viscosity, m, must always include seconds as the unit of time.

8.2

DESIGN PROCEDURE

The design procedure starts with the selection of the bearing dimensions: the journal diameter D, the bearing length L, and the radial clearance between the bearing and the journal C. At this stage of the design, the shaft diameter should already have been computed according to strength-of-materials considerations. However, in certain cases the designer may decide, after preliminary calculations, to increase the journal diameter in order to improve the bearing hydrodynamic load capacity. One important design decision is the selection of the L=D ratio. It is obvious from hydrodynamic theory of lubrication that a long bearing has a higher load capacity (per unit of length) in comparison to a shorter bearing. On the other hand, a long bearing increases the risk of bearing failure due to misalignment errors. In addition, a long bearing reduces the amount of oil circulating in the bearing, resulting in a higher peak temperature inside the lubrication ﬁlm and the bearing surface. Therefore, short bearings (L=D ratios between 0.5 and 0.7) are recommended in many cases. Of course, there are many unique circumstances where different ratios are selected. The bearing clearance, C, is also an important design factor, because the load capacity in a long bearing is proportional to ðR=CÞ2 . Experience over the years has resulted in an empirical rule used by most designers. They commonly select a ratio R=C of about 1000. The ratio R=C is equal to the ratio D=DD between the diameter and the diameter clearance; i.e., a journal of 50-mm diameter should have a 50-mm (ﬁfty-thousandth of a millimeter)-diameter clearance. The designer should keep in mind that there are manufacturing tolerances of bearing bore and journal diameters, resulting in signiﬁcant tolerances in the journal bearing clearance, DD. The clearance can be somewhat smaller or larger, and thus the bearing should be designed for the worst possible

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

163

scenario. In general, high-precision manufacturing is required for journal bearings, to minimize the clearance tolerances as well as to achieve good surface ﬁnish and optimal alignment. For bearings subjected to high dynamic impacts, or very high speeds, somewhat larger bearing clearances are chosen. The following is an empirical equation that is recommended for high-speed journal bearings having an L=D ratio of about 0.6: C n ¼ ð0:0009 þ Þ D 83;000

ð8-3Þ

where n is the journal speed (RPS). This equation is widely used to determine the radial clearance in motor vehicle engines.

8.3

MINIMUM FILM THICKNESS

One of the most critical design decisions concerns the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn . Of course, the minimum ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness must be much higher than the surface roughness, particularly in the presence of vibrations. Even for statically loaded bearings, there are always unexpected disturbances and dynamic loads, due to vibrations in the machine, and a higher value of the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , is required to prevent bearing wear. In critical applications, where the replacement of bearings is not easy, such as bearings located inside an engine, more care is required to ensure that the minimum ﬁlm thickness will never be reduced below a critical value at which wear can initiate. Another consideration is the ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature, which can increase under unexpected conditions, such as disturbances in the operation of the machine. The temperature rise reduces the lubricant viscosity; in turn, the oil ﬁlm thickness is reduced. For this reason, designers are very careful to select hn much larger than the surface roughness. The common design practice for hydrodynamic bearings is to select a minimum ﬁlm thickness in the range of 10–100 times the average surface ﬁnish (in RMS). For instance, if the journal and the bearing are both machined by ﬁne turning, having a surface ﬁnish speciﬁed by an RMS value of 0.5 mm (0.5 thousandths of a millimeter), the minimum ﬁlm thickness can be within the limits of 5–50 mm. High hn values are chosen in the presence of high dynamic disturbances, whereas low values of hn are chosen for steady operation that involves minimal vibrations and disturbances. Moreover, if it is expected that dust particles would contaminate the lubricant, a higher minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , should be selected. Also, for critical applications, where there are safety considerations, or where bearing failure can result in expensive machine downtime, a coefﬁcient of safety is applied in the form of higher values of hn .

164

Chapter 8

The surface ﬁnish of the two surfaces (bearing and journal) must be considered. A dimensionless ﬁlm parameter, L, relating hn to the average surface ﬁnish, has been introduced; see Hamrock (1994): L¼

hn ðR2s; j þ R2s;b Þ1=2

ð8-4Þ

where Rs; j ¼ surface ﬁnish of the journal surface (RMS) and Rs;b ¼ surface ﬁnish of the bearing surface (RMS). As discussed earlier, the range of values assigned to L depends on the operating conditions and varies from 5 to 100. The minimum ﬁlm thickness is not the only limitation encountered in the design of a journal bearing. Other limitations, which depend on the bearing material, determine in many cases the maximum allowable bearing load. The most important limitations are as follows. 1.

2. 3.

Maximum allowed PV value (depending on the bearing material) to avoid bearing overheating during the start-up of boundary lubrication. This is particularly important in bearing materials that are not good heat conductors, such as plastics materials. Maximum allowed peak pressure to prevent local failure of the bearing material. Maximum allowed peak temperature, to prevent melting or softening of the bearing material.

In most applications, the inner bearing surface is made of a thin layer of a soft white metal (babbitt), which has a low melting temperature. The design procedure must ensure that the allowed values are not exceeded, for otherwise it can result in bearing failure. If the preliminary calculations indicate that these limitations are exceeded, it is necessary to introduce design modiﬁcations. In most cases, the design of hydrodynamic bearing requires trial-and-error calculations to verify that all the requirements are satisﬁed.

8.4

RAIMONDI AND BOYD CHARTS AND TABLES

8.4.1

Partial Bearings

A partial journal bearing has a bearing arc, b, of less than 360 , and only part of the bearing circumference supports the journal. A full bearing is where the bearing arc b ¼ 360 ; in a partial bearing, the bearing arc is less than 360 , such as b ¼ 60 ; 120 , and 180 . A partial bearing has two important advantages in comparison to a full bearing. First, there is a reduction of the viscous friction coefﬁcient; second, in a partial bearing there is a faster circulation of the lubricant, resulting in better heat transfer from the bearing. The two advantages

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

165

result in a lower bearing temperature as well as lower energy losses from viscous friction. In high-speed journal bearings, the friction coefﬁcient can be relatively high, and partial bearings are often used to mitigate this problem. At the same time, the load capacity of a partial bearing is only slightly below that of a full bearing, which make the merits of using a partial bearing quite obvious.

8.4.2

Dimensionless Performance Parameters

Using numerical analysis, Raimondi and Boyd solved the Reynolds equation. They presented the results in dimensionless terms via graphs and tables. Dimensionless performance parameters of a ﬁnite-length bearing were presented as a function of the Sommerfeld number, S. The Raimondi and Boyd performance parameters are presented here by charts for journal bearings with the ratio L=D ¼ 1; see Figs. 8-1 to 8-10. For bearings having different L=D ratios, the performance parameters are given in tables; see Tables 8-1 to 8-4. The charts and tables of Raimondi and Boyd have been presented for both partial and full journal bearings, and for various L=D ratios. Partial journal bearings include multi-lobe bearings that are formed by several eccentric arcs. The following ten dimensionless performance parameters are presented in charts and tables. 1.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

Minimum ﬁlm thickness ratio, hn =C. Graphs of minimum ﬁlm thickness ratio versus Sommerfeld number, S, are presented in Fig. 8-1. Attitude angle, f, i.e., the angle at which minimum ﬁlm thickness is attained. The angle is measured from the line along the load direction as shown in Fig. 8-2. Friction coefﬁcient variable, ðR=CÞf . Curves of the dimensionless friction coefﬁcient variable versus S are presented in Fig. 8-3. In Fig. 8-4, curves are plotted of the dimensionless total bearing ﬂow rate variable, Q=nRCL, against the Sommerfeld number. The ratio of the side ﬂow rate (in the z direction) to the total ﬂow rate, Qs =Q, as a function of the Sommerfeld number is shown in Fig. 8-5. The side ﬂow rate, Qs , is required for determining the end leakage, since the bearing is no longer assumed to be inﬁnite. The side ﬂow rate is important for cooling of the bearing. The dimensionless temperature rise variable, crDT =P, is presented in Fig. 8-6. It is required for determining the temperature rise of the lubricant due to friction. The temperature rise, DT , is of the lubricant from the point of entry into the bearing to the point of discharge from the bearing. The estimation of the temperature rise is discussed in greater detail later.

F IG. 8-1 Minimum ﬁlm thickness ratio versus Sommerfeld number for variable bearing arc b; L=D ¼ 1. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

166 Chapter 8

F IG. 8-2 Attitude angle versus Sommerfeld number for variable bearing arc b; L=D ¼ 1. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings 167

F IG. 8-3 Friction coefﬁcient versus Sommerfeld number for variable bearing arc b; L=D ¼ 1. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

168 Chapter 8

FIG. 8-4 STLE.)

Total bearing ﬂow rate variable versus Sommerfeld number, ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings 169

F IG. 8-5 Ratio of side ﬂow (axial direction) to total ﬂow versus Sommerfeld number ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

170 Chapter 8

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

171

F IG. 8-6 Temperature rise variable versus Sommerfeld number ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

FIG. 8-7 Average to maximum pressure ratio versus Sommerfeld number ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

172 Chapter 8

FIG. 8-8 STLE.)

Position of maximum pressure versus Sommerfeld number ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings 173

FIG. 8-9 Termination of pressure wave angle versus Sommerfeld number ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

174 Chapter 8

F IG. 8-10 Chart for determining the value of the minimum ﬁlm thickness versus bearing arc for maximum load, and minimum power loss ðL=D ¼ 1Þ. (From Raimondi and Boyd, 1958, with permission of STLE.)

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings 175

TABLE 8-1

Performance Characteristics for a Centrally Loaded 360 Bearing

176 Chapter 8

T ABLE 8-2

Performance Characteristics for a Centrally Loaded 180 Bearing

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings 177

TABLE 8-3

Performance Characteristics for a Centrally Loaded 120 Bearing

178 Chapter 8

TABLE 8-4

Performance Characteristics for a Centrally Loaded 60 Bearing Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings 179

180

Chapter 8

7. 8.

9.

10.

The ratio of average pressure to maximum pressure, P=pmax , in the ﬂuid ﬁlm as a function of Sommerfeld number is given in Fig. 8-7. The location of the point of maximum pressure is given in Fig. 8-8. It is measured in degrees from the line along the load direction as shown in Fig. 8-8. The location of the point of the end of the pressure wave is given in Fig. 8-9. It is measured in degrees from the line along the load direction as shown in Fig. 8-9. This is the angle y2 in this text, and it is referred to as yp in the chart of Raimondi and Boyd. Curves of the minimum ﬁlm thickness ratio, hn =C as a function of the bearing arc, b (Deg.), are presented in Fig. 8-10 for two cases: a. maximum load capacity, b. minimum power losses due to friction. These curves are useful for the design engineer for selecting the optimum bearing arc, b, based on the requirement of maximum load capacity, or minimum power loss due to viscous friction.

Note that the preceding performance parameters are presented by graphs only for journal bearings with the ratio L=D ¼ 1. For bearings having different L=D ratios, the performance parameters are listed in tables. In Fig. 8-1 (chart 1), curves are presented of the ﬁlm thickness ratio, hn =C, versus the Sommerfeld number, S for various bearing arcs b. The curves for b ¼ 180 and b ¼ 360 nearly coincide. This means that for an identical bearing load, a full bearing (b ¼ 360 ) does not result in a signiﬁcantly higher value of hn in comparison to a partial bearing of b ¼ 180 . This means that for an identical hn , a full bearing (b ¼ 360 ) does not have a much higher load capacity than a partial bearing. At the same time, it is clear from Fig. 8-3 (chart 3) that lowering the bearing arc, b, results in a noticeable reduction in the bearing friction (viscous friction force is reduced because of the reduction in oil ﬁlm area). In conclusion, the advantage of a partial bearing is that it can reduce the friction coefﬁcient of the bearing without any signiﬁcant reduction in load capacity (this advantage is for identical geometry and viscosity in the two bearings). In fact, the advantage of a partial bearing is more than indicated by the two ﬁgures, because it has a lower ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature due to a faster oil circulation. This improvement in the thermal characteristics of a partial bearing in comparison to a full bearing is considered an important advantage, and designers tend to select this type for many applications.

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

8.5

181

FLUID FILM TEMPERATURE

8.5.1

Estimation of Temperature Rise

After making the basic decisions concerning the bearing dimensions, bearing arc, and determination of the minimum ﬁlm thickness hn , the lubricant is selected. At this stage the bearing temperature is unknown, and it should be estimated. We assume an average bearing temperature and select a lubricant that would provide the required bearing load capacity (equal to the external load). The next step is to determine the ﬂow rate of the lubricant in the bearing, Q, in the axial direction. Knowledge of this ﬂow rate allows one to determine the temperature rise inside the ﬂuid ﬁlm from the charts. This will allow one to check and correct the initial assumptions made earlier concerning the average oil ﬁlm temperature. Later, it is possible to select another lubricant for the desired average viscosity, based on the newly calculated temperature. A few iterations are required for estimation of the average temperature. The temperature inside the ﬂuid ﬁlm increases as it ﬂows inside the bearing, due to high shear rate ﬂow of viscous ﬂuid. The energy loss from viscous friction is dissipated in the oil ﬁlm in the form of heat. There is an energy balance, and a large part of this heat is removed from the bearing by continuous convection as the hot oil ﬂows out and is replaced by a cooler oil that ﬂows into the bearing clearance. In addition, the heat is transferred by conduction through the sleeve into the bearing housing. The heat is transferred from the housing partly by convection to the atmosphere and partly by conduction through the base of the housing to the other parts of the machine. In most cases, precise heat transfer calculations are not practical, because they are too complex and because many parameters, such as contact resistance between the machine parts, are unknown. For design purposes it is sufﬁcient to estimate the temperature rise of the ﬂuid DT, from the point of entry into the bearing clearance (at temperature Tin ) to the point of discharge from the bearing (at temperature Tmax ). This estimation is based on the simpliﬁed assumptions that it is possible to neglect the heat conduction through the bearing material in comparison to the heat removed by the continuous replacement of ﬂuid. In fact, the heat conduction reduces the temperature rise; therefore, this assumption results in a design that is on the safe side, because the estimated temperature rise is somewhat higher than in the actual bearing. The following equation for the temperature rise of oil in a journal bearing, DT , was presented by Shigley and Mitchell (1983): 8:3Pð f R=CÞ ð8-5Þ DT ¼ Q 106 ð1 0:5Qs =QÞ nRCL where DT is the temperature rise [ C], P ¼ F=2RL [Pa]. All the other parameters required for calculation of the temperature rise are dimensionless parameters.

182

Chapter 8

They can be obtained directly from the charts or tables of Raimondi and Boyd as a function of the Sommerfeld number and L=D ratio. The average temperature in the ﬂuid ﬁlm is determined from the temperature rise by the equation Tav ¼

Tin þ Tmax DT ¼ Ti þ 2 2

ð8-6Þ

Equation (8-5) is derived by assuming that all the heat that is generated by viscous shear in the ﬂuid ﬁlm is dissipated only in the ﬂuid (no heat conduction through the boundaries). This heat increases the ﬂuid temperature. In a partial bearing, the maximum temperature is at the outlet at the end of the bearing arc. In a full bearing, the maximum temperature is after the minimum ﬁlm thickness at the end of the pressure wave (angle y2 ). The mean temperature of the ﬂuid ﬂowing out, in the axial direction, Q, has been assumed as Tav , the average of the inlet and outlet temperatures.

Example Problem 8-1 Calculation of Temperature Rise A partial journal bearing ðb ¼ 180 Þ has a radial load F ¼ 10;000 N. The speed of the journal is N ¼ 6000 RPM, and the viscosity of the lubricant is 0.006 Ns=m2 . The geometry of the bearing is as follows: Journal diameter: D ¼ 40 mm Bearing length: L ¼ 10 mm Bearing clearance: C ¼ 30 103 mm a.

Find the following performance parameters:

Minimum ﬁlm thickness hn Friction coefﬁcient f Flow rate Q Axial side leakage Qs Rise in temperature DT if you ignore the heat conduction through the sleeve and journal b.

Given an inlet temperature of the oil into the bearing of 20 C, ﬁnd the maximum and average temperature of the oil.

Solution This example is calculated from Eq. (8-5) in SI units.

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

183

The bearing data is given by: b ¼ 180 L 1 ¼ D 4 F ¼ 25 106 Pa P¼ LD 6000 ¼ 100 rPS n¼ 60 The Sommerfeld number [using Eq. (8-1)] is: 2 2 102 0:006 100 S¼ ¼ 0:0106 25 106 30 106

a.

Performance Parameters

From the table for a b ¼ 180 bearing) and L=D ¼ 1=4, the following operating parameters can be obtained for S ¼ 0:0106, the calculated Sommerfeld number. Minimum Film Thickness: hn ¼ 0:03 C

hn ¼ 0:9 103 mm

If the minimum ﬁlm thickness obtained is less than the design value, the design has to modiﬁed. Coefﬁcient of Friction:

The coefﬁcient of friction is obtained from the

table: R f ¼ 0:877 C

f ¼ 0:0013

Flow rate: Q ¼ 3:29 nRCL

Q ¼ 1:974 106 m3 =s

Side Leakage: Qs ¼ 0:961 Q

Qs ¼ 1:897 106 m3 =s

Temperature Rise DT : The estimation of the temperature rise is based on Eq. (8-5) in SI units. The dimensionless operating parameters, from the appro-

184

Chapter 8

priate table of Raimondi and Boyd, are substituted: Q R f ¼ 0:877 P ¼ 25 106 Pa 1 0:5 s ¼ 0:5195 Q C 8:3P½R=Cðf Þ

8:3 25 0:877 DTm ¼ ¼ 106 C ¼ Q 3:29 0:5195 ½1 ð0:5ÞQs =Q

106 nRCL b.

Maximum and Average Oil Temperatures: Maximum temperature: Tmax ¼ Tin þ DT ¼ 20 þ 106 ¼ 123 C

Average temperature: DT 106 Tav ¼ Tin þ ¼ 20 þ ¼ 73 C 2 2 Since the bearing material is subjected to the maximum temperature of 123 C, the bearing material that is in contact with the lubricant should be resistant to this temperature. Bearing materials are selected to have a temperature limit well above the maximum temperature in the ﬂuid ﬁlm. For bearing design, the Sommerfeld number, S, is determined based on lubricant viscosity at the average temperature of 73 C.

8.5.2

Temperature Rise Based on the Tables of Raimondi and Boyd

The speciﬁc heat and density of the lubricant affect the rate of heat transfer and the resulting temperature rise of the ﬂuid ﬁlm. However, Eq. (8-5) does not consider the properties of the lubricant, and it is an approximation for the properties of mineral oils. For other ﬂuids, such as synthetic lubricants, the temperature rise can be determined more accurately from a table of Raimondi and Boyd. The advantage of the second method is that it can accommodate various ﬂuid properties. The charts and tables include a temperature-rise variable as a function of the Sommerfeld number. The temperature-rise variable is a dimensionless ratio that includes the two properties of the ﬂuid: the speciﬁc heat, c (Joule=kg- C), and the density, r (kg=m3 ). Table 8-5 lists these properties for engine oil as a function of temperature. The following two problems illustrate the calculation of the temperature rise, based on the charts or tables of Raimondi and Boyd. The two examples involve calculations in SI units and Imperial units.* We have to keep in mind that * The original charts of Raimondi and Boyd were prepared for use with Imperial units (the conversion of energy from BTU to lbf-inch units is included in the temperature-rise variable). In this text, the temperature-rise variable is applicable for any unit system.

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings T ABLE 8-5

Speciﬁc Heat and Density of Engine Oil

Temperature, T

F

32 68 104 140 176 212 248 284 320

185

C

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160

Density, r

Speciﬁc heat, c J=kg- C

BTU=lbm - F

kg=m3

lbm=ft3

1796 1880 1964 2047 2131 2219 2307 2395 2483

0.429 0.449 0.469 0.489 0.509 0.529 0.551 0.572 0.593

899.1 888.2 876.1 864.0 852.0 840.0 829.0 816.9 805.9

56.13 55.45 54.69 53.94 53.19 52.44 51.75 50.99 50.31

both solutions are adiabatic, in the sense that the surfaces of the journal and the bearing are assumed to be ideal insulation. In practice, it means that conduction of heat through the sleeve and journal is disregarded in comparison to the heat taken away by the ﬂuid. In this way, the solution is on the safe side, because it predicts a higher temperature than in the actual bearing.

Example Problem 8-2 Calculation of Transformation Rise in SI Units Solve for the temperature rise DT for the journal bearing in Example Problem 8-1. Use the temperature-rise variable according to the Raimondi and Boyd tables and solve in SI units. Use Table 8-5 for the oil properties. Assume that the properties can be taken as for engine oil at 80 C Solution The temperature rise is solved in SI units based on the tables of Raimondi and Boyd. The properties of engine oil at 80 C are: Speciﬁc heat (from Table 8-5): c ¼ 2131 [Joule=kg- C] Density of oil (from Table 8-5): r ¼ 852 [kg=m3 ] Bearing average pressure (see Example Problem 8-1): P ¼ 25 106 [N=m2 ] Temperature-rise variable (from Table 8-2 for b ¼ 180 ) is 6.46. The equation is cr DT ¼ 6:46 P

186

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The properties and P are given, and the preceding equation can be solved for the temperature rise: DT ¼ 6:46

P 25 106 ¼ 6:46 ¼ 88:9 C cr 2131 852

This temperature rise is considerably lower than that obtained by the equation of Shigley and Mitchell (1983) in Example Problem 8-1.

Example Problem 8-3 Calculation of Temperature Rise in Imperial Units Solve for the temperature rise DT of the journal bearing in Example Problem 8-1. Use the temperature-rise variable according to the Raimondi and Boyd tables and solve in Imperial units. Use Table 8-5 for the oil properties. Assume that the properties can be taken as for engine oil at 176 F (equal to 80 C in Example Problem 8-2). Solution The second method is to calculate DT from the tables of Raimondi and Boyd in Imperial units. The following values are used: Density of engine oil (at 176 F, from Table 8-1): r ¼ 53:19 [lbm=ft3 ] ¼ 53:19=123 ¼ 0:031 [lbm=in3 .] Speciﬁc heat of oil (from Table 8-5): c ¼ 0:509 [BTU=lbm-F ] Mechanical equivalent of heat: J ¼ 778 [lbf-ft=BTU] ¼ 778 12 [lbfinch=BTU] This factor converts the thermal unit BTU into the mechanical unit lbf-ft: c ¼ 0:509 ½BTU=lbm F 778 12 ½lbf -inch=BTU

¼ 4752 ½lbf -inch=lbm F

The bearing average pressure (from Example Problem 8-1): P ¼ 2:5 106 Pa ¼ ð25 106 Þ=6895 ¼ 3626 ½lbf =in2 :

The data in Imperial units results in a dimensionless temperature-rise variable where the temperature rise is in F. Based on the table of Raimondi and Boyd, the same equation is applied as in Example Problem 8-2: cr DT ¼ 6:46 P

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

187

Solving for the temperature rise: P 3626 ¼ 6:46 ¼ 159 F cr 4752 0:031 5 DT ¼ 147:7 F ð C= FÞ ¼ 88:3 C 9 ðclose to the previous solution in SI unitsÞ

DT ¼ 6:46

Note: The reference 32 F does not play a role here because we solve for the temperature difference, DT .

8.5.3

Journal Bearing Design

Assuming an initial value for viscosity, the rise in temperature, DT , is calculated and an average temperature of the ﬂuid ﬁlm is corrected. Accordingly, after using the calculated average temperature, the viscosity of the oil can be corrected. The new viscosity is determined from the viscosity–temperature chart (Fig. 2-3). The inlet oil temperature to the bearing can be at the ambient temperature or at a higher temperature in central circulating systems. If required, the selection of the lubricant may be modiﬁed to account for the new temperature. In the next step, the Sommerfeld number is modiﬁed for the corrected viscosity of the previous oil, but based on the new temperature. Let us recall that the Sommerfeld number is a function of the viscosity, according to Eq. (8-1). If another oil grade is selected, the viscosity of the new oil grade is used for the new Sommerfeld number. Based on the new Sommerfeld number S, the calculation of Q and the temperature rise estimation DT are repeated. These iterations are repeated until there is no signiﬁcant change in the average temperature between consecutive iterations. If the temperature rise is too high, the designer can modify the bearing geometry. After the average ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature is estimated, it is necessary to select the bearing material. Knowledge of the material properties allows one to test whether the allowable limits are exceeded. At this stage, it is necessary to calculate both the peak pressure and the peak temperature and to compare those values with the limits for the bearing material that is used. The values of the maximum pressure and temperature rise in the ﬂuid ﬁlm are easy to determine from the charts or tables of Raimondi and Boyd.

8.5.4

Accurate Solutions

For design purposes, the average temperature of the ﬂuid-ﬁlm can be estimated as described in the preceding section. Temperature estimation is suitable for most practical cases. However, in certain critical applications, more accurate analysis is

188

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required. The following is a general survey and references that the reader can use for advanced study of this complex heat transfer problem. In a ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing, a considerable amount of heat is generated by viscous friction, which is dissipated in the oil ﬁlm and raises its temperature. The ﬂuid ﬁlm has a non-uniform temperature distribution along the direction of motion (x direction) and across the ﬁlm (z direction). The peak ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature is near the point of minimum ﬁlm thickness. The rise in the oil temperature results in a reduction of the lubricant viscosity; in turn, there is a signiﬁcant reduction of the hydrodynamic pressure wave and load carrying capacity. Accurate solution of the temperature distribution in the ﬂuid ﬁlm includes heat conduction through the bearing material and heat convection by the oil. This solution requires a numerical analysis, and it is referred to as a full thermohydrodynamic (THD) analysis. This analysis is outside the scope of this text, and the reader is referred to available surveys, such as by Pinkus (1990) and by Khonsari (1987). The results are in the form of isotherms mapping the temperature distribution in the sleeve. An example is included in Chap. 18.

8.6

PEAK TEMPERATURE IN LARGE, HEAVILY LOADED BEARINGS

The maximum oil ﬁlm temperature of large, heavily loaded bearings is higher than the outlet temperature. Heavily loaded bearings have a high eccentricity ratio, and at high speed they are subjected to high shear rates and much heat dissipation near the minimum ﬁlm thickness. For example, in high-speed turbines having journals of the order of magnitude of 10 in. (250 mm) and higher, it has been recognized that the maximum temperature near the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , is considerably higher than Tin þ DT , which has been calculated in the previous section. In bearings made of white metal (babbitt), it is very important to limit the maximum temperature to prevent bearing failure. In a bearing with a white metal layer on its surface, creep of this layer can initiate at temperatures above 260 F. The risk of bearing failure due to local softening of the white metal is high for large bearings operating at high speeds and small minimum ﬁlm thickness. Plastic bearings can also fail due to local softening of the plastic at elevated temperatures. The peak temperature along the bearing surface is near the minimum ﬁlm thickness, where there is the highest shear rate and maximum heat dissipation by viscous shear. This is exacerbated by the combination of local high oil ﬁlm pressure and high temperature at the same point, which initiates an undesirable creep process of the white metal. Therefore, it is important to include in the bearing design an estimation of the peak temperature near the minimum ﬁlm thickness (in addition to the temperature rise, DT ).

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

189

The yield point of white metals reduces signiﬁcantly with temperature. The designer must ensure that the maximum pressure does not exceed its limit. If the temperature is too high, the designer can use bearing material with a higher melting point. Another alternative is to improve the cooling by providing faster oil circulation by means of several oil grooves. An example is the three-lobe bearing that will be described in Chapter 9. Adiabatic solutions were developed by Booser et al. (1970) for calculating the maximum temperature, based on the assumption that the heat conduction through the bearing can be neglected in comparison to the heat removed by the ﬂow of the lubricant. This assumption is justiﬁed in a ﬁnite-length journal bearing, where the axial ﬂow rate has the most signiﬁcant role in heat removal. The derivation of the maximum temperature considers the following viscosity–temperature relation: m ¼ kT n

ð8-7Þ

where the constants k and n are obtained from the viscosity–temperature charts. The viscosity is in units of lb-s=in2 . and the temperature is in deg. F. The maximum temperatures obtained according to Eq. (8-8) were experimentally veriﬁed, and the computation results are in good agreement with the measured temperatures. The equation for the maximum temperature, Tmax , is (Booser et al., 1970): nþ1 Tmax

T1nþ1

2 4pkðn þ 1ÞN R ¼ DGj 60rcp C

ð8-8Þ

Here, r is the lubricant density and cp is its speciﬁc heat at constant pressure. The temperatures Tm and T1 are the maximum and inlet temperatures, respectively. The temperatures, in deg. F, have an exponent of ðn þ 1Þ from the viscosity– temperature equation (8-7). The journal speed N is in revolutions per minute. The coefﬁcient DGj is a temperature-rise multiplier. It can be obtained from Fig. 8-11. It shows the rapid increase of DGj at high eccentricity ratios ðe ¼ 0:8–0.9), indicating that the maximum temperature is highly dependent on the ﬁlm thickness, particularly under high loads. For turbulent ﬂuid ﬁlms, the equation is Tmax T1 ¼

f p2 N 2 D3 ðp y1 Þ 2gcp ð1 e2 Þ

ð8-9Þ

where f is the friction coefﬁcient, D is the journal diameter, and g is gravitational acceleration, 386 in.=s2 . The angle y1 is the oil inlet angle (in radians). The

190

Chapter 8

F IG. 8-11 Journal bearing temperature-rise multiplier for Eq. (8-8). (From Booser et al., 1970, with permission of STLE.)

friction coefﬁcient is determined by experiment or taken from the literature for a similar bearing.

8.7

DESIGN BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL CURVES

In the preceding discussion, it was shown that the complete design of hydrodynamic journal bearings relies on important decisions: determination of the value of the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , and the upper limit of bearing operating temperature. The minimum value of hn is determined by the surface ﬁnish of the bearing and the journal as well as other operating conditions that have been discussed in this chapter. However, the surface ﬁnish may vary after running the machine, particularly for the soft white metal that is widely used as bearing material. In addition to the charts of Raimondi and Boyd, which are based on hydrodynamic analysis, bearing design engineers need design tools that are based

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

191

on previous experience and experiments. In particular for bearing design for critical applications, there is a merit in also relying on experimental curves for determining the limits of safe hydrodynamic performance. In certain machines, there are design constraints that make it necessary to have highly loaded bearings operating with very low minimum ﬁlm thickness. Design based on hydrodynamic theory is not very accurate for highly loaded bearings at very thin hn . The reason is that in such cases, it is difﬁcult to predict the temperature rise, DT , and the hn that secure hydrodynamic performance. In such cases, the limits of hydrodynamic bearing operation can be established only by experiments or experience with similar bearings. There are many examples of machines that are working successfully with hydrodynamic bearings having much lower ﬁlm thickness than usually recommended. For journal bearings operating in the full hydrodynamic region, the friction coefﬁcient, f, is an increasing function of the Sommerfeld number. Analytical curves of ðR=CÞf versus the Sommerfeld number are presented in the charts of Raimondi and Boyd; see Fig. 8-3. These curves are for partial and full journal bearings, for various bearing arcs, b. Of course, the designer would like to operate the bearing at minimum friction coefﬁcient. However, these charts are only for the hydrodynamic region and do not include the boundary and mixed lubrication regions. These curves do not show the lowest limit of the Sommerfeld number for maintaining a full hydrodynamic ﬁlm. A complete curve of ðR=CÞf versus the Sommerfeld number over the complete range of boundary, mixed, and hydrodynamic regions can be obtained by testing the bearing friction against variable speed or variable load. These experimental curves are very helpful for bearing design. Description of several friction testing systems is included in Chapter 14.

8.7.1

Friction Curves

The friction curve in the boundary and mixed lubrication regions depends on the material as well as on the surface ﬁnish. For a bearing with constant C=R ratio, the curves of ðR=CÞf versus the Sommerfeld number, S, can be reduced to dimensionless, experimental curves of the friction coefﬁcient, f, versus the dimensionless ratio, mn=P. These experimental curves are very useful for design purposes. In the early literature, the notation for viscosity is z, and the variable zN =P has been widely used. In this text, the ratio mn=P is preferred, because it is dimensionless and any unit system can be used as long as the units are consistent. In addition, this ratio is consistent with the deﬁnition of the Sommerfeld number. The variable zN =P is still widely used, because it is included in many experimental curves that are provided by manufacturers of bearing materials. Curves of f versus zN =P are often used to describe the performance of a speciﬁc

192

Chapter 8

bearing of constant geometry and material combination. This ratio is referred to as the Hersey* number. The variable zN =P is not completely dimensionless, because it is used as a combination of Imperial units with metric units for the viscosity. The average pressure is in Imperial units [psi], the journal speed, N, is in revolutions per minute [RPM], and the viscosity, z, is in centipoise. In order to have dimensionless variables, the journal speed, n, must always be in revolutions per second (RPS), irrespective of the system of units used, and the viscosity, m, must always include seconds as the unit of time. The variable zN =P is proportional and can be converted to the dimensionless variable mn=P.

Transition from Mixed to Hydrodynamic Lubrication A typical experimental curve of the friction coefﬁcient, f, versus the dimensionless variable, mn=P, is shown in Fig. 8-12. The curve shows the region of hydrodynamic lubrication, at high values of mn=P, and the region of mixed

F IG. 8-12

Friction coefﬁcient, f, versus variable mn=P in a journal bearing,

* After Mayo D. Hersey, for his contribution to the lubrication ﬁeld.

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

193

lubrication, at lower values of mn=P. The transition point ðmn=PÞtr from mixed to hydrodynamic lubrication is at the point of minimum friction coefﬁcient. Hydrodynamic theory indicates that minimum ﬁlm thickness increases with the variable mn=P. Full hydrodynamic lubrication is where mn=P is above a certain transition value ðmn=PÞtr . At the transition point, the minimum ﬁlm thickness is equal to the size of surface asperities. However, in the region of full hydrodynamic lubrication, the minimum ﬁlm thickness is higher than the size of surface asperities, and there is no direct contact between the sliding surfaces. Therefore, there is only viscous friction, which is much lower in comparison to direct contact friction. In the hydrodynamic region, viscous friction increases with mn=P, because the shear rates and shear stresses in the ﬂuid ﬁlm are increasing with the product of viscosity and speed. Below the critical value ðmn=PÞtr , there is mixed lubrication where the thickness of the lubrication ﬁlm is less than the size of the surface asperities. Under load, there is direct contact between the surfaces, resulting in elastic as well as plastic deformation of the asperities. In the mixed region, the external load is carried partly by the pressure of the hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm and partly by the mechanical elastic reaction of the deformed asperities. The ﬁlm thickness increases with mn=P; therefore, as the velocity increases, a larger portion of the load is carried by the ﬂuid ﬁlm. In turn, the friction decreases with mn=P in the mixed region, because the ﬂuid viscous friction is lower than the mechanical friction due to direct contact between the asperities. The transition value, ðmN =PÞtr , is at the minimum friction, where there is a transition in the trend of the friction slope. Design engineers are often tempted to design the bearing at the transition point ðmn=PÞtr in order to minimize friction-energy losses as well as to minimize the temperature rise in the bearing. However, a close examination of bearing operation indicates that it is undesirable to design at this point. The purpose of the following discussion is to explain that this point does not have the desired operation stability. The term stability is used here in the sense that the hydrodynamic operation would recover and return to normal operation after any disturbance, such as overload for a short period or unexpected large vibration of the machine. In contrast, unstable operation is where any such disturbance would result in deterioration in bearing operation that may eventually result in bearing failure. Although it is important to minimize friction-energy losses, if the bearing operates at the point ðmN =PÞtr , where the friction is minimal, any disturbance would result in a short period of higher friction. This would cause a chain of events that may result in overheating and even bearing failure. The higher friction would result in a sudden temperature rise of the lubricant ﬁlm, even if the disturbance discontinues. Temperature rise would immediately reduce the ﬂuid viscosity, and the magnitude of the variable mn=P would decrease with the

194

Chapter 8

viscosity. In turn, the bearing would operate in the mixed region, resulting in higher friction. The higher friction causes further temperature rise and further reduction in the value of mn=P. This can lead to an unstable chain reaction that may result in bearing failure, particularly for high-speed hydrodynamic bearings. In contrast, if the bearing is designed to operate on the right side of the transition point, mn=P > ðmN =PÞtr , any unexpected temperature rise would also reduce the ﬂuid viscosity and the value of the variable mn=P. However in that case, it would shift the point in the curve to a lower friction coefﬁcient. The lower friction would help to restore the operation by lowering the ﬂuid ﬁlm temperature. The result is that a bearing designed to operate at somewhat higher value of mn=P has the important advantage of stable operation. The decision concerning hn relies in many cases on previous experience with bearings operating under similar conditions. In fact, very few machines are designed without any previous experience as a ﬁrst prototype, and most designs represent an improvement on previous models. In order to gain from previous experience, engineers should follow several important dimensionless design parameters of the bearings in each machine. As a minimum, engineers should keep a record of the value of mn=P and the resulting analytical minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , for each bearing. Experience concerning the relationship of these variables to successful bearing operation, or early failure, is essential for future designs of similar bearings or improvement of bearings in existing machinery. However, for important applications, where early bearing failure is critical, bearing tests should be conducted before testing the machine in service. This is essential in order to prevent unexpected expensive failures. Testing machines will be discussed in Chapter 14.

Problems 8-1

Select the lubricant for a full hydrodynamic journal bearing ðb ¼ 360 Þ under a radial load of 1 ton. The design requirement is that the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , during steady operation, not be less than 16 103 mm. The inlet oil temperature is 40 C, and the journal speed is 3600 RPM. Select the oil type that would result in the required performance. The bearing dimensions are: D ¼ 100 mm; L ¼ 50 mm, C ¼ 80 103 mm. Directions: First, determine the required Sommerfeld number, based on the minimum ﬁlm thickness, and ﬁnd the required viscosity. Second evaluate the temperature rise Dt and the average temperature, and select the oil type (use Fig. 2-2). 8-2 Use the Raimondi and Boyd charts to ﬁnd the maximum load capacity of a full hydrodynamic journal bearing ðb ¼ 360 Þ. The

Design Charts for Finite-Length Journal Bearings

195

lubrication is SAE 10. The bearing dimensions are: D ¼ 50 mm, L ¼ 50 mm, C ¼ 50 103 mm. The minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , during steady operation, should not be below 10 103 mm. The inlet oil temperature is 30 C and the journal speed is 6000 RPM. Directions: Trial-and-error calculations are required for solving the temperature rise. Assume a temperature rise and average temperature. Find the viscosity for SAE 10 as a function of temperature, and use the chart to ﬁnd the Sommerfeld number and the resulting load capacity. Use the new average pressure to recalculate the temperature rise. Repeat iterations until the temperature rise is equal to that in the previous iteration. 8-3 The dimensions of a partial hydrodynamic journal bearing, b ¼ 180 , are: D ¼ 60 mm, L ¼ 60 mm, C ¼ 30 103 mm. During steady operation, the minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , should not go below 10 103 mm. The maximum inlet oil temperature (in the summer) is 40 C, and the journal speed is 7200 RPM. Given a lubricant of SAE 10, use the chart to ﬁnd the maximum load capacity and the maximum ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure, pmax . 8-4 A short journal bearing is loaded by 500 N. The journal diameter is 25 mm, the L=D ratio is 0.6, and C=R ¼ 0:002. The bearing has a speed of 600 RPM. An experimental curve of friction coefﬁcient, f, versus variable mn=P of this bearing is shown in Fig. 8-12. The minimum friction is at mn=P ¼ 3 108 . a.

Find the lubrication viscosity for which the bearing would operate at a minimum friction coefﬁcient. b. Use inﬁnitely-short-bearing theory and ﬁnd the minimum ﬁlm thickness at the minimum-friction point. c. Use the charts of Raimondi and Boyd to ﬁnd the minimum ﬁlm thickness at the minimum-friction point. d. For stable bearing operation, increase the variable mn=P by 20% and ﬁnd the minimum ﬁlm thickness and new friction coefﬁcient. Use the short bearing equations.

9 Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

9.1

INTRODUCTION

A hydrodynamic journal bearing operates effectively when it has a full ﬂuid ﬁlm without any contact between the asperities of the journal and bearing surfaces. However, under certain operating conditions, this bearing has limitations, and unique designs are used to extend its application beyond these limits. The ﬁrst limitation of hydrodynamic bearings is that a certain minimum speed is required to generate a full ﬂuid ﬁlm of sufﬁcient thickness for complete separation of the sliding surfaces. When the bearing operates below that speed, there is only mixed or boundary lubrication, with direct contact between the asperities. Even if the bearing is well designed and successfully operating at the high-rated speed, it can be subjected to excessive friction and wear at low speed, during starting and stopping of the machine. In particular, hydrodynamic bearings undergo severe wear during start-up, when the journal accelerates from zero speed, because static friction is higher than dynamic friction. In addition, there is a limitation on the application of hydrodynamic bearings in machinery operating at variable speed, because the bearing has high wear rate when the machine operates in the low-speed range. The second important limitation of hydrodynamic journal bearings is the low stiffness to radial displacement of the journal, particularly under light loads and high speed, when the eccentricity ratio, e, is low. Low stiffness rules out the 196

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

197

application of hydrodynamic bearings for precision applications, such as machine tools and measurement machines. In addition, under dynamic loads, the low stiffness of the hydrodynamic bearings can result in dynamic instability, referred to as bearing whirl. It is important to prevent bearing whirl, which often causes bearing failure. It is possible to demonstrate bearing whirl in a variable-speed testing machine for journal bearings. When the speed is increased, it reaches the critical whirl speed, where noise and severe vibrations are generated. In a rotating system of a rotor supported by two hydrodynamic journal bearings, the stiffness of the shaft combines with that of the hydrodynamic journal bearings (similar to the stiffness of two springs in series). This stiffness and the distributed mass of the rotor determine the natural frequencies, also referred to as the critical speeds of the rotor system. Whenever the force on the bearing oscillates at a frequency close to one of the critical speeds, bearing instability results (similar to resonance in dynamic systems), which often causes bearing failure. An example of an oscillating force is the centrifugal force due to imbalance in the rotor and shaft unit.

9.2

HYDRODYNAMIC BEARING WHIRL

In addition to resonance near the critical speeds of the rotor system, there is a failure of the oil ﬁlm in hydrodynamic journal bearings under certain dynamic conditions. The stiffness of long hydrodynamic bearings is not similar to that of a spring support. The bearing reaction force increases with the radial displacement, o–o1 , of the journal center (or eccentricity, e). However, the reaction force is not in the same direction as the displacement. There is a component of cross-stiffness, namely, a reaction-force component in a direction perpendicular to that of the displacement. In fact, the bearing force based on the Sommerfeld solution is only in the normal direction to the radial displacement of the journal center. The cross-stiffness of hydrodynamic bearings causes the effect of the halffrequency whirl; namely, the journal bearing loses its load capacity when the external load oscillates at a frequency equal to about half of the journal rotation speed. It is possible to demonstrate this effect by computer simulation of the trajectory of the journal center of a long bearing under external oscillating force. If the frequency of the dynamic force is half of that of the journal speed, the eccentricity increases very fast, until there is contact of the bearing and journal surfaces. In practice, hydrodynamic bearing whirl is induced at relatively high speed under light, steady loads superimposed on oscillating loads. In actual machinery, oscillating loads at various frequencies are always present, due to imbalance in the various rotating parts of the machine. Several designs have been used to eliminate the undesired half-frequency whirl. Since the bearing whirl takes place under light loads, it is possible to prevent it by introducing internal preload in the bearing. This is done by using a

198

Chapter 9

F IG. 9-1

Bearing with axial oil grooves.

bearing made of several segments; each segment is a partial hydrodynamic bearing. In this way, each segment has hydrodynamic force, in the direction of the bearing center, that is larger than the external load. The partial bearings can be rigid or made of tilting pads. Elliptical bearings are used that consist of only two opposing partial pads. However, for most applications, at least three partial pads are desirable. An additional advantage is improved oil circulation, which reduces the bearing operating temperature. Some resistance to oil whirl is obtained by introducing several oil grooves, in the axial direction of the internal cylindrical bore of the bearing, as shown in Fig. 9-1. The oil grooves are along the bearing length, but they are not completely open at the two ends, as indicated in the drawing. It is important that the oil grooves not be placed at the region of minimum ﬁlm thickness, where it would disturb the pressure wave. Better resistance to oil whirl is achieved by designs that are described in the following sections.

9.3

ELLIPTICAL BEARINGS

The geometry of the basic elliptical bearing is shown in Fig. 9-2a. The bore is made of two arcs of larger radius than for a circular bearing. It forms two pads with opposing forces. In order to simplify the manufacturing process, the bearing bore is machined after two shims are placed at a split between two halves of a round sleeve. After round machining, the two shims are removed. In fact, the shape is not precisely elliptical, but the bearing has larger clearances on the two horizontal sides and smaller clearance in the upper and bottom sides. In this way, the bearing operates as a two-pad bearing, with action and reaction forces in opposite directions. The additional design shown in Fig. 9-2b is made by shifting the upper half of the bearing, relative to the lower half, in the horizontal direction. In this way,

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

F IG. 9-2

199

Elliptical bearing: (a) basic bearing design; (b) shifted bearing.

each half has a converging ﬂuid ﬁlm of hydrodynamic action and reaction forces in opposite directions. Elliptical and shifted bearings offer improved resistance to oil whirl at a reasonable cost. They are widely used in high-speed turbines and generators and other applications where the external force is in the vertical direction. The circulation of oil is higher in comparison to a full circular bearing with equivalent minimum clearance.

9.4

THREE-LOBE BEARINGS

Various designs have been developed to prevent the undesired effect of bearing whirl. An example of a successful design is the three-lobe journal bearing shown in Fig. 9-3. It has three curved segments that are referred to as lobes. During operation, the geometry of the three lobes introduces preload inside the bearing. This design improves the stability because it increases the bearing stiffness and reduces the magnitude of the cross-stiffness components. The preferred design

200

Chapter 9

F IG. 9-3

Three-lobe bearing.

for optimum stability is achieved if the center of curvature of each lobe lies on the journal center trajectory. This trajectory is the small circle generated by the journal center when the journal is rolling in contact with the bearing surface around the bearing. According to this design, the journal center is below the center of each of the three lobes, and the load capacity of each lobe is directed to the bearing center. The calculation of the load capacity of each lobe is based on a simplifying assumption that the journal is running centrally in the bearing. This assumption is justiﬁed because this type of bearing is commonly used at low loads and high speeds, where the shaft eccentricity is very small. An additional advantage of the three-lobe bearing is that it has oil grooves between the lobes. The oil circulation is obviously better than for a regular journal bearing (360 ). This bearing can carry higher loads when the journal center is over an oil groove rather than over the center of a lobe.

9.5

PIVOTED-PAD JOURNAL BEARING

Figure 9-4 shows a pivoted-pad bearing, also referred to as tilt-pad bearing, where a number of tilting pads are placed around the circumference of the journal. The best design is a universal self-aligning pad; namely, each pad is free to align in both the tangential and axial directions. These two degrees of freedom

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

F IG. 9-4

201

Pivoted-pad journal bearing.

allow a full adjustment for any misalignment between the journal and bearing. This design has clear advantages in comparison to a rigid bearing, and it is used in critical applications where continuous operation of the machine, without failure, is essential. This is particularly important in large bearings that have large tolerances due to manufacturing errors, such as a propeller shaft of a ship. In many cases, a pivoted-pad journal bearing is used for this application. During a storm, the ship experiences a large elastic deformation, resulting in considerable misalignment between the bearings that are attached to the body of the ship and the propeller shaft. Self-aligning of pivoted-pad journal bearings can prevent excessive wear due to such misalignment. Self-aligning pivoted-pad journal bearings are widely used in high-speed machines that have a relatively low radial load, resulting in low eccentricity. For example, the pivoted-pad journal bearing is used in high-speed centrifugal compressors. This design offers stability of operation and resistance to oil whirl by increasing the bearing stiffness. The pivoted-pad journal bearing has the advantages of high radial stiffness of the bearing and low cross-stiffness. These advantages are important in applications where it is necessary to resist bearing whirl or where high precision is required. Better precision results from higher stiffness that results in lower radial run-out (eccentricity) of the journal center. The reaction force of each pad is in the radial direction. The forces of all the pads preload the journal at the bearing center and tend to increase the stiffness and minimize the eccentricity.

202

9.6

Chapter 9

BEARINGS MADE OF COMPLIANT MATERIALS

Pivoted pad bearings are relatively expensive. For many applications, where only a small alignment is required, low cost bearings that are made of elastic materials such as an elastomer (rubber) can align the contact surface to the journal. Of course, the alignment is much less in comparison to that of the tilting pad. Rubber-to-metal bonding techniques have been developed with reference to compliant surface bearings; see a report by Rightmire (1967). Water-lubricated rubber bearings can be used in boats, see Orndorff and Tiedman (1977). Bearings made of plastic materials are also compliant, although to a lesser degree than elastomer materials. Plastics have higher elasticity than metals, since their modulus of elasticity, E, is much lower. In rolling-element bearings or gears there is a theoretical point or line contact resulting in very high maximum contact pressure. When the gears or rolling elements are made of soft compliant materials, such as plastics, the maximum pressure is reduced because there is a larger contact area due to more elastic deformation. Even steel has a certain elastic deformation (compliance) that plays an important role in the performance of elastohydrodynamic lubrication in gears and rollers. Similar effects take place in journal bearings. The journal has a smaller diameter than the bearing bore, and for a rigid surface under load there is a theoretical line contact resulting in a peak contact pressure that is much higher than the average pressure. Engineers realized that in a similar way to gears and rollers, it is possible to reduce the high peak pressure in rigid bearings by using compliant bearing materials. Although the initial application of hydrodynamic bearings involved only rigid materials, the later introduction of a wide range of plastic materials has motivated engineers to test them as alternative materials that would result in a more uniform pressure distribution. In fact, plastic materials demonstrated successful performance in light-duty applications under low load and speed (relatively low PV). The explanations for the improved performance are the self-lubricating properties and compliant surfaces of plastic materials. In fact, biological joints, such as the human hip joint, have soft compliant surfaces that are lubricated by synovial ﬂuid. The superior performance of the biological bearings suggested that bearings in machinery could be designed with compliant surfaces with considerable advantages. Plastic materials have a low dry-friction coefﬁcient against steel. In addition, experiments indicated that bearings made of rubber or plastic materials have a low friction coefﬁcient at the boundary or mixed lubrication region. This is explained by the surface compliance near the minimum ﬁlm thickness, where the high pressure forms a depression in the elastic material. In the presence of lubricant, the depression is a puddle of lubricant under pressure.

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

203

Another important advantage of compliant materials is that they have a certain degree of elastic self-aligning. The elastic deformation compensates for misaligning or other manufacturing errors of the bearing or sleeve. In contrast, metal bearings are very sensitive to any deviation from a perfect roundness of the bearing and journal. For hydrodynamic metal bearings, high precision as well as perfect surface ﬁnish is essential for successful performance with minimum contact between the surface asperities. In comparison, plastic bearings can be manufactured with lower precision due to their compliance characteristic. The advantage of surface compliance is that it relaxes the requirement for high precision, which involves high cost. Moreover, compliant surfaces usually have better wear resistance. Elastic deformation prevents removal of material due to rubbing of rough and hard surfaces. Compliant materials allow the rough asperities to pass through without tearing. In addition, it has better wear resistance in the presence of abrasive particles in the lubricant, such as dust, sand, and metal wear derbies. Rubber sleeves are often used with slurry lubricant in pumps. Embedding of the abrasive particles in the sleeve is possible by means of elastic deformation. Later, elastic deformation allows the abrasive particles to roll out and leave the bearing. For all these advantages, bearings made of plastic material are widely used. However, their application is limited to light loads and moderate speeds. For heavy-duty applications, metal bearings are mostly used, because they have better heat conduction. Plastic bearings would fail very fast at elevated temperatures.

9.7

FOIL BEARINGS

The foil bearing has the ultimate bending compliance, and its principle is shown in Fig. 9-5. The foil is thin and lacks any resistance to bending. The ﬂexible foil stretches around the journal. In the presence of lubricant, a thin ﬂuid ﬁlm is formed, which separates the foil from the journal. At high speeds, air can perform as a lubricant, and a thin air ﬁlm prevents direct contact between the rotating shaft and the foil. An air ﬁlm foil bearing has considerable advantages at high speeds. Air ﬁlm can operate at much higher temperatures in comparison to oils, and, of course, air lubrication is much simpler and less expensive than oil lubrication. Lubricant ﬂow within the foil bearing has a converging region, which generates bearing pressure, and a parallel region, of constant clearance, h0 , supports the load. Foil bearings have important applications wherever there is a requirement for surface compliance at elevated temperature. Mineral oils or synthetic oils deteriorate very fast at high temperature; therefore, several designs have already been developed for foil bearings that operate as air bearings.

204

Chapter 9

F IG. 9-5

9.8

Foil bearing.

ANALYSIS OF A FOIL BEARING

The following analysis is presented to illustrate the concept of the hydrodynamic foil bearing. The foil is stretched around a journal of radius R rotating at constant speed, and resulting in a tangential velocity U at the journal surface. A vertical external load F is applied to the journal that is equal to the load capacity W of the ﬂuid ﬁlm. The following assumptions are made for solving the load capacity W of the foil bearing. 1.

The foil sleeve is parallel to the journal surface (constant clearance) along the lower half of the journal, due to its high ﬂexibility. In turn, there is no localized pressure concentration.

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

2. 3.

205

The contributions to load-carrying capacity of the converging and diverging ends are neglected. The simpliﬁed equation for an inﬁnitely long bearing can be applied.

This problem is similar to that of the sled of Example problem 4-4. In the sled problem, there is also a converging clearance between a ﬂat plate and a cylinder. Let us recall that the ﬁlm thickness in the converging region between a ﬂat plate and a cylinder is given by the following equation [see equation (4-24)]: hðyÞ ¼ h0 þ Rð1 cos yÞ

ð9-1Þ

Here, y is measured from the line x ¼ 0. The expression for the ﬁlm thickness h is approximated by (see Sec. 4.10.1) hðxÞ ¼ h0 þ

x2 2R

ð9-2Þ

This approximation is valid within the relevant range of the converging region. The boundary conditions of lubricant pressure is p ¼ 0 at x ¼ 1. The Reynolds equation for an inﬁnitely long bearing is dp h h ¼ 6mU 0 3 dx h

ð9-3Þ

In the parallel region, h ¼ h0 . So it follows from Eq. (9-3) that dp=dx ¼ 0 (parallel region). This means that the pressure is constant within the parallel region. The pressure acting over the entire lower parallel region is constant and solely responsible for carrying the journal load. The force dW on an elementary area dA ¼ LR dy is dW ¼ p0 LR dy

ð9-4Þ

This force is in the direction normal to the journal surface. The vertical component of this elementary force is dW ¼ LRp0 sin y dy

ð9-5Þ

Integration of the vertical elementary force component over the parallel region would result in the load capacity W, according to the equation ð 3p=2 W ¼ LR

p0 sin y dy p=2

ð9-6Þ

206

Chapter 9

Here, L is the bearing length (in the axial direction, z) and p0 is the constant pressure in the parallel region. Upon integration, this equation reduces to ð9-7Þ

W ¼ 2LRp0

Similar to the case of the sled, the ﬂuid ﬂow in the converging region generates the pressure, which is ultimately responsible for supporting the journal load. The viscous ﬂuid is dragged into the foil–journal convergence, due to the journal rotation, generating the pressure supplied to the parallel region. In a similar way to the parallel sled problem in Chapter 4, by substituting the value of h into Eq. (9-3) and integrating, the equation of pressure distribution becomes ðx x2 2 pðxÞ ¼ 24mUR dx ð9-8Þ 2 3 1 ð2Rh0 þ x Þ The following example is a numerical solution of the pressure wave at the inlet to the foil bearing. This solution is in dimensionless form. The advantage of a dimensionless solution is that it is universal, in the sense that it can be applied to any design parameters.

Example Problem 9-1 Find the expression of the ﬁlm thickness, h0 , as a function of the load capacity, W. Solution For conversion of Eq. (9-8) to a dimensionless form, the following dimensionless terms are introduced: x x ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Rh0

h h ¼ h0

h ¼ 1 þ x 2

Similar to the sled problem in Chapter 4, the expression for the dimensionless pressure becomes ð ðx x 2 h20 1 p dp ¼ d x p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2 Þ3 2Rh0 6mU 0 1 ð1 þ x Here, the dimensionless pressure is deﬁned as h20 1 p p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Rh0 6mU The dimensionless pressure can be integrated analytically or numerically. The pressure becomes signiﬁcant only near x ¼ 0. Therefore, for numerical integra-

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

207

tion, the inﬁnity is replaced by a ﬁnite number, such as 4. Numerical integration results in a dimensionless pressure distribution, as shown in Fig. 4-9. A comparison of numerical and analytical solutions, in Chapter 4, resulted in the following same solution for the constant pressure in the parallel clearance: ð p0 ð0 x 2 p ¼ dp ¼ d x ; p 0 ¼ 0:196 2 Þ3 0 1 ð1 þ x Minimum Film Clearance: Neglecting the pressure in the entrance and outlet regions, the equation for the load capacity as a function of the uniform pressure, p0 , in the clearance, h0 , is given in Eq. (9-7) W ¼ p0 DL Using the value of dimensionless pressure, p 0 ¼ 0:196, and converting to pressure p0 , the following equation is obtained for the clearance, h0 , as a function of the pressure, p0 : 2=3 h0 mn ¼ 4:78 p0 R Here, n is the journal speed, in RPS, and the pressure, p0 , is determined by the load: p0 ¼

9.9

W LD

FOIL BEARINGS IN HIGH-SPEED TURBINES

It has been realized that a compliant air bearing can offer considerable advantages in high-speed gas turbines that operate at very high temperatures. Unlike compliant bearings made of polymers or elastomer materials, foil air bearings made of ﬂexible metal foils can operate at relatively high temperature because metals that resist high temperature can be selected. In addition, the viscosity of air increases with temperature and it does not deteriorate at elevated temperature like oils. In addition, a foil bearing does not require precision manufacturing with close tolerances, as does a conventional rigid journal bearing. Hydrodynamic bearings have a risk of catastrophic failure by seizure, because, in the case of overheating due to direct contact, the journal has larger thermal expansion than the sleeve. This problem is eliminated in compliant foil because the clearance can adjust itself. An additional advantage is that the foil bearing has very good resistance to whirl instability. The foil air bearing concept has already been applied in high-speed gas turbines, with a few variations. Two types of compliant air bearings made of

208

F IG. 9-6

Chapter 9

Compliant journal bearing A. (From Suriano et al., 1983.)

ﬂexible metal have been extensively investigated and tested. One problem is the high friction and wear during the start-up or occasional contact. The thin ﬂexible metal strips and journal undergo severe wear during the start-up. Several coatings, such as titanium nitride, have been tested in an attempt to reduce the wear. Experimental investigation of the dynamic characteristics of a turborotor simulator of gas-lubricated foil bearings is described by Licht (1972). The two designs are shown in Figs. 9-6 and 9-7. The ﬁrst design [see Suriano et al. (1983)] is shown in Fig. 9-6, and a second design [see Heshmat et

F IG. 9-7

Compliant journal bearing B. (From Heshmat et al., 1982.)

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

209

al. (1982)] is shown in Fig. 9-7. The tests indicated that foil bearings have adequate load capacity for gas turbines. In addition, foil bearings demonstrated very good whirl stability at very high speeds. Foil bearings have already been tested successfully in various applications. Additional information about research and development of foil bearings for turbomachines is included in a report by the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory (1977). Extensive research and development are still conducted in order to improve the performance of the compliant air bearing for potential use in critical applications such as aircraft turbines.

9.10

DESIGN EXAMPLE OF A COMPLIANT BEARING

In Sec. 9.5, the advantages of the pivoted-pad bearing were discussed. In addition to self-aligning, it offers high stiffness, which is essential for high-speed operation. However, in many cases, compliance can replace the tilting action. A compliant-pad bearing has been suggested by the KMC Company [see Earles et al. (1989)]. A compliant-pad journal bearing is shown in Fig. 9-8. The most important advantage is that it is made of one piece, in comparison to the pivoted pad, which consists of many parts (Fig. 9-9). In turn, the compliant pad is easier

F IG. 9-8

Compliant-pad journal bearing. (With permission from KMC Co.)

210

Chapter 9

F IG. 9-9 Comparison of a compliant and a pivoted pad. (With permission from KMC Co.)

to manufacture and assemble. The bearing is made from one solid bronze cylinder by an electrical discharge machining process. In addition, tests indicated that the ﬂexural compliance of the pads improves the bearing characteristics at high speed, such as in centrifugal compressors.

Problems 9-1

A foil bearing operates as shown in Fig. 9-5. Find the uniform ﬁlm thickness, h0 , around the journal of a foil bearing. The bearing has the following design parameters: R ¼ 50 mm L ¼ 100 mm

m ¼ 0:015 N-s=m2 W ¼ 10;000 N

N ¼ 5000 RPM 9-2

Find the uniform ﬁlm thickness around the journal of a foil bearing, as shown in Fig. 9-5, that is ﬂoating on a hydrodynamic air ﬁlm. The

Practical Applications of Journal Bearings

211

temperature of the air is 20 C. The bearing has the following design parameters: D ¼ 120 mm L ¼ 60 mm a.

mair ¼ 184 107 N-s=m2 N ¼ 25;000 RPM

Find the load capacity, W, for a ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness around the bearing of 50 mm. b. Use the inﬁnitely-short-bearing equation and compare the load capacity with that of a short bearing having the given design parameters, air viscosity, and minimum ﬁlm thickness. The radial clearance is C=R ¼ 0:001 ðR ¼ 60 mmÞ.

10 Hydrostatic Bearings

10.1

INTRODUCTION

The design concept for hydrostatic bearings is the generation of a high-pressure ﬂuid ﬁlm by using an external pump. The hydrostatic system of a journal bearing is shown in Fig. 1-4. The ﬂuid is fed from a pump into several recesses around the bore of the bearing. From the recesses, the ﬂuid ﬂows out through a thin clearance, h0 , between the journal and bearing surfaces, at the lands outside the recesses. Previous literature on hydrostatic bearings includes Opitz (1967), Rowe (1989), Bassani and Picicigallo (1992), and Decker and Shapiro (1968). The ﬂuid ﬁlm in the clearance separates the two surfaces of the journal and the bearing and thus reduces signiﬁcantly the friction and wear. At the same time, the thin clearance at the land forms a resistance to the outlet ﬂow from each recess. This ﬂow resistance is essential for maintaining high pressure in the recess. The hydrodynamic load capacity that carries the external load is the resultant force of the pressure around the bearing. There is also a ﬂuid ﬁlm in a hydrodynamic bearing. However, unlike the hydrodynamic bearing, where the pressure wave is generated by the hydrodynamic action of the rotation of the journal, hydrostatic bearing pressure is generated by an external pump. There are certain designs of hydrodynamic bearings where the oil is also supplied under pressure from an external oil pump. However, the difference is that in hydrostatic bearings the design entails recesses, and the operation does not depend on the rotation of the journal for generating the pressure wave that 212

Hydrostatic Bearings

213

supports the load. For example, the hydrodynamic journal bearing does not generate hydrodynamic pressure and load capacity when the journal and sleeve are stationary. In contrast, the hydrostatic bearing maintains pressure and load capacity when it is stationary; this characteristic is important for preventing wear during the bearing start-up. In fact most hydrostatic journal bearings are hybrid, in the sense that they combine hydrostatic and hydrodynamic action. An important advantage of a hydrostatic bearing, in comparison to the hydrodynamic bearing, is that it maintains complete separation of the sliding surfaces at low velocities, including zero velocity. The hydrostatic bearing requires a high-pressure hydraulic system to pump and circulate the lubricant. The hydraulic system involves higher initial cost; in addition, there is an extralong-term cost for the power to pump the ﬂuid through the bearing clearances. Although hydrostatic bearings are more expensive, they have important advantages. For many applications, the extra expenses are justiﬁed, because these bearings have improved performance characteristics, and, in addition, the life of the machine is signiﬁcantly extended. The following is a summary of the most important advantages of hydrostatic bearings in comparison to other bearings. Advantages of Hydrostatic Bearings 1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

The journal and bearing surfaces are completely separated by a ﬂuid ﬁlm at all times and over the complete range of speeds, including zero speed. Therefore, there is no wear due to direct contact between the surfaces during start-up. In addition, there is a very low sliding friction, particularly at low sliding speeds. Hydrostatic bearings have high stiffness in comparison to hydrodynamic bearings. High stiffness is important for the reduction of journal radial and axial displacements. High stiffness is important in highspeed applications in order to minimize the level of vibrations. Also, high stiffness is essential for precise operation in machine tools and measurement machines. Unlike in hydrodynamic bearings, the high stiffness of hydrostatic bearings is maintained at low and high loads and at all speeds. This is a desirable characteristic for precision machines (Rowe, 1989) and high-speed machinery such as turbines. Hydrostatic bearings operate with a thicker ﬂuid ﬁlm, which reduces the requirement for high-precision manufacture of the bearing (in comparison to hydrodynamic bearings). This means that it is possible to get more precision (lower journal run-out) in comparison to other bearings made with comparable manufacturing. The continuous oil circulation prevents overheating of the bearing. The oil pumped into the bearing passes through an oil ﬁlter and then through the bearing clearance. In this way, dust and other abrasive

214

Chapter 10

particles are removed and do not damage the bearing surface. This is an important advantage in a dusty environment. A hydrostatic bearing has one or several recesses where a uniformly high pressure is maintained by an external pump. Hydrostatic bearings are used for radial and thrust loads. Various types of recess geometry are used, such as circular or rectangular recesses in hydrostatic pads. The following is an example of a hydrostatic circular pad for a thrust load.

10.2

HYDROSTATIC CIRCULAR PADS

A circular pad is a hydrostatic thrust bearing that has a load-carrying capacity in the axial (vertical) direction, as shown in Fig. 10-1. This hydrostatic thrust bearing comprises two parallel concentric disks having a small clearance, h0 , between them. The radius of the disk is R, and the radius of the round recess is R0 . The bearing under a thrust load. Fluid is fed from an external pump into the round recess. The recess pressure is pr above atmospheric pressure. The circular pad has load capacity W while maintaining complete separation between the surfaces. The external pump pressurizes the ﬂuid in the recess, at a uniform pressure pr . The clearance outside the recess, h0 , is thin relative to that of the recess. The thin clearance forms resistance to the outlet ﬂow from the recess, in the radial direction. In this way, high pressure in the circular recess is continually maintained. In the area of thin clearance, h0 (often referred to as the land) the pressure reduces gradually in the radial direction, due to viscous friction. The uniform pressure in the recess combined with the radial pressure distribution in the land carry the external load. The recess pressure, pr , increases with the ﬂow rate, Q, that the pump feeds into the bearing. In turn, the thin clearance, h0 , adjusts its thickness to maintain the pressure and load capacity to counterbalance the thrust load. The clearance h0 increases with the ﬂow rate, Q, and the designer can control the desired clearance by adjusting the ﬂow rate.

10.3

RADIAL PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION AND LOAD CAPACITY

Example Problem 10-1 Derive the equation for the radial pressure distribution, p, at the land and the load capacity, W , for a stationary circular pad under steady load as shown in Fig. 10-1. The ﬂuid is incompressible, and the inlet ﬂow rate, Q (equal to the ﬂow in the radial direction), is constant. The clearance is h0 , and the radius of the circular pad and of the recess are R and R0, respectively.

Hydrostatic Bearings

F IG. 10-1

215

Hydrostatic circular pad made up of two parallel disks and a round recess.

Solution In Sec. 4.9, Example Problem 4-3 is solved for the pressure gradient in a parallel ﬂow between two stationary parallel plates. The pressure gradient for a constant clearance, h0 , and rate of ﬂow Q is dp 12m ¼ 3Q dx bh0

ð10-1Þ

The ﬂow is in the direction of x, and b is the width (perpendicular to the ﬂow direction). In a circular pad, there are radial ﬂow lines, having radial symmetry.

216

Chapter 10

The ﬂow in the radial direction is considered between the round recess, at r ¼ R0 , to the pad exit at r ¼ R. Pressure Distribution In order to solve the present problem, the ﬂow is considered in a thin ring, of radial thickness dr, as shown in Fig. 10-1. Since dr is small in comparison to the radius, r, the curvature can be disregarded. In that case, the ﬂow along dr is assumed to be equal to a unidirectional ﬂow between parallel plates of width b ¼ 2pr. The pressure gradient dp is derived from Eq. (10-1): dp 12mQ ¼ dr 2prh30

or

dp ¼

12mQ dr 2ph30 r

ð10-2Þ

Integrating of Eq. (10-2) yields p¼

6mQ ln r þ C ph30

ð10-3Þ

The constant of integration, C, is determined by the following boundary condition: p¼0

at

r¼R

ð10-4Þ

After solving for C, the expression for the radial pressure distribution in the radial clearance as a function of r is p¼

6mQ R ln ph30 r

ð10-5Þ

The expression for the pressure at the recess, pr , at r ¼ R0 is pr ¼

6mQ R ln ph30 R0

ð10-6Þ

Load Capacity The load capacity is the integration of the pressure over the complete area according to the following equation: ð W ¼ pdA ð10-7Þ ðAÞ

The area dA of a ring thickness dr is (see Fig. 10-1) dA ¼ 2prdr

ð10-8Þ

Hydrostatic Bearings

217

The pressure in the recess, pr , is constant, and the load capacity of the recess is derived by integration: ð R0 W ¼ 2prpr dr ð10-9Þ 0

For the total load capacity, the pressure is integrated in the recess and in the thin clearance (land) according to the following equation: ð R0 ðR W ¼ pr ð2pr drÞ þ pð2prdrÞ ð10-10Þ 0

R0

After substituting the pressure equation into Eq. (10-10) and integrating, the following expression for the load capacity of a circular hydrostatic pad is obtained: W ¼

p R2 R20 p 2 lnðR=R0 Þ r

ð10-11

Equation (10-11) can be rearranged as a function of the recess ratio, R0 =R, and the expression for load capacity of a hydrostatic pad is W ¼

pR2 1 ðR0 =RÞ2 p 2 lnðR=R0 Þ r

ð10-12Þ

The expression for the ﬂow rate Q is obtained by rearranging Eq. (10-6) as follows: Q¼

p h30 p 6m lnðR=R0 Þ r

ð10-13Þ

Equations (10-12) and (10-13) are for two stationary parallel disks. These equations can be extended to a hydrostatic pad where one disk is rotating, because according to the assumptions of classical lubrication theory, the centrifugal forces of the ﬂuid due to rotation can be disregarded. In fact, the centrifugal forces are negligible (in comparison to the viscous forces) if the clearance h0 is small and the viscosity is high (low Reynolds number). Equations (10-12) and (10-13) are used for the design of this thrust bearing. Whenever the ﬂuid is supplied at constant ﬂow rate Q, Eq. (10-13) is used to determine the ﬂow rate. It is necessary to calculate the ﬂow rate Q, which results in the desired clearance, h0 . Unlike hydrodynamic bearings, the desired clearance, h0 , is based not only on the surface ﬁnish and vibrations, but also on the minimization of the power losses for pumping the ﬂuid and for rotation of the pad. In general, hydrostatic bearings operate with larger clearances in comparison to their hydrodynamic

218

Chapter 10

counterparts. Larger clearance has the advantage that it does not require the highprecision machining that is needed in hydrodynamic bearings.

10.4

POWER LOSSES IN THE HYDROSTATIC PAD

The ﬂuid ﬂows through the clearance, h0 , in the radial direction, from the recess to the bearing exit. The pressure, pr , is equal to the pressure loss due to ﬂow resistance in the clearance (pressure loss pr results from viscous friction loss in the thin clearance). In the clearance, the pressure has a negative slope in the radial directions, as shown in Fig. 10-1. The bearing is loaded by a thrust force in the vertical direction (direction of the centerline of the disks). Under steady conditions, the resultant load capacity, W , of the pressure distribution is equal to the external thrust load. The upper disk rotates at angular speed o, driven by an electrical motor, and power is required to overcome the viscous shear in the clearance. All bearings require power to overcome friction; however, hydrostatic bearings require extra power in order to circulate the ﬂuid. An important task in hydrostatic bearing design is to minimize the power losses. The following terms are introduced for the various components of power consumption in the hydrostatic bearing system. E_ h —is the hydraulic power required to pump the ﬂuid through the bearing and piping system. The ﬂow resistance is in the clearance (land) and in the pipes. In certain designs there are ﬂow restrictors at the inlet to each recess that increase the hydraulic power. The hydraulic power is dissipated as heat in the ﬂuid. E_ f —is the mechanical power provided by the drive (electrical motor) to overcome the friction torque resulting from viscous shear in the clearance due to relative rotation of the disks. This power is also dissipated as heat in the oil. This part of the power of viscous friction is present in hydrodynamic bearings without an external pump. E_ t —is the total hydraulic power and mechanical power required to maintain the operation of the hydrostatic bearing, E_ t ¼ E_ h þ E_ f . The mechanical torque of the motor, Tf , overcomes the viscous friction of rotation at angular speed o. The equation for the motor-driving torque is (see Problem 2-1) p R4 R40 1 4 o Tf ¼ m 2 h0 R

ð10-14Þ

Hydrostatic Bearings

219

The mechanical power of the motor, E_ f , that is required to overcome the friction losses in the pad clearance is 4 4 _Ef ¼ Tf o ¼ p m R 1 R0 o2 R4 2 h0

ð10-15Þ

The power of a hydraulic pump, such as a gear pump, is discussed in Sec. (10.14). For hydrostatic pads where each recess is fed by a constant ﬂow rate Q, there is no need for ﬂow restrictors at the inlet to the recess. In that case, it is possible to simplify the calculations, since the pressure loss in the piping system is small and can be disregarded in comparison to the pressure loss in the bearing clearance: E_ h Q pr

ð10-16Þ

Here, Q is the ﬂow rate through the pad and pr is the recess pressure. The total power consumption E_ t is the sum of the power of the drive for turning the bearing and the power of the pump for circulating the ﬂuid through the bearing resistance. The following equation is for net power consumption. In fact, the pump and motor have power losses, and their efﬁciency should be considered for the calculation of the actual power consumption: 4 4 _EtðnetÞ ¼ Q pr þ p m R 1 R0 o2 2 h0 R4

ð10-17Þ

Substituting the value of Q and dividing by the efﬁciency of the motor and drive Z1 and the efﬁciency of the pump Z2 , the following equation is obtained for the total power consumption (in the form of electricity consumed by the hydrostatic system) for the operation of a bearing: 1 1 ph30 1 p R4 R4 m p2r þ 1 04 o2 E_ t ¼ Z2 6 m lnðR=R0 Þ Z1 2 h0 R

ð10-18Þ

The efﬁciency Z2 of a gear pump is typically low, about 0.6–0.7. The motor-drive system has a higher efﬁciency Z1 of about 0.8–0.9.

10.5

OPTIMIZATION FOR MINIMUM POWER LOSS

The total power consumption, E_ t , is a function of the clearance h0 . In general, hydrostatic bearings operate with larger clearance in comparison to hydrodynamic bearings. In order to optimize the clearance for minimum power consump-

220

Chapter 10

tion, it is convenient to rewrite Eq. (10-18) as a function of the clearance while all the other terms are included in a constant coefﬁcient in the following form: C E_ t ¼ C1 h30 þ 2 h0

ð10-19Þ

where C1 ¼

1 p p2 6Z2 m lnðR=R0 Þ r

and

C2 ¼

1 R4 pmR4 1 04 o2 2Z1 R ð10-20Þ

Plotting the curve of power consumption versus clearance according to Eq. (1019) allows optimization of the clearance, h0 , for minimum power loss in the bearing system. Hydrostatic bearings should be designed to operate at this optimal clearance.

Example Problem 10-2 Optimization of a Circular Hydrostatic Pad A circular hydrostatic pad, as shown in Fig. 10-1, is supporting a load of W ¼ 1000 N, and the upper disk has rotational speed of 5000 RPM. The disk diameter is 200 mm, and the diameter of the circular recess is 100 mm. The oil is SAE 10 at an operating temperature of 70 C, having a viscosity of m ¼ 0:01 N-s=m2 . The efﬁciency of the hydraulic pump system is 0.6 and that of the motor and drive system is 0.9. Optimize the clearance, h0 , for minimum total power consumption. Solution The radius of the circular pad is R ¼ 100 mm. The recess ratio is R=R0 ¼ 2. The angular speed is N ¼ 5000 RPM ) o

2pN 2p5000 ¼ ¼ 523:6 rad=s 60 60

The ﬁrst step is to ﬁnd pr by using the following load capacity equation: 2 2 2 p 1 R0 =R W ¼R pr 2 lnðR=R0 Þ Substituting the known values, the following equation is obtained, with pr as unknown: 2 2 p 1 0:5 1000 ¼ 0:1 pr 2 ln 2

Hydrostatic Bearings

221

Solving gives pr ¼ 58;824 N=m2 Substituting pr in Eq. (10-20), the constant C1 , which is associated with the pump, is solved for: C1 ¼

1 1 p ð58;824Þ2 ¼ 4:35 1011 N =s-m2 0:6 6 0:01 lnð1=0:5Þ

In a similar way, the second constant, C2 , which is associated with the motor, is calculated from Eq. (10-20): C2 ¼

1 p ð0:01Þð0:14 Þð1 0:54 Þ523:62 ¼ 0:448 N-m2 =s 0:9 2

Substituting these values of C1 and C2 into Eq. (10-19), the total power as a function of the clearance becomes 0:448 E_ t ¼ ð4:35 1011 Þh30 þ h0 In this equation, the power of the pump for circulating the ﬂuid is the ﬁrst term, which is proportional to h30 , while the second term, which is proportional to h1 0 , is the power of the motor for rotating the disk. The powers of the pump and of the drive are the two power components required to maintain the operation of the hydrostatic bearing. In Fig. 10-2, the curves of the hydraulic power and mechanical power are plotted as a function of the clearance, h0 . The curve of the mechanical power, E_ f , that is provided by the motor points down with increasing clearance, h0 . The power, E_ f , is for rotating one disk relative to the other and overcoming the viscous friction in the clearance between the two disks. The second curve is of the hydraulic power, E_ h , which is provided by the pump to maintain hydrostatic pressure in the recess. This power is rising with increasing clearance, h0 . The hydraulic power, E_ h , is for overcoming the ﬂow resistance in the thin clearance at the outlet from the recess. The total power, E_ t , is the sum of these curves. For the hydrostatic pad in this problem, the optimal point (minimum power) is for a clearance of about 0.75 mm, and the total power consumption of the bearing in this problem is below 0.8 kW. The result of 0.8 kW is too high for a hydrostatic bearing. It is possible to reduce the power consumption by using lower-viscosity oil.

222

Chapter 10

F IG. 10-2

10.6

Optimization of clearance for minimum power consumption.

LONG RECTANGULAR HYDROSTATIC BEARINGS

There are several applications where a long rectangular hydrostatic pad is used. An important example is the hydrostatic slideway in machine tools, as well as other machines where slideways are applied. A long rectangular pad is shown in Fig. 10-3. The pad, as well as the recess, is long in comparison to its width, L B and l b. Therefore, the ﬂow through the clearance of width b is negligible relative to that through length l. The ﬂow is considered one dimensional, because it is mostly in the x direction, while the ﬂow in the y direction is negligible. For solving the pressure distribution, unidirectional ﬂow can be assumed. The pressure in the recess is constant, and it is linearly decreasing along the land of clearance, h0 , in the x direction. Integration of the pressure distribution results in the ﬂuid load capacity W. At the same time, the ﬂow rate in the two directions of the two sides of the recess is a ﬂow between two parallel plates according to Eq. (10-1). The pressure gradient is linear, dp=dx ¼ constant. The total ﬂow rate Q in the two directions is Q¼2

h30 l dp h3 l pr l h30 ¼2 0 ¼ p 12 m dx 12 m ðB bÞ=2 3mðB bÞ r

ð10-21Þ

Hydrostatic Bearings

F IG. 10-3

223

Long rectangular pad.

Here, B b is the clearance (land) dimension along the direction of ﬂow and l is the dimension of clearance (land) normal to the ﬂow direction.

10.7

MULTIDIRECTIONAL HYDROSTATIC SUPPORT

Slideways are used in machinery for accurate linear motion. Pressurized ﬂuid is fed into several recesses located at all contact surfaces, to prevent any direct metal contact between the sliding surfaces. Engineers already recognized that friction has an adverse effect on precision, and it is important to minimize friction by providing hydrostatic pads. In machine tools, multirecess hydrostatic bearings are used for supporting the slideways as well as the rotating spindle. Hydrostatic slideways make the positioning of the table much more accurate, because it reduces friction that limits the precision of sliding motion. A slideway supported by constant-ﬂow-rate pads is shown in Fig. 10-4. Whenever there is a requirement for high stiffness in the vertical direction, the preferred design is of at least two hydrostatic pads with vertical load capacity in two opposite directions. Bidirectional support is also necessary when the load is changing its direction during operation. Additional pads are often included with horizontal load capacity in opposite directions for preventing any possible direct contact.

F IG. 10-4

Slideway supported by constant-ﬂow-rate pads.

224 Chapter 10

Hydrostatic Bearings

225

In a multipad support, one of the following two methods for feeding the oil into each recess is used. 1. 2.

Constant-ﬂow-rate system, where each recess is fed by a constant ﬂow rate Q. Constant pressure supply, where each recess is fed by a constant pressure supply ps. The oil ﬂows into each recess through a ﬂow restrictor (such as a capillary tube). The ﬂow restrictor causes a pressure drop, and the recess pressure is reduced to a lower level, pr < ps . The ﬂow restrictor makes the bearing stiff to displacement due to variable load.

In the case of the constant-ﬂow-rate system, the ﬂuid is fed from a pump to a ﬂow divider that divides the ﬂow rate between the various recesses. The ﬂow divider is essential for the operation because it ensures that the ﬂow will be evenly distributed to each recess and not fed only into the recesses having the least resistance. High stiffness is obtained whenever each pad is fed by a constant ﬂow rate Q. The explanation for the high stiffness lies in the relation between the clearance and recess pressure. For a bearing with given geometry, the constant ﬂow rate Q is proportional to Q/

3 h0 p m r

ð10-22Þ

A vertical displacement, Dh, of the slide will increase and decrease the clearance h0 at the lands of the opposing hydrostatic pads. For constant ﬂow rate Q and viscosity, Eq. (10-22) indicates that increase and decrease in the clearance h0 would result in decrease and increase, respectively, of the recess pressure (the recess pressure is inversely proportional to h30 ). High stiffness means that only a very small vertical displacement of the slide is sufﬁcient to generate a large difference of pressure between opposing recesses. The force resulting from these pressure differences acts in the direction opposite to any occasional additional load on the thrust bearing. Theoretically, the bearing stiffness can be very high for a hydrostatic pad with a constant ﬂow rate to each recess; but in practice, the stiffness is limited by the hydraulic power of the motor and its maximum ﬂow rate and pressure. This theoretical explanation is limited in practice because there is a maximum limit to the recess pressure, pr . The hydraulic power of the pump and the strength of the complete system limit the recess pressure. A safety relief valve is installed to protect the system from exceeding its allowable maximum pressure. In addition, the ﬂuid viscosity, m, is not completely constant. When the clearance, h0 , reduces,

226

Chapter 10

the viscous friction increases and the temperature rises. In turn, the viscosity is lower in comparison to the opposing side, where the clearance, h0 , increases.

10.8

HYDROSTATIC PAD STIFFNESS FOR CONSTANT FLOW RATE

In this system, each recess is fed by a constant ﬂow rate, Q. This system is also referred to as direct supply system. For this purpose, each recess is fed from a separate positive-displacement pump of constant ﬂow rate. Another possibility, which is preferred where there are many hydrostatic pads, is to use a ﬂow divider. A ﬂow divider is designed to divide the constant ﬂow rate received from one pump into several constant ﬂow rates that are distributed to several recesses. Each recess is fed by constant ﬂow rate directly from the divider. (The design of a ﬂow divider is discussed in this chapter.) The advantage of using ﬂow dividers is that only one pump is used. If properly designed, the constant-ﬂow-rate system would result in high stiffness. The advantage of this system, in comparison to the constant pressure supply with restrictors, is that there are lower viscous friction losses. In the ﬂow restrictors there is considerable resistance to the ﬂow (pressure loss), resulting in high power losses. In turn, the system with ﬂow restrictors requires a pump and motor of higher power. However, the ﬂow divider is an additional component, which also increases the initial cost of the system. An example of a constant-ﬂow-rate system is the machine tool slideway shown in Fig. 10-4. The areas of the two opposing recesses, in the vertical direction, are not equal. The purpose of the larger recess area is to support the weight of the slide, while the small pad recess is for ensuring noncontact sliding and adequate stiffness.

10.8.1

Constant-Flow-Rate Pad Sti¡ness

The bearing stiffness, k, is the rate of rise of the load capacity, W , as a function of incremental reduction of the clearance, h0 , by a small increment dh0 . It is equivalent to the rise of the load capacity with a small downward vertical displacement dh0 of the upper surface in Fig. 10-1, resulting in lower clearance. The bearing stiffness is similar to a spring constant: k¼

dW dh0

ð10-23Þ

The meaning of the negative sign is that the load increases with a reduction of the clearance. High stiffness is particularly important in machine tools where any displacement of the slide or spindle during machining would result in machining

Hydrostatic Bearings

227

errors. The advantage of the high-stiffness bearing is that it supports any additional load with minimal displacement. For the computation of the stiffness with a constant ﬂow rate, it is convenient to deﬁne the bearing clearance resistance, Rc , at the land (resistance to ﬂow through the bearing clearance) and the effective bearing area, Ae . The ﬂow resistance to ﬂow through the bearing clearance, Rc , is deﬁned as Q¼

pr Rc

Rc ¼

or

pr Q

ð10-24Þ

The effective bearing area, Ae , is deﬁned by the relation Ae pr ¼ W

or

Ae ¼

W pr

ð10-25Þ

For a constant ﬂow rate, the load capacity, in terms of the effective area and bearing resistance, is W ¼ Ae Rc Q

ð10-26Þ

Comparison with the equations for the circular pad indicates that the resistance is proportional to h3 0 or Rc ¼ kh3 0 ;

and

W ¼ kAe Q

1 h30

ð10-27Þ

Here, k is a constant that depends on bearing geometry, ﬂow rate, and ﬂuid viscosity dW 1 ¼K 4 where K ¼ 3kAe Q dh0 h0 dW 1 Stiffness k ¼ ¼ 3kAe Q 4 dh0 h0 Stiffness k ¼

ð10-28aÞ ð10-28bÞ

Equation (10-28b) indicates that stiffness increases very fast with reduction in the bearing clearance. This equation can be applied as long as the ﬂow rate Q to the recess is constant. As discussed earlier, deviation from this can occur in practice if the pressure limit is reached and the relief valve of the hydraulic system is opened. In that case, the ﬂow rate is no longer constant. Equation (10-28a) can be used for any hydrostatic bearing, after the value of K is determined. For a circular pad: K ¼ 9mQ ðR2 R20 Þ

ð10-29Þ

228

Chapter 10

The expression for the stiffness of a circular pad becomes k¼

9mQðR2 R20 Þ h40

ð10-30Þ

Whenever there are two hydrostatic pads in series (bidirectional hydrostatic support), the stiffnesses of the two pads are added for the total stiffness.

Example Problem 10-3 Sti¡ness of a Constant Flow Rate Pad A circular hydrostatic pad, as shown in Fig. 10-1, has a constant ﬂow rate Q. The circular pad is supporting a load of W ¼ 5000 N. The outside disk diameter is 200 mm, and the diameter of the circular recess is 100 mm. The oil viscosity is m ¼ 0:005 N-s=m2 . The pad is operating with a clearance of 120 mm. a. Find the recess pressure, pr . b. Calculate the constant ﬂow rate Q of the oil through the bearing to maintain the clearance. c. Find the effective area of this pad. d. Find the stiffness of the circular pad operating under the conditions in this problem. Solution Given: W ¼ 5000 N R ¼ 0:1 m R0 ¼ 0:05 m m ¼ 0:005 N-s=m2 h0 ¼ 120 mm

a.

Recess Pressure

In order to solve for the ﬂow rate, the ﬁrst step is to determine the recess pressure. The recess pressure is calculated from Eq. (10-12) for the load capacity: W ¼R

2

p 1 R20 =R2 pr 2 lnðR=R0 Þ

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229

After substitution, the recess pressure is an unknown in the following equation: p 1 0:25 5000 ¼ 0:12 pr 2 lnð2Þ Solving for the recess pressure pr yields: pr ¼ 294:12 kPa b.

Flow Rate

The ﬂow rate Q can now be determined from the recess pressure. It is derived from Eq. (10-13): ! p h30 1 pð120 106 Þ3 p; 294;120 Q¼ Q¼ 6m lnðR=R0 Þ r 6 0:005 lnð0:1=0:05Þ The result for the ﬂow rate is Q ¼ 76:8 106 m3 =s c.

Pad Effective Area

The effective area is deﬁned by W ¼ Ae pr Solving for Ae as the ratio of the load and the recess pressure, we get 5000 294;120 Ae ¼ 0:017 m2 Ae ¼

d.

Bearing Stiffness

Finally, the stiffness of the circular pad fed by a constant ﬂow rate can be determined from Eq. (10-30): k¼

9mQðR2 R20 Þ h40

Substituting the values in this stiffness equation yields 9 0:005 76:8 106 ð0:12 0:052 Þ ð120 106 Þ4 6 k ¼ 125 10 N=m

k¼

This result indicates that the stiffness of a constant-ﬂow-rate pad is quite high. This stiffness is high in comparison to other bearings, such as hydro-

230

Chapter 10

dynamic bearings and rolling-element bearings. This fact is important for designers of machine tools and high-speed machinery. The high stiffness is not obvious. The bearing is supported by a ﬂuid ﬁlm, and in many cases this bearing is not selected because it is mistakenly perceived as having low stiffness.

Example Problem 10-4 Bidirectional Hydrostatic Pads We have a machine tool with four hydrostatic bearings, each consisting of two bidirectional circular pads that support a slider plate. Each recess is fed by a constant ﬂow rate, Q, by means of a ﬂow divider. Each bidirectional bearing is as shown in Fig. 10-4 (of circular pads). The weight of the slider is 20,000 N, divided evenly on the four bearings (5000-N load on each bidirectional bearing). The total manufactured clearance of the two bidirectional pads is ðh1 þ h2 Þ ¼ 0:4 mm. Each circular pad is of 100-mm diameter and recess diameter of 50 mm. The oil viscosity is 0.01 N-s=m2 . In order to minimize vertical displacement under load, the slider plate is prestressed. The pads are designed to have 5000 N reaction from the top, and the reaction from the bottom is 10,000 N (equivalent to the top pad reaction plus weight). Find the ﬂow rates Q1 and Q2 in order that the top and bottom clearances will be equal, ðh1 ¼ h2 Þ. b. Given that the same ﬂow rate applies to the bottom and top pads, Q1 ¼ Q2 , ﬁnd the magnitude of the two clearances, h1 and h2 . What is the equal ﬂow rate, Q, into the two pads? c. For the ﬁrst case of equal clearances, ﬁnd the stiffness of each bidirectional bearing. d. For the ﬁrst case of equal clearances, if an extra vertical load of 120 N is placed on the slider (30 N on each pad), ﬁnd the downward vertical displacement of the slider. a.

Solution a.

Flow rates Q1 and Q2

Given that h1 ¼ h2 ¼ 0:2 mm, the ﬂow rate Q can be obtained via Eq. (10-13):

Q¼

1 ph30 p 6 m lnðR=R0 Þ r

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231

The load capacity of a circular hydrostatic pad is obtained from Eq. (10-12): pR2 1 ðR0 =RÞ2 p 2 lnðR=R0 Þ r

W ¼

The ﬁrst step is to ﬁnd pr by using the load capacity equation (for a top pad). Substituting the known values, the recess pressure is the only unknown: 5000 ¼ 0:052

p 1 ð0:0252 =0:052 Þ pr1 2 lnð0:05=0:025Þ

The result for the recess pressure at the upper pad is pr1 ¼ 1:176 106 Pa Substituting this recess pressure in Eq. (10-13), the following ﬂow rate, Q1 , is obtained: Q1 ¼

1 p 0:00023 1:176 106 ¼ 7:1 104 m3 =s 6 0:01 lnð0:05=0:025Þ

The second step is to ﬁnd pr2 by using the load capacity equation (for the bottom pad), substituting the known values; the following equation is obtained, with Pr2 as unknown: 10;000 ¼ 0:052

p 1 ð0:0252 =0:052 Þ pr2 2 lnð0:05=0:025Þ

The recess pressure at the lower pad is pr2 ¼ 2:352 106 Pa Substituting the known values, in Eq. (10-13) the ﬂow rate Q2 is: Q2 ¼

b.

1 pð0:00023 Þ 2:352 106 ¼ 14:2 104 m3 =s 6 0:01 lnð0:05=0:025Þ

Upper and Lower Clearances h1 and h2 , for Q1 ¼ Q2

The ﬂow rate equation (10-13) is Q¼

p h30 p 6m lnðR=R0 Þ r

232

Chapter 10

For Q1 ¼ Q2 the following two equations with two unknowns, h1 and h2, are obtained: p h31 p h32 pr1 ¼ p 6m ln R=R0 Þ 6m lnðR=R0 Þ r2 h1 þ h2 ¼ 0:0004 m Q¼

Substituting yields 1 ph31 1 pð0:0004 h1 Þ3 1:176 106 ¼ 2:352 106 6 0:01 ln 2 6 0:01 ln 2 The equation can be simpliﬁed to the following: 1:176 h31 ¼ 2:352 ð0:0004 h1 Þ3 Converting to millimeters, the solution for h1 and h2 is h1 ¼ 0:223 mm

c.

and

h2 ¼ 0:177 mm

Stiffness of Each Pad

Equation (10-30) yields the stiffness of a constant-ﬂow rate circular pad: k¼

9mQðR2 R20 Þ h40

Substitute in Eq. (10-30) (for the top pad): k ðtop padÞ ¼

9 ð0:01Þð7:07 104 Þð0:052 0:0252 Þ ¼ 74:56 106 N=m 0:00024

Substitute in Eq. (10-30) (for the bottom pad): k ðlower padÞ ¼

9 ð0:01Þð0:00142ðð0:052 0:0252 Þ ¼ 149:76 106 N=m 0:0002

The total bidirectional bearing stiffness is obtained by adding the top and bottom stiffnesses, as follows: k ðbearingÞ ¼ k ðtop padÞ þ k ðlower padÞ ¼ 224:32 106 N=m

Hydrostatic Bearings

d.

233

Vertical Downward Displacement Dh of the Slider

DW Dh DW Dh ¼ k k¼

Dh ¼

where DW ¼ 30 N

30 N ¼ 1:33 107 m ¼ 0:133 mm 224:32 106

This example shows that under extra force, the displacement is very small.

10.9

CONSTANT-PRESSURE-SUPPLY PADS WITH RESTRICTORS

Hydrostatic pads with a constant ﬂow rate have the desirable characteristic of high stiffness, which is important in machine tools as well as many other applications. However, it is not always practical to supply a constant ﬂow rate to each of the many recesses, because each recess must be fed from a separate positive-displacement pump or from a ﬂow divider. For example, in designs involving many recesses, such as machine tool spindles, a constant ﬂow rate to each of the many recesses requires an expensive hydraulic system that may not be practical. An alternative arrangement is to use only one pump that supplies a constant pressure to all the recesses. This system is simpler, because it does not require many pumps or ﬂow dividers. Unlike in the constant-ﬂow-rate system, in this system each recess is fed from a constant supply pressure, ps . The oil ﬂows into each recess through a ﬂow restrictor (such as a capillary tube). The ﬂow restrictor causes a pressure drop, and the recess pressure is reduced to a lower level, pr . The important feature of the ﬂow restrictor is that it is making the bearing stiff to displacement under variable load. Although hydraulic pumps are usually of the positive-displacement type, such as a gear pump or a piston pump, and have a constant ﬂow rate, the system can be converted to a constant pressure supply by installing a relief valve that returns the surplus ﬂow into the oil sump. The relief valve makes the system one of constant pressure supply. The preferred arrangement is to have an adjustable relief valve so that the supply pressure, ps , can be adjusted for optimizing the bearing performance. In order to have the desired high bearing stiffness, constantpressure-supply systems operate with ﬂow restrictors at the inlet to each recess.

234

10.9.1

Chapter 10

Flow Restrictors and Bearing Sti¡ness

A system of bidirectional hydrostatic pads with a constant pressure supply is presented in Fig. 10-5. The oil ﬂows from a pump, through a ﬂow restrictor, and into each recess on the two sides of this thrust bearing. From the recesses, the ﬂuid ﬂows out, in the radial direction, through the thin clearances, h1 and h2 along the lands (outside the recesses). This thin clearance forms a resistance to the outlet ﬂow from each recess. This resistance at the outlet is subject to variations resulting from any small vertical displacement of the slider due to load variations. The purpose of feeding the ﬂuid to the recesses through ﬂow restrictors is to make the bearing stiffer under thrust force; namely, it reduces vertical displacement of the slider when extra load is applied. When the vertical load on the slider rises, the slider is displaced downward in the vertical direction, and under constant pressure supply a very small displacement results in a considerable reaction force to compensate for the load rise. After a small vertical displacement of the slider, the clearances at the lands of the opposing pads are no longer equal. In turn, the resistances to the outlet ﬂow from the opposing recesses decrease and increase, respectively. It results in unequal ﬂow rates in the opposing recesses. The ﬂow increases and decreases, respectively (the ﬂow is inversely proportional to h30 ). An important

F IG. 10-5

Bidirectional hydrostatic pads with ﬂow restrictors.

Hydrostatic Bearings

235

characteristic of a ﬂow restrictor, such as a capillary tube, is that its pressure drop increases with the ﬂow rate. In turn, this causes the pressures in the opposing recesses to decrease and increase, respectively. The bearing load capacity resulting from these pressure differences acts in the direction opposite to the vertical load on the slider. In this way, the bearing supports the slider with minimal vertical displacement, Dh. In conclusion, the introduction of inlet ﬂow restrictors increases the bearing stiffness, because only a very small vertical displacement of the slider is sufﬁcient to generate a large difference of pressure between opposing recesses.

10.10

ANALYSIS OF STIFFNESS FOR A CONSTANT PRESSURE SUPPLY

Where the ﬂuid is fed to each recess through a ﬂow restrictor, the ﬂuid in the recesses is bounded between the inlet and outlet ﬂow resistance. The following equations are for derivation of the expression for the stiffness of one hydrostatic pad with a constant pressure supply. In general, ﬂow resistance causes a pressure drop. Flow resistance Rf is deﬁned as the ratio of pressure loss, Dp (along the resistance), to the ﬂow rate, Q. Flow resistance is deﬁned, similar to Ohm’s law in electricity, as Rf ¼

Dp Q

ð10-31Þ

For a given resistance, the ﬂow rate is determined by the pressure difference: Q¼

Dp Rf

ð10-32Þ

The resistance of the inlet ﬂow restrictor is Rin , and the resistance to outlet ﬂow through the bearing clearance is Rc (resistance at the clearance). The pressure at the recess, pr , is bounded between the inlet and outlet resistances; see a schematic representation in Fig. 10-6. The supply pressure, ps , is constant; therefore, any change in the inlet or outlet resistance would affect the recess pressure. From Eq. (10-32), the ﬂow rate into the recess is Q¼

ps pr Rin

ð10-33Þ

The ﬂow rate through the clearance resistance is given by Q¼

pr Rc

ð10-34Þ

236

Chapter 10

F IG. 10-6

Recess pressure bounded between inlet and outlet resistances.

The ﬂuid is incompressible, and the ﬂow rate Q is equal through the inlet resistance and clearance resistance (continuity). Equating the preceding two ﬂow rate expressions yields pr ps pr ¼ Rc Rin

ð10-35Þ

The recess pressure is solved for as a function of the supply pressure and resistances: pr ¼

1 p ð1 þ Rin =Rc Þ s

ð10-36Þ

The load capacity is [see Eq. (10-25)] W ¼ Ae pr

ð10-37Þ

In terms of the supply pressure and the effective pad area, the load capacity is W ¼ Ae

1 p ð1 þ Rin =Rc Þ s

ð10-38Þ

The inlet resistance of laminar ﬂow through a capillary tube is constant, and the pressure drop is proportional to the ﬂow rate. However, the ﬂow resistance

Hydrostatic Bearings

237

through the variable pad clearance is proportional to h3 0 see Eq. (10-27). The clearance resistance can be written as Rc ¼ kh3 0

ð10-39Þ

Here, k is a constant that depends on the pad geometry and ﬂuid viscosity. Equation (10-38) can be written in the form, W ¼ Ae

1 p ð1 þ K1 h30 Þ s

ð10-40Þ

where K is deﬁned as K1 ¼

Rin k

ð10-41Þ

In Eq. (10-40) for the load capacity, all the terms are constant except the clearance thickness. Let us recall that the expression for the stiffness is Stiffness k ¼

dW dh0

ð10-42Þ

Differentiating Eq. (10-40) for the load capacity W by h0 results in Stiffness k ¼

dW 3K1 h20 ¼ Ae ps dh0 ð1 þ K1 h30 Þ2

ð10-43Þ

Equation (10-43) is for the stiffness of a hydrostatic pad having a constant supply pressure ps . If the inlet ﬂow is through a capillary tube, the pressure drop is Dp ¼

64mlc Q pdi4

ð10-44Þ

Here, di is the inside diameter of the tube and lc is the tube length. The inlet resistance by a capillary tube is Rin ¼

64mlc pdi4

ð10-45Þ

For calculating the pad stiffness in Eq. (10-43), the inlet resistance is calculated from Eq. (10-45), and the value of k is determined from the pad equations.

238

Chapter 10

Equation (10-43) can be simpliﬁed by writing it as a function of the ratio of the recess pressure to the supply pressure, b, which is deﬁned as b¼

pr ps

ð10-46Þ

Equations (10-43) and (10-46) yield a simpliﬁed expression for the stiffness as a function of b: k¼

dW 3 ¼ Ae ðb b2 Þps dh0 h0

ð10-47Þ

Equation (10-47) indicates that the maximum stiffness is when b ¼ 0:5, or pr ¼ 0:5 ps

ð10-48Þ

For maximum stiffness, the supply pressure should be twice the recess pressure. This can be obtained if the inlet resistance were equal to the recess resistance. This requirement will double the power of the pump that is required to overcome viscous friction losses. The conclusion is that the requirement for high stiffness in constant-supply-pressure systems would considerably increase the friction losses and the cost of power for operating the hydrostatic bearings.

Example Problem 10-5 Sti¡ness of a Circular Pad with Constant Supply Pressure A circular hydrostatic pad as shown in Fig. 10-1 has a constant supply pressure, ps . The circular pad is supporting a load of W ¼ 5000 N. The outside disk diameter is 200 mm, and the diameter of the circular recess is 100 mm. The oil viscosity is m ¼ 0:005 N-s=m2 . The pad is operating with a clearance of 120 mm. a. Find the recess pressure, pr . b. Calculate the ﬂow rate Q of the oil through the bearing to maintain the clearance. c. Find the effective area of the pad. d. If the supply pressure is twice the recess pressure, ps ¼ 2pr , ﬁnd the stiffness of the circular pad. e. Compare with the stiffness obtained in Example Problem 10-3 for a constant ﬂow rate. f. Find the hydraulic power required for circulating the oil through the bearing. Compare to the hydraulic power in a constant-ﬂow-rate pad.

Hydrostatic Bearings

239

Solution a.

Recess Pressure

Similar to Example Problem 10-3 for calculating the ﬂow rate Q, the ﬁrst step is to solve for the recess pressure. This pressure is derived from the equation of the load: 2 2 2 p 1 R0 =R W ¼R pr 2 lnðR=R0 Þ After substitution, the recess pressure is only unknown in the following equation: p 1 0:25 5000 ¼ 0:12 pr 2 lnð2Þ Solving for the recess pressure, pr yields pr ¼ 294:18 kPa

b.

Flow Rate

The ﬂow rate Q can now be determined. It is derived from the following expression [see Eq. (10-13)] for Q as a function of the clearance pressure: Q¼

p h30 p 6m lnðR=R0 Þ r

Similar to Example Problem 10-3, after substituting the values, the ﬂow rate is Q ¼ 76:8 106 m3 =s

c.

Pad Effective Area

The effective area is deﬁned by W ¼ Ae pr Solving for Ae as the ratio of the load and the recess pressure, we get Ae ¼

d.

5000 A ¼ 0:017 m2 294:180 e

Pad Stiffness Supply Pressure:

Now the supply pressure can be solved for as well as the

240

Chapter 10

stiffness for constant supply pressure: ps ¼ 2pr ¼ 2 294:18 kPa ps ¼ 588:36 kPa Pad Stiffness of Constant Pressure Supply: according to Eq. (10-47):

The stiffness is calculated

3 A ðb b2 Þps where b ¼ 0:5 h0 e 3 0:017ð0:5 0:52 Þ588:36 103 ; k¼ 120 106

k¼

and the result is k ¼ 62:5 106 N=m ðfor constant pressure supplyÞ e. Stiffness Comparison In comparison, for a constant ﬂow rate (see Example Problem 10-3) the stiffness is k ¼ 125 106 N=m ðfor constant flow rate For the bearing with a constant pressure supply in this problem, the stiffness is about half of the constant-ﬂow-rate pad in Example Problem 10-3. f. Hydraulic Power The power for circulating the oil through the bearing for constant pressure supply is twice of that for constant ﬂow rate. Neglecting the friction losses in the pipes, the equation for the net hydraulic power for circulating the oil through the bearing in a constant-ﬂow-rate pad is E_ h Q pr

ðfor constant-flow-rate padÞ

¼ 76:8 106 294:18 103 ¼ 22:6 W ðconstant-flow-rate padÞ: In comparison, the equation for the net hydraulic power for constant pressure supply is E_ h Q ps

ðFor a constant pressure supply padÞ:

Since ps ¼ 2pr , the hydraulic power is double for constant pressure supply: E_ h Q pr ¼ 76:8 106 588:36 103 ¼ 45:20 W ðfor a constant-pressure-supply padÞ

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241

Example Problem 10-6 Constant-Supply-Pressure Bidirectional Pads A bidirectional hydrostatic bearing (see Fig. 10-5) consists of two circular pads, a constant supply pressure, ps , and ﬂow restrictors. If there is no external load, the two bidirectional circular pads are prestressed by an equal reaction force, W ¼ 21;000 N, at each side. The clearance at each side is equal, h1 ¼ h2 ¼ 0:1 mm. The upper and lower circular pads are each of 140-mm diameter and circular recess of 70-mm diameter. The oil is SAE 10, and the operation temperature of the oil in the clearance is 70 C. The supply pressure is twice the recess pressure, ps ¼ 2pr . a.

Find the recess pressure, pr , and the supply pressure, ps , at each side to maintain the required prestress. b. Calculate the ﬂow rate Q of the oil through each pad. c. Find the stiffness of the bidirectional hydrostatic bearing. d. The ﬂow restrictor at each side is a capillary tube of inside diameter di ¼ 1 mm. Find the length of the capillary tube. e. If there is no external load, ﬁnd the hydraulic power required for circulating the oil through the bidirectional hydrostatic bearing. Solution a.

Recess Pressure and Supply Pressure

The recess pressure is derived from the equation of the load capacity: p 1 ðR0 =RÞ2 pr W ¼ R2 2 lnðR=R0 Þ After substitution, the recess pressure is the only unknown in the following equation: 21;000 N ¼ 0:072

p 1 ð0:035=0:07Þ2 p 2 lnð0:07=0:035Þ r

The solution for the recess pressure yields pr ¼ 2:52 MPa The supply pressure is ps ¼ 2pr ¼ 5:04 MPa

242

b.

Chapter 10

Flow Rate Through Each Pad

The ﬂow rate Q can now be derived from the following expression as a function of the recess pressure: Q¼

p h30 p 6m lnðR=R0 Þ r

Substituting the known values gives Q¼

c.

p 1012 m3 2:52 106 ¼ 190:4 106 6 0:01 ln 2 s

Stiffness of the Bidirectional Hydrostatic Pad

In order to ﬁnd the stiffness of the pad, it is necessary to ﬁnd the effective area: W ¼ Ae pr 21;000 N ¼ Ae 2:52 MPa Solving for Ae as the ratio of the load capacity and the recess pressure yields Ae ¼

21;000 N ¼ 0:0083 m2 2:52 MPa

The ratio of the pressure to the supply pressure, b, is p b ¼ r ¼ 0:5 ps The stiffness of the one circular hydrostatic pad is 3 A ðb b2 Þps h0 e 3 k¼ 0:0083 ð0:5 0:52 Þ 5:04 106 ¼ 315 106 N=m 0:1 103

k¼

and the stiffness of the bidirectional bearing is K ¼ 2 315 106 ¼ 630 106 N=m

d.

Length of the Capillary Tube

The internal diameter of the tube is di ¼ 1 mm. The equation for the ﬂow rate in the recess is p pr Q¼ s Rin

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243

After substituting the known values for ps, pr , and Q, the inlet resistance becomes Rin ¼

ps pr 5:04 106 2:52 106 ¼ ¼ 1:32 1010 N-s=m4 Q 190:4 106

The inlet resistance of capillary tube is given by the following tube equation: Rin ¼

64 mlc pdi4

Here, di is the inside diameter of the tube and lc is the tube length. The tube length is Rin pdi4 64m 1:32 1010 p0:0014 ¼ ¼ 65 103 m; 64 0:01 Ic ¼ 65 mm lc ¼

e. Hydraulic Power for Circulating Oil Through the Bidirectional Hydrostatic Bearing Neglecting the friction losses in the pipes, the equation for the net hydraulic power for one pad is E_ h Qps Substituting the values for Q and Ps results in E_ h 190:4 106 5:04 106 ¼ 960 W Hydraulic power for bidirectional bearing is E_ h ðbidirectional bearingÞ ¼ 2 960 ¼ 1920 W

10.11

JOURNAL BEARING CROSS-STIFFNESS

The hydrodynamic thrust pad has its load capacity and the stiffness in the same direction. However, for journal bearings the stiffness is more complex and involves four components. For most designs, the hydrostatic journal bearing has hydrodynamic as well as hydrostatic effects, and it is referred to as a hybrid bearing. The hydrodynamic effects are at the lands around the recesses. The displacement is not in the same direction as the force W . In such cases, the journal bearing has cross-stiffness (see Chapter 7). The stiffness components are presented as four components related to the force components and the displacement component.

244

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Similar to the hydrodynamic journal bearing, the load of the hydrostatic journal bearing is also divided into two components, Wx and Wy , and the displacement of the bearing center e is divided into two components, ex and ey . In Chapter 7, the two components of the journal bearing stiffness are deﬁned [Eq. (7-31)], and the cross-stiffness components are deﬁned in Eq. (7-32). Crossstiffness components can result in bearing instability, which was discussed in Chapter 9.

10.12

APPLICATIONS

An interesting application is the hydrostatic pad in machine tool screw drives (Rumberger and Wertwijn, 1968). For high-precision applications, it is important to prevent direct metal contact, which results in stick-slip friction and limits the machining precision. Figure 10-7 shows a noncontact design that includes hydrostatic pads for complete separation of the sliding surfaces of screw drive. Another important application is in a friction testing machine, which will be described in Chapter 14.

10.13

HYDRAULIC PUMPS

An example of a positive-displacement pump that is widely used for lubrication is the gear pump. The use of gear pumps is well known in the lubrication system of automotive engines. Gear pumps, as well as piston pumps, are positive-displacement pumps; i.e., the pumps deliver, under ideal conditions, a ﬁxed quantity of liquid per cycle, irrespective of the ﬂow resistance (head losses in the system). However, it is possible to convert the discharge at a constant ﬂow rate to discharge at a constant pressure by installing a pressure relief valve that maintains a constant pressure and returns the surplus ﬂow. A cross section of a simple gear pump is shown in Fig. 10-8a. A gear pump consists of two spur gears (or helix gears) meshed inside a pump casing, with one of the gears driven by a constant-speed electric motor. The liquid at the suction side is trapped between the gear teeth, forcing the liquid around the casing and ﬁnally expelling it through the discharge. The quantity of liquid discharged per revolution of the gear is known as displacement, theoretically equal to the sum of the volumes of all the spaces between the gear teeth and the casing. However, there are always tolerances and small clearance for a free ﬁt between the gears and casing. The presence of clearance in pump construction makes it practically impossible to attain the theoretical displacement. The advantages of the gear pump, in comparison to other pumps, are as follows.

F IG. 10-7 Noncontact screw drive with hydrostatic pads. From Rumberger and Wertwijn (1968), reprinted with permission from Machine Design.

Hydrostatic Bearings 245

246

Chapter 10

F IG. 10-8 (a) Cross section of a gear pump. (b) Multipiston hydraulic pump. (Reprinted with permission from The Oilgear Company.)

1.

2.

It is a simple and compact pump, and does not need inlet and outlet valves, such as in the piston pump. However, gear pumps require close running clearances. It involves continuous ﬂow (unlike positive-displacement reciprocating pumps).

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

247

It can handle very high-viscosity ﬂuid. It can generate very high heads (or outlet pressure) in comparison to centrifugal pumps. It is self-priming (unlike the centrifugal pump). It acts like a compressor and pumps out trapped air or vapors. It has good efﬁciency at very high heads. It has good efﬁciency over a wide speed range. It requires relatively low suction heads.

The ﬂow rate of a gear pump is approximately constant, irrespective of its head losses. If we accidentally close the discharge valve, the discharge pressure would rise until the weakest part of the system fails. To avoid this, a relief valve should be installed in parallel to the discharge valve. When a small amount of liquid escapes backward from the discharge side to the suction side through the gear pump clearances, this is referred to as slip. The capacity (ﬂow rate) lost due to slip in the clearances increases dramatically with the clearance, h0 , between the housing and the gears (proportional to h30 ) and is inversely proportional to the ﬂuid viscosity. An idea about the amount of liquid lost in slippage can be obtained via the equation for laminar ﬂow between two parallel plates having a thin clearance, h0 , between them: Q¼

lh30 Dp 12mb

ð10-49Þ

where Q ¼ flow rate of flow in the clearance ðslip flow rateÞ Dp ¼ differential pressure ðbetween discharge and suctionÞ b ¼ width of fluid path ðnormal to fluid pathÞ h0 ¼ clearance between the two plates m ¼ fluid viscosity l ¼ length along the fluid path This equation is helpful in understanding the parameters affecting the magnitude of slip. It shows that slip is mostly dependent on clearance, since it is proportional to the cube of clearance. Also, slip is proportional to the pressure differential Dp and inversely proportional to the viscosity m of the liquid. Gear pumps are suitable for ﬂuids of higher viscosity, for minimizing slip, and are widely used for lubrication, since lubricants have relatively high viscosity (in comparison to water). Fluids with low viscosity, such as water and air, are not suitable for gear pumps. Piston pumps are also widely used as high-pressure positive-displacement (constant-ﬂow-rate) hydraulic pumps. An example of the multipiston pump is

248

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shown in Fig. 10-8b. The advantage of the piston pump is that it is better sealed and the slip is minimized. In turn, the efﬁciency of the piston pump is higher, compared to that of a gear pump, but the piston pump requires valves, and it is more expensive.

10.14

GEAR PUMP CHARACTERISTICS

The actual capacity (ﬂow rate) and theoretical displacement versus pump head are shown in Fig. 10-9. The constant theoretical displacement is a straight horizontal line. The actual capacity (ﬂow rate) reduces with the head because the ‘‘slip’’ is proportional to the head of the pump (discharge head minus suction head). When the head approaches zero, the capacity is equivalent to the theoretical displacement.

10.14.1

Hydraulic Power and Pump E⁄ciency

The SI unit of power E_ is the watt. Another widely used unit is the Imperial unit, horse power [HP]. Brake power, E_ b (BHP in horsepower units), is the mechanical shaft power required to drive the pump by means of electric motor. In the pump, this power is converted into two components: the useful hydraulic power, E_ h , and the frictional losses, E_ f . The useful hydraulic power can be converted back to work done by the ﬂuid. A piston or hydraulic motor can do this energy conversion. In the pump, the friction losses are dissipated as heat. Friction

F IG. 10-9

Gear pump Q–H characteristics.

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249

losses result from friction in the bearings, the stufﬁng box (or mechanical seal), and the viscous shear of the ﬂuid in the clearances. In Fig. 10-10, the curves of the various power components E_ versus pump head Hp are presented in horsepower [HP] units. The frictional horsepower [FHP] does not vary appreciably with increased head; it is the horizontal line in Fig. 1010. The other useful component is the hydraulic horsepower [HHP]. This power component is directly proportional to the pump head and is shown as a straight line with a positive slope. This component is added to constant FHP, resulting in the total brake horsepower [BHP]. The BHP curve in Fig. 10-10 is a straight line, and at zero pump head there is still a deﬁnite brake horsepower required, due to friction in the pump. In a gear pump, the friction horsepower, FHP, is a function of the speed and the viscosity of the ﬂuid, but not of the head of the pump. Because FHP is nearly constant versus the head, it is a straight horizontal line in Fig. 10-10. On the other hand, HHP is an increasing linear function of Hp (see equation for hydraulic power). (This is approximation, since Q is not constant because it is reduced by the slip.) The sum of the friction power and the hydraulic power is the brake horsepower. The brake horsepower increases nearly linearly versus Hp , as shown in Fig. 10-10. Since FHP is constant, the efﬁciency Z is an increasing function versus Hp . The result is that gear pumps have a higher efﬁciency at high heads.

F IG. 10-10

Power and efﬁciency characteristics of the gear pump.

250

Chapter 10

The head of the pump, Hp , generated by the pump is equal to the head losses in a closed-loop piping system, such as in the hydrostatic bearing system. If the ﬂuid is transferred from one tank to another at higher elevation, the head of the pump is equal to the head losses in the piping system plus the height difference DZ. The head of the pump, Hp , is the difference of the heads between the two points of discharge and suction: Hp ¼ Hd Hs

ð10-50Þ

Pump head units are of length (m, ft). Head is calculated from the Bernoulli equation. The expression for discharge and suction heads are: Hd ¼

pd Vd2 þ þ Zd g 2g

ð10-51Þ

Hs ¼

ps Vs2 þ þ Zs g 2g

ð10-52Þ

where Hd ¼ head at discharge side of pump ðoutletÞ Hs ¼ head at suction side of pump ðinletÞ pd ¼ pressure measured at discharge side of pump ðoutletÞ ps ¼ pressure measured at suction side of pump ðinletÞ g ¼ specific weight of fluid ðfor water; g ¼ 9:8 103 ½N=m3 Þ V ¼ fluid velocity g ¼ gravitational acceleration Z ¼ height The pump head, Hp , is the difference between the discharge head and suction head. In a closed loop, Hp is equal to the head loss in the loop. The expression for the pump head is Hp ¼

pd ps Vd2 Vs2 þ þ ðZd Zs Þ g 2g

ð10-53Þ

The velocity of the ﬂuid in the discharge and suction can be determined from the rate of ﬂow and the inside diameter of the pipes. In most gear pumps, the pipe inside the diameters on the discharge and suction sides are equal. In turn, the discharge velocity is equal to that of the suction. Also, there is no signiﬁcant difference in height between the discharge and suction. In such cases, the last two

Hydrostatic Bearings

251

terms can be omitted, and the pump is determined by a simpliﬁed equation that considers only the pressure difference: Hp ¼

pd ps g

10.14.2

ð10-54Þ

Hydraulic Power

The hydraulic power of a pump, E_ h , is proportional to the pump head, Hp , according to the following equation: E_ h ¼ QgHp

ð10-55Þ

The SI units for Eq. (10-53), (10-54), and (10-55) are E_ h ½w

Q ½m3 =s

g ½N=m3

H ½m

p ½N=m2 or pascals] The pump efﬁciency is the ratio of hydraulic power to break power: Z¼

E_ h E_ b

ð10-56Þ

The conversion to horsepower units is 1 HP ¼ 745.7 W. In most gear pumps, the inlet and outlet pipes have the same diameter and the inlet and outlet velocities are equal. In Imperial units, the hydraulic horsepower (HHP) is given by HHP ¼

QDp 1714

ð10-57Þ

Here, the units are as follows: Dp ½psi ¼ gðHp Hs Þ

and

Q ½GPM

In imperial units, the efﬁciency of the pump is: Z¼

HHP BHP

ð10-58Þ

The BHP can be measured by means of a motor dynamometer. If we are interested in the efﬁciency of the complete system of motor and pump, the input power is measured by the electrical power, consumed by the electric motor

252

Chapter 10

that drives the pump (using a wattmeter). The horsepower lost on friction in the pump, FHP, cannot be measured but can be determined from FHP ¼ BHP HHP

10.15

ð10-59Þ

FLOW DIVIDERS

Using many hydraulic pumps for feeding the large number of recesses of hydrostatic pads in machines is not practical. A simple solution of this problem is to use constant pressure and ﬂow restrictors. However, ﬂow restrictors increase the power losses in the system. Therefore, this method can be applied only with small machines or machines that are operating for short periods, and the saving in the initial cost of the machine is more important than the long-term power losses. Another solution to this problem is to use ﬂow dividers. Flow dividers are also used for distributing small, constant ﬂow rates of lubricant to rolling-element bearings. It is designed to divide the constant ﬂow rate of one hydraulic pump into several constant ﬂow rates. In hydrostatic pads, each recess is fed at a constant ﬂow rate from the ﬂow divider. The advantage of using ﬂow dividers is that only one hydraulic pump is needed for many pads and a large number of recesses. The design concept of a ﬂow divider is to use the hydraulic power of the main pump to activate many small pistons that act as positive-displacement pumps (constant-ﬂow-rate pumps), and thus the ﬂow of one hydraulic pump is divided into many constant ﬂow rates. A photo of a ﬂow divider is shown in Fig. 10-11a. Figure 10-11b presents a cross section of a ﬂow divider made up of many rectangular blocks connected together for dividing the ﬂow for feeding a large number of bearings. The contact between the blocks is sealed by O-rings. The intricate path of the inlet and outlet of one piston is shown in this drawing. For a large number of bearings, the ﬂow divider outlets are divided again. An example of such a combination is shown in Fig. 10-12.

10.16

CASE STUDY: HYDROSTATIC SHOE PADS IN LARGE ROTARY MILLS

Size reduction is an important part of the process of the enrichment of ores. Balland-rod rotary mills are widely used for grinding ores before the enrichment process in the mines. Additional applications include the reduction of rawmaterial particle size in cement plants and pulverizing coal in power stations. In rotary mills, friction and centrifugal forces lift the material and heavy balls against the rotating cylindrical internal shell and liners of the mill, until they fall down by gravity. The heavy balls fall on the material, and reduce the particle size by impact. For this operation, the rotation speed of the mills must be slow,

Hydrostatic Bearings

F IG. 10-11a

253

Flow divider. (Reprinted with permission from Lubriquip, Inc.)

about 12–20 RPM. In most cases, the low speed of rotation is not sufﬁcient for adequate ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness in hydrodynamic bearings. There has been continual trend to increase the diameter, D, of rotary mills, because milling output is proportional approximately to D2:7 and only linearly proportional to the length. In general, large rotary mills are more economical for the large-scale production of ores. Therefore, the outside diameter of a rotary mill, D, is quite large; many designs are of about 5-m diameter, and some rotary mills are as large as 10 m in diameter. Two bearings on the two sides support the rotary mill, which is rotating slowly in these bearings. Although each bearing diameter is much less than the rotary mill diameter, it is still very large in comparison to common bearings in machinery. The trunnion on each side of the rotary mill is a hollow shaft (largediameter sleeve) that is turning in the bearings; at the same time, it is used for feeding the raw material and as an outlet for the reduced-size processed material. The internal diameter of the trunnion must be large enough to accommodate the high feed rate of ores. The trunnion outside diameter is usually more than 1.2 m. In the past, as long as the trunnion outside diameter was below 1.2 m, large rolling-element bearings were used to support the trunnion. However, rolling

254

Chapter 10

F IG. 10-11b Cross section of a ﬂow divider. (Reprinted with permission from Lubriquip, Inc.)

Hydrostatic Bearings

F IG. 10-12 Inc.)

255

Combination of ﬂow dividers. (Reprinted with permission from Lubriquip,

bearings are not practical any more for the larger trunnion diameters currently in use in rotary mills. Several designs of self-aligning hydrodynamic bearings are still in use in many rotary mills. These designs include a hydrostatic lift, of high hydrostatic pressure from an external pump, only during start-up. This hydrostatic lift prevents the wear and high friction torque during start-up. Due to the low speed of rotation, these hydrodynamic bearings operate with very low minimum ﬁlm thickness. Nevertheless, these hydrodynamic bearings have been operating successfully for many years in various rotary mills. The hydrodynamic bearings are designed with a thick layer of white metal bearing material (babbitt), and a cooling arrangement is included in the bearing. However, ever-increasing trunnion size makes the use of continuous hydrostatic bearings the preferred choice. Large-diameter bearings require special design considerations. A major problem is the lack of manufacturing precision in large bearings. A largediameter trunnion is less accurate in comparison to a regular, small-size journal, for the following reasons. 1. 2.

3.

Machining errors of round parts, in the form of out-of-roundness, are usually proportional to the diameter. The trunnion supports the heavy load of the mill, and elastic deformation of the hollow trunnion causes it to deviate from its ideal round geometry. Many processes require continuous ﬂow of hot air into the rotary mill through the trunnion, to dry the ores. This would result in thermal distortion of the trunnion; in turn, it would cause additional out-ofroundness errors.

256

Chapter 10

For successful operation, rolling bearings as well as hydrodynamic bearings require precision machining. For rolling-element bearings, any out-of-roundness of the trunnion or the bearing housing would deform the inner or outer rings of the rolling bearing. This undesired deformation would adversely affect the performance of the bearing and signiﬁcantly reduce its life. Moreover, largediameter rolling-element bearings are expensive in comparison to other alternatives. For a hydrodynamic bearing, the bearing and journal must be accurately round and ﬁtted together for sustained performance of a full hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm. Any out-of-roundness in the bearing or journal results in a direct contact and excessive wear. In addition, rotary mills rotate at relatively low speed, which is insufﬁcient for building up a ﬂuid ﬁlm of sufﬁcient thickness to support the large trunnion. An alternative that is often selected is the hydrostatic bearing system. As mentioned earlier, hydrostatic bearings can operate with a thicker ﬂuid ﬁlm and therefore are less sensitive to manufacturing errors and elastic deformation.

10.16.1

Self-Aligning and Self-Adjusted Hydrostatic Shoe Pads

A working solution to the aforementioned problems of large bearings in rotary mills has been in practice for many years, patented by Arsenius, from SKF (see Arsenius and Goran, 1973) and Trygg and McIntyre (1982). It is in the form of self-aligning hydrostatic shoe pads that support the trunnion as shown in Fig. 1013. These shoe pads can pivot to compensate for aligning errors, in all directions. Hydrostatic pads that pivot on a sphere for universal self-aligning are also used in small bearings. When two hydrostatic shoe pads support a circular trunnion (Fig. 10-13a), the load is distributed evenly between these two pads. In fact, the location of the two pads determines the location of the trunnion center. However, whenever three or more pads are supporting the trunnion, the load is no longer distributed evenly, and the design must include radial adjustment of the pads, as shown in Fig. 1013b. The load capacity is inversely proportional to h30 , where h0 is the radial clearance between the face of the hydrostatic pad and the trunnion running surface. Due to limitations in precision in the mounting of the pads, the clearance h0 is never equal in all the pads. Therefore, the design must include adjustment of the pad height to ensure that the load is distributed evenly among all the pads. Adjustment is required only for the extra pads above the ﬁrst two pads, which do not need adjustment. Therefore, each of the extra hydrostatic pads must be designed to move automatically in the radial direction of the trunnion until the load is divided evenly among all pads. This way, the pads always keep a constant clearance from the trunnion surface.

Hydrostatic Bearings

257

F IG. 10-13 Hydrostatic shoe pads: (a) Two-pad support. (b) Four-pad support: All pads are self-aligning, two have radial adjustment. From Trygg and McIntyre (1982), reprinted with permission from CIM Bulletin.

In addition, the large trunnion becomes slightly oval under the heavy load of the mill. For a large trunnion, out-of-roundness errors due to elastic deformation are of the order of 6 mm (one-quarter inch). In addition, mounting errors, deﬂection of the mill axis, and out-of-roundness errors in the machining of the trunnion surface all add up to quite signiﬁcant errors that require continuous clearance adjustment by means of radial motion of the pads. Also, it is impossible to construct the hydrostatic system precisely so that all pads will have equal clearance, h0 , for equally sharing the load among the pads. Therefore, the hydrostatic pads must be designed to be self-adjusting; namely they must move automatically in the radial direction of the trunnion until the load is equalized among all the pads.

258

Chapter 10

F IG. 10-13 Hydrostatic shoe pads: (c) Self-aligning ball support with pressure relief. (d) Master and slave shoe pads. (From Trygg and McIntyre (1982), reprinted with permission from CIM Bulletin.)

Since the pads are self-aligning and self-adjusting, the foundation’s construction does not have to be precise, and a relatively low-cost welded structure can be used as a bed to support the set of hydrostatic pads. The design concept is as follows: The surface of the pads is designed with the same radius of curvature as the trunnion outside surface. The clearance is adjusted, by pad radial displacement, which requires additional lower piston and hydraulic oil pressure for radial displacement. Explanation of the control of the pad radial motion will follow shortly. If sufﬁcient constant-ﬂow-rate of oil is fed into each pad from external pumps, it is then possible to build up appropriate pressure in each of the pad

Hydrostatic Bearings

259

recesses for separating completely the mating surfaces by means of a thin oil ﬁlm. A major advantage of hydrostatic pads is that the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness is independent of the trunnion speed. The ﬂuid ﬁlm is formed when the trunnion is stationary or rotating, and the mating surfaces are completely separated by oil ﬁlm during start-up as well as during steady operation. All pads have universal angular self-aligning (see Fig. 10-13b). This is achieved by supporting each pad on a sphere (hard metal ball), as shown in Fig. 10-13c, where the pad has a spheroid recess with its center coinciding with the sphere center. In this way, it can tilt in all directions, and errors in alignment with the trunnion outside surface are compensated. However, the spheroid pivot arrangement under high load has a relatively high friction torque. This friction torque, combined with the inertia of the pad, would result in slow movement and slow reaction to misalignment. In fact, in large hydrostatic pads the reaction is too slow to adequately compensate the variable misalignment during the rotation of the trunnion. To improve the self-alignment performance, part of the load on the metal ball is relieved by hydrostatic pressure. The bottom part of the pad has been designed as a piston and is pressurized by oil pressure. The oil pressure relieves a portion of the load on the metal ball, and in turn the undesired friction torque is signiﬁcantly reduced, as shown schematically in Fig. 10-13c. In Fig. 10-13b, the radial positions of two inner pads determine the location of the axis of rotation of the trunnion; therefore, these two pads do not require radial adjustments, and they are referred to as master shoe pads. Any additional shoe pads require radial adjustment and are referred to as slave shoes. The design of the master and slave shoe pads with the hydraulic connections is shown in Fig. 10-13d. In the slave shoe, there is radial adjustment of the pad clearance with the trunnion surface. The radial adjustment requires an additional lower piston, as shown in Fig. 10-13d. The radial motion of the lower piston is by means of hydrostatic oil pressure. The oil is connected by an additional duct to the space beneath the lower pad. There is a hydraulic duct connection, and the pressures are equalized in the two spaces below the two pads and in the pad recess (in contact with the trunnion surface) of the master and slave shoes. Since there is a constant ﬂow rate, this equal pressure is a load-dependent pressure. If the area of the lower piston is larger than the effective pad area, the lower piston will push the piston and shoe pad in the radial direction (in the slave shoe) and adjust the radial clearance with the trunnion until equal load capacity is reached in all pads. The recess pressure is a function of the load and the pad effective area. As the load increases, the ﬁlm thickness diminishes and the pressure rises. It is desirable to limit the pressure and the size of the pad. This can be achieved by increasing the number of pads.

260

Chapter 10

When the oil pump is turned off, the pads with the pistons return to the initial position, where the pistons rest completely on the metal ball. The pistons of the slave shoes must have sufﬁcient freedom of movement in the radial direction of the trunnion; therefore, only the master shoes carry the load when the hydraulic system is not under pressure. To minimize this load, the master shoes are placed in center positions between the slave shoes when four or six shoes are used. The combination of a master shoe and slave shoe operates as follows: The effective areas of the two pads are equal. If the clearance is the same in both shoes, the hydrostatic recess pressures must also be equal in the two pads. In this case, the load on both shoe pads is equalized. There is hydraulic connection between the lower piston cylinders of the master and slave recesses (both are supplied by one pump). In this way, the loaddependent pressure in the piston cylinder of the slave shoe will be the same as that in the master shoe, resulting in equal load capacity of each shoe pad at all times. This design can operate with certain deviation from roundness of the trunnion. For example, if there is a depression (reduced radius) in the trunnion surface, when this depression passes the pads of the slave shoe, the pressure at the recess of this pad drops. At the same time, the master shoe pad has not yet been affected by the depression and the pad of the master shoe will carry most of the load for a short duration. After this disturbance, the pressure at the slave pad would rise and lift the piston until there are equal recess pressures and load capacity in the two pads. Similarly, if there is a bulge (increased radius) on the surface of the trunnion, the process is reversed. In this way, the radial loads on the master and slave shoes are automatically controlled to be equal (with a minimal delay time). In conclusion, the clearances between the pads and trunnion surface are automatically controlled to be equal even if the trunnion is not perfectly round. Cross-sectional views of the slave and master shoes and an isometric view of the slave shoe are shown in Fig. 10-14. In the master pad, there is one oil inlet and there is a hydraulic connection to the slave shoe. The pad recess of the slave and master shoes is of a unique design. For stable operation, it is important that the pad angular misalignment be immediately corrected. Each pad has one large circular recess and four additional recesses at each corner, all hydraulically connected. The purpose of this design is to have higher hydrostatic restoring torque for fast correction of any misalignment error. Oil is supplied at equal pressure to all the recesses (see Fig. 10-15). For the large hydrostatic pads in rotary mills, each recess is fed at a constant ﬂowrate, and ﬂow restrictors are not used. Large hydrostatic pads consume a lot of power for the circulation of oil, and ﬂow restrictors considerably increase power losses. The preferred design is to use one central pump with ﬂow dividers. A standby pump in parallel is usually provided, to prevent loss of production in

Hydrostatic Bearings

261

F IG. 10-14 Cross sections and isometric views of master and slave shoe pads. (From Trygg and McIntyre (1982), reprinted with permission from CIM Bulletin.)

case of oil pump failure. The trunnion bearings are continually monitored, to prevent early failure due to unexpected conditions. The bearing temperature and the hydrostatic pressure are continually recorded, and a warning system is set off whenever these values exceed an acceptable limit. In addition, the operation of the mill is automatically cut off when the hydrostatic bearing loses its pressure. The hydraulic supply system is shown in Fig. 10-15. Each shoe is fed at a constant ﬂow rate by four ﬂow dividers. One positive-displacement pump is used to pump the oil from the oil tank. The oil is fed into the ﬂow dividers through an oil ﬁlter, relief valve, and check valve. An accumulator is used to reduce the pressure ﬂuctuations involved in positive-displacement pumps. Four pumps can be used as well. The oil returns to the sump and passes to the oil tank. Additional safety devices are pressure sensors provided to ensure that if the supply pressure

262

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F IG. 10-15 Hydraulic system for hydrostatic pad shoes. (From Trygg and McIntyre (1982), reprinted with permission from CIM Bulletin.)

Hydrostatic Bearings

263

drops, the mill rotation is stopped. Temperature monitoring is included to protect against overheating of the oil.

10.16.2

Advantages of Self-Aligning Hydrostatic Shoe Pads

Several publications related to the manufacture of these self-adjusting hydrostatic pads claim that there are major advantages in this design: It made it possible to signiﬁcantly reduce the cost and to reduce the weight of the bearing and trunnion as well as the length of the complete mill in comparison to hydrodynamic bearings. Most important, it improved the bearing performance, namely, it reduced signiﬁcantly the probability of bearing failure or excessive wear. The concept of this design is to apply self-aligning hydrostatic shoes, preferably four shoes for each bearing. One important advantage of the design is that the length of the trunnion is much shorter in comparison to that in hydrodynamic bearing design. The shortening of the trunnion results in several advantages. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

It reduces the weight of the trunnion and thus reduces the total weight of the mill. It simpliﬁes the feed into and from the mill. It reduces the total length of the mill and its weight, resulting in reduced bending moment, and thus the mill can be designed to be lighter. It will, in fact, reduce the cost of the materials and labor for construction of the mill. It reduces the elastic deformation, in the radial direction, of the trunnion. Stiffer trunnion has signiﬁcant advantages in bearing operation, because it reduces roundness errors; namely, it reduces elastic deformation to an elliptical shape.

In addition to shorter trunnion length, this design eliminates expensive castings followed by expensive precise machining, which are involved in the manufacturing process of the conventional hydrodynamic design. In this case, the casting can be replaced by a relatively low-cost welded construction. The hydrostatic shoes are relatively small, and their machining cost is much lower in comparison to that of large bearings. Moreover, the hydrostatic design operates with a thicker oil ﬁlm and provides self-aligning bearings in all directions. These improvements prevent unexpected failures due to excessive wear or seizure. This aspect is important because of the high cost involved in rotary mill repair as well as loss of production.

264

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Problems 10-1

A circular hydrostatic pad as shown in Fig. 10-1 has a constant supply pressure, ps . The circular pad is supporting a load of W ¼ 1000 N. The outside disk diameter is 200 mm, and the diameter of the circular recess is 100 mm. The oil is SAE 10 at an operating temperature of 70 C, having a viscosity of m ¼ 0:01 N-s=m2 . The pad is operating with a clearance of 120 mm. a.

Calculate the ﬂow rate Q of oil through the bearing to maintain the clearance of 120 mm. b. Find the recess pressure, pr . c. Find the effective area of this pad. d. If the supply pressure is twice the recess pressure, ps ¼ 2pr , ﬁnd the stiffness of the circular pad. 10-2

A circular hydrostatic pad, as shown in Fig. 10-1, has a constant ﬂow rate Q. The circular pad is supporting a load of W ¼ 1000 N. The outside disk diameter is 200 mm, and the diameter of the circular recess is 100 mm. The oil is SAE 10 at an operating temperature of 70 C, having a viscosity of m ¼ 0:01 N-s=m2 . The pad is operating with a clearance of 120 mm. a.

Calculate the constant ﬂow rate Q of oil through the bearing to maintain the clearance of 120 mm. b. Find the recess pressure, pr . c. Find the effective area of this pad. d. For a constant ﬂow rate, ﬁnd the stiffness of the circular pad operating under the conditions in this problem. 10-3

A long rectangular hydrostatic pad, as shown in Fig. 10-3, has constant ﬂow rate Q. The pad is supporting a load of W ¼ 10;000 N. The outside dimensions of the rectangular pad are: length is 300 mm and width is 60 mm. The inside dimensions of the central rectangular recess are: length is 200 mm and width is 40 mm. The pad is operating with a clearance of 100 mm. The oil is SAE 20 at an operating temperature of 60 C. Assume that the leakage in the direction of length is negligible in comparison to that in the width direction (the equations for two-dimensional ﬂow of a long pad apply). a.

Calculate the constant ﬂow rate Q of oil through the bearing to maintain the clearance of 100 mm. b. Find the recess pressure, pr .

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265

c. Find the effective area of this pad. d. For a constant ﬂow rate, ﬁnd the stiffness of the rectangular long pad operating under the conditions in this problem. 10-4

A slider-plate in a machine tool is supported by four bidirectional hydrostatic circular pads. Each recess is fed by a separate pump and has a constant ﬂow rate. Each bidirectional pad is as shown in Fig. 10-3 (but it is a circular and not a rectangular pad). The weight of the slider is 20,000 N, or 5000 N on each pad. The total manufactured clearance between the two pads ðh1 þ h2 Þ is 0.4 mm. Each circular pad is of 100-mm diameter and recess diameter of 50 mm. R ¼ 50 mm and R0 ¼ 25 mm. The oil viscosity is 0:01 N-s=m2 . In order to minimize vertical displacement, the slider plate is prestressed. The reaction force at the top is W1 ¼ 5000 N, and the reaction at the bottom is W2 ¼ 10;000 N (reaction to the top bearing reaction plus weight). a.

Find Q1 and Q2 in order that the two clearances will be equal ðh1 ¼ h2 Þ. b. If the ﬂow rate is the same at the bottom and top pads, ﬁnd the magnitude of the two clearances, h1 and h2 . What is the equal ﬂow rate, Q, into the two pads? c. For the ﬁrst case of equal clearances, ﬁnd the stiffness of each pad. Add them together for the stiffness of the slider. d. For the ﬁrst case of equal clearances, if we place an extra vertical load of 40 N on the slider (10 N on each pad), ﬁnd the downward vertical displacement of the slider. 10-5

In a machine tool, hydrostatic bearings support the slide plate as shown in Fig. 10-4. The supply pressure reaches each recess through a ﬂow restrictor. The hydrostatic bearings are long rectangular pads. Two bidirectional hydrostatic pads are positioned along the two sides of the slider plate. The weight of the slider is 10,000 N, or 5000 N on each pad. The total manufactured clearance between the two pads ðh1 þ h2 Þ ¼ 0:4 mm. The oil viscosity is 0:05 N-s=m2 . For minimizing vertical displacement, the slider plate is prestressed. The reaction of each pad from the top is 5000 N, and the reaction from the bottom of each pad is 10,000 N (reaction to the top bearing reaction plus half slider weight). In order to have equal recess pressure in all pads, the dimensions of the widths of the bottom pad are double those in the top pad. The dimensions of each rectangular pad are as follows.

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Top rectangular pad dimensions: 400 mm long and 30 mm wide. A rectangular recess is centered inside the rectangular pad, and its dimensions are 360-mm length and 10-mm width. Bottom rectangular pad dimensions: 400-mm length and 60mm width. A rectangular recess is centered inside the rectangular pad and its dimensions are 360-mm length and 20-mm width. a. Find the recess pressure, pr , at the bottom and top recesses. b. The supply pressure from one pump is twice the recess pressure, ps ¼ 2pr . Find the supply pressure. c. Find the ﬂow resistance, Rin , at the inlet of the bottom and top recesses in order that the two clearances will be equal ðh1 ¼ h2 Þ. d. The ﬂow resistance is made of a capillary tube of 1-mm ID. Find the length, lc , of the capillary tube at the inlet of the bottom and top recesses. e. Find the ﬂow rates Q1 and Q2 into the bottom and top recesses. f. For equal clearances, ﬁnd the stiffness of each pad. Add them together for the stiffness of the bi-directional pad. g. If we place an extra vertical load of 60 N on the slider (30 N on each bidirectional pad), ﬁnd the vertical displacement (down) of the slider. 10-6

A long rectangular hydrostatic pad, as shown in Fig. 10-3, has a constant supply pressure, ps . The pressure is fed into the recess through ﬂow restrictors. The pad supports a load of W ¼ 20;000 N. The outside dimensions of the rectangular pad are: length is 300 mm and width is 60 mm. The inside dimensions of the central rectangular recess are: length is 200 mm and width is 40 mm. The pad is designed to operate with a minimum clearance of 100 mm. The oil is SAE 30 at an operating temperature of 60 C. Assume that the equations for two-dimensional ﬂow of a long pad apply. a.

Calculate the ﬂow rate Q of oil through the bearing to maintain the clearance of 100 mm. b. Find the recess pressure, pr . c. Find the effective area of this pad. d. If the supply pressure is twice the recess pressure, ps ¼ 2pr , ﬁnd the stiffness of the pad.

11 Bearing Materials

11.1

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF TRIBOLOGY

During the twentieth century, there has been an increasing interest in the friction and wear characteristics of materials. The science of friction and wear of materials has been named Tribology (the science of rubbing). A lot of research has been conducted that resulted in signiﬁcant progress in the understanding of the fundamental principles of friction and wear of various materials. Several journals are dedicated to the publication of original research in this subject, and many reference books have been published where the research ﬁndings are presented. The most important objective of the research in tribology is to reduce friction and wear as well as other failure modes in bearings. On the other hand, there are many important applications where it is desirable to maximize friction, such as in brakes and in the friction between tires and road. The following is a short review of the fundamental principles of tribology that are important to practicing engineers. More detailed coverage of the research work in tribology has been published in several books that are dedicated to this subject. Included in the tribology literature are books by Bowden and Tabor (1956), Rabinowicz (1965), Bowden and Tabor (1986), Blau (1995), and Ludema (1996). It is well known that sliding surfaces of machine elements have a certain degree of surface roughness. Even highly polished surfaces are not completely 267

268

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smooth, and this roughness can be observed under the microscope or measured by a proﬁlometer. The surface roughness is often compared to a mountainous terrain, where the hills are referred to as surface asperities. The root mean square (RMS) of the surface roughness is often used to identify the surface ﬁnish, and it can be measured by a proﬁlometer. The RMS roughness value of the bestpolished commercial surfaces is about 0.01–250 mm (micrometers). Sliding surfaces are separated by the asperities; therefore, the actual contact area between two surfaces exists only at a few points, where contacts at the tip of the asperities take place. Each contact area is microscopic, and its size is of the order of 10– 50 mm. Actual total contact area, Ar , that supports the load is very small relative to the apparent area (by several orders of magnitude). A very small contact area at the tip of the surface asperities supports the external normal load, F, resulting in very high compression stresses at the contact. The high compression stresses cause elastic as well as plastic deformation that forms the actual contact area, Ar . Experiments indicated that the actual contact area, Ar , is proportional to the load, F, and the actual contact area is not signiﬁcantly affected by the apparent size of the surface. Moreover, the actual contact area, Ar , is nearly independent of the roughness value of the two surfaces. Under load, the contact area increases by elastic and plastic deformation. The deformation continues until the contact area and compression strength ph (of the softer material) can support the external load, F. The ultimate compression stress that the softer material can support, ph , depends on the material hardness, and the equation for the normal load is F ¼ ph A r

ð11-1Þ

The compression strength, ph , is also referred to as the penetration hardness, because the penetration of the hard asperity into the soft one is identical to a hardness test, such as the Vickers test. For elastic materials, ph is about three times the value of the compression yield stress (Rabinovitz, 1965).

11.1.1

Adhesion Friction

The recent explanation of the friction force is based on the theory of adhesion. Adhesion force is due to intermolecular forces between two rubbing materials. Under high contact pressure, the contact areas adhere together in the form of microscopic junctions. The magnitude of a microscopic junction is about 10– 50 mm; in turn, the friction is a continual process of formation and shearing of the microscopic junctions. The tangential friction force, Ff , is the sum of forces required for continual shearing of all the junction points. This process is repeated continually as long as an external tangential force, Ff , is provided to break the

Bearing Materials

269

adhesion contacts to allow for a relative sliding. The equation for the friction force is Ff ¼ tav Ar

ð11-2Þ

Here, tav is the average shear stress required for shearing the adhesion joints of the actual adhesion contacts of the total area Ar . Equation (11-2) indicates that, in fact, the friction force, Ff , is proportional to the actual total contact area, Ar , and is not affected by the apparent contact area. This explains the Coulomb friction laws, which state that the friction force Ft is proportional to the normal force Fn . The adhesion force is proportional to the actual area Ar , which, in turn, is proportional to the normal force, F, due to the elasticity of the material at the contact. When the normal force is removed, the elastic deformation recovers and there is no longer any friction force. In many cases, the strength of the adhesion joint is higher than that of the softer material. In such cases, the shear takes place in the softer material, near the junction, because the fracture takes place at the plane of least resistance. In this way, there is a material transfer from one surface to another. The average shear strength, tav , is in fact the lower value of two: the junction strength and the shear strength of the softer material. The adhesion and shearing of each junction occurs during a very short time because of its microscopic size. The friction energy is converted into heat, which is dissipated in the two rubbing materials. In turn, the temperature rises, particularly at the tip of the asperities. This results in a certain softening of the material at the contact, and the actual contact areas of adhesion increase, as does the junction strength.

11.1.2

Compatible Metals

A combination of two metals is compatible for bearing applications if it results in a low dry friction coefﬁcient and there is a low wear rate. Compatible metals are often referred to as score resistant, in the sense that the bearing resists fast scoring, in the form of deep scratches of the surface, which results in bearing failure. In general, two materials are compatible if they form two separate phases after being melted and mixed together; namely, the two metals have very low solid solubility. In such cases, the adhesion force is a relatively weak bond between the two surfaces of the sliding metals, resulting in low tav. In turn, there is relatively low friction force between compatible materials. On the other hand, when the two metals have high solubility with each other (can form an alloy), the metals are not compatible, and a high friction coefﬁcient is expected in most cases (Ernst and Merchant, 1940). For example, identical metals are completely soluble; therefore, they are not compatible for bearing applications, such as steel

270

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on steel and copper on copper. Aluminum and mild steel are soluble and have a high friction coefﬁcient. On the other hand, white metal (babbitt), which is an alloy of tin, antimony, lead, and copper, is compatible against steel. Steel journal and white metal bearings have low dry friction and demonstrate outstanding score resistance. Roach, et al. (1956) tested a wide range of metals in order to compare their score resistance (compatibility) against steel. Table 11-1 summarizes the results by classifying the metals into compatibility classes of good, fair, poor, and very poor. Good compatibility means that the metal has good score resistance against steel. In this table, the atomic number is listed before the element, and the melting point in degrees Celsius is listed after the element. Cadmium has been found to be an intermediate between ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘fair’’ and copper an intermediate between ‘‘fair’’ and ‘‘poor.’’ The melting point does not appear to affect the compatibility with steel. Zinc, for example, has a melting point between those of lead and antimony, but has poorer compatibility in comparison to the two. It should be noted that many metals that are classiﬁed as having a good compatibility with steel are the components of white metals (babbitts) that are widely used as bearing material. Roach et al. (1956) suggested an explanation that the shear strength at the junctions determines the score resistance. Metals that are mutually soluble tend to have strong junctions that result in a poor compatibility (poor score resistance). However, there are exceptions to this rule. For example, magnesium, barium, and calcium are not soluble in steel but do not have a good score resistance against steel. Low friction and score resistance depends on several other factors. Hard metals do not penetrate into each other and do not have a high friction coefﬁcient. Humidity also plays an important role, because the moisture layer acts as a lubricant. Under light loads, friction results only in a low temperature of the rubbing surfaces. In such cases, the temperature may not be sufﬁciently high for the metals to diffuse into each other. In turn, there would not be a signiﬁcant score of the surfaces, although the metals may be mutually soluble. In addition, it has been suggested that these types of bonds between the atoms, in the boundary of the two metals, play an important role in compatibility. Certain atomic bonds are more brittle, and the junctions break easily, resulting in a low friction coefﬁcient.

11.1.3

Coulomb Friction Laws

According to Coulomb (1880), the tangential friction force, Ff , is not dependent on the sliding velocity or on the apparent contact area. However, the friction

Element

Germanium Silver Indium Tin Antimony Thallium Lead Bismuth

Atomic number

32 47 49 50 51 81 82 83

6 34 52 29

48 Cadmium 321

958 960 155 232 630 303 327 271

Melting Atomic Temp. C number Carbon Selenium Tellurium Copper

Element

Fair

12 13 30 56 74

29 Copper 1083

220 452 1083

Melting Atomic Temp. C number

Elements Compatible with Steel, from Roach et al. (1956)

Good

T ABLE 11-1

Magnesium Aluminum Zinc Barium Tungsten

Element

Poor

651 660 419 830 3370

42 45 46 58 73 77 78 79 90 92

4 14 20 22 24 26 27 28 40 41

Melting Atomic Temp. C number Beryllium Silicon Calcium Titanium Chromium Iron Cobalt Nickel Zirconium Niobium (Columbium) Molybdenum Rhodium Palladium Cerium Tantalum Iridium Platinum Gold Thorium Uranium

Element

Very Poor

2620 1985 1553 640 2850 2350 1773 1063 1865 1130

1280 1420 810 1800 1615 1535 1480 1455 1900 1950

Melting Temp. C

Bearing Materials 271

272

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force, Ff , is proportional to the normal load, F. For this reason, the friction coefﬁcient, f , is considered to be constant and it is deﬁned as f ¼

Ff F

ð11-3Þ

Equation (11-3) is applicable in most practical problems. However, it is already commonly recognized that the friction laws of Coulomb are only an approximation. In fact, the friction coefﬁcient is also a function of the sliding velocity, the temperature, and the magnitude of the normal load, F. Substituting Eqs. (11-1) and (11-2) into Eq. (11-3) yields the following expression for the friction coefﬁcient: f ¼

Ff t ¼ av F ph

ð11-4Þ

Equation (11-4) is an indication of the requirements for a low friction coefﬁcient of bearing materials. A desirable combination is of relative high hardness, ph , and low average shear strength, tav . High hardness reduces the contact area, while a low shear strength results in easy breaking of the junctions (at the adhesion area or at the softer material). A combination of hard materials and low shear strength usually results in a low friction coefﬁcient. An example is white metal, which is a multiphase alloy with a low friction coefﬁcient against steel. The hard phase of the white metal has sufﬁcient hardness, or an adequate value of ph . At the same time, a soft phase forms a thin overlay on the surface. The soft layer on the surface has mild adhesion with steel and can shear easily (low tav ). This combination of a low ratio tav =ph results in a low friction coefﬁcient of white metal against steel, which is desirable in bearings. The explanation is similar for the low friction coefﬁcient of cast iron against steel. Cast iron has a thin layer of graphite on the surface of very low tav. An additional example is porous bronze ﬁlled with PTFE, where a thin layer of soft PTFE, which has low tav, is formed on the surface. Any reduction of the adhesive energy decreases the friction force. Friction in a vacuum is higher than in air. The reduction of friction in air is due to the adsorption of moisture as well as other molecules from the air on the surfaces. In the absence of lubricant, in most practical cases the friction coefﬁcient varies between 0.2 and 1. However, friction coefﬁcients as low as 0.05 can be achieved by the adsorption of boundary lubricants on metal surfaces in practical applications. All solid lubricants, as well as liquid lubricants, play an important role in forming a thin layer of low tav, and in turn, the friction coefﬁcient is reduced. In addition to adhesion friction, there are other types of friction. However, in most cases, adhesion accounts for a signiﬁcant portion of the friction force. In most practical cases, adhesion is over 90% of the total friction. Additional types of the friction are plowing friction, abrasive friction, and viscous shear friction.

Bearing Materials

11.2

273

WEAR MECHANISMS

Unless the sliding surfaces are completely separated by a lubrication ﬁlm, a certain amount of wear is always present. If the sliding materials are compatible, wear can be mild under appropriate conditions, such as lubrication and moderate stress. However, undesirably severe wear can develop if these conditions are not maintained, such as in the case of overloading the bearing or oil starvation. In addition to the selection of compatible materials and lubrication, the severity of the wear increases with the surface temperature. The bearing temperature increases with the sliding speed, V , because the heat, q, that is generated per unit of time is equal to the mechanical power needed to overcome friction. The power losses are described according to the equation q ¼ f FV

ð11-5Þ

In the absence of liquid lubricant, heat is removed only by conduction through the two rubbing materials. The heat is ultimately removed by convection from the materials to the air. Poor heat conductivity of the bearing material results in elevated surface temperatures. At high surface temperatures, the friction coefﬁcient increases with a further rise of temperature. This chain of events often causes scoring wear and can ultimately cause, under severe conditions, seizure failure of the bearing. The risk of seizure is particularly high where the bearing runs without lubrication. In order to prevent severe wear, compatible materials should always be selected. In addition, the PV value should be limited as well as the magnitudes of P and V separately.

11.2.1

Adhesive Wear

Adhesive wear is associated with adhesion friction, where strong microscopic junctions are formed at the tip of the asperities of the sliding surfaces. This wear can be severe in the absence of lubricant. The junctions must break due to relative sliding. The break of a junction can take place not exactly at the original interface, but near it. In this way, small particles of material are transferred from one surface to another. Some of these particles can become loose, in the form of wear debris. Severe wear can be expected during the sliding of two incompatible materials without lubrication, because the materials have strong adhesion. For two rubbing metals, high adhesion wear is associated with high solid solubility with each other (such as steel on steel). Adhesion junctions are formed by the high contact pressure at the tip of the surface asperities. However, much stronger junctions are generated when the temperature at the junction points is relatively high. Such strong junctions often cause scoring damage. The source of elevated surface temperature can be the process, such as in engines or turbines, as well as friction energy that generates high-temperature hot spots on the rubbing

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surfaces. When surface temperature exceeds a certain critical value, wear rate will accelerate. This wear is referred to in the literature as scufﬁng or scoring, which can be identiﬁed by material removed in the form of lines along the sliding direction. Overheating can also lead to catastrophic bearing failure in the form of seizure.

11.2.2

Abrasion Wear

This type of wear occurs in the presence of hard particles, such as sand dust or metal wear debris between the rubbing surfaces. Also, for rough surfaces, plowing of one surface by the hard asperities of the other results in abrasive wear. In properly designed bearings, with adequate lubrication, it is estimated that 85% of wear is due to abrasion. It is possible to reduce abrasion wear by proper selection of bearing materials. Soft bearing materials, in which the abrasive particles become embedded, protect the shaft as well as the bearing from abrasion.

11.2.3

Fatigue Wear

The damage to the bearing surface often results from fatigue. This wear is in the form of pitting, which can be identiﬁed by many shallow pits, where material has been removed from the surface. This type of wear often occurs in line-contact or point-contact friction, such as in rolling-element bearings and gears. The maximum shear stress is below the surface. This often results in fatigue cracks and eventually causes peeling of the surface material. In rolling-element bearings, gears, and railway wheels, the wear mechanism is different from that in journal bearings, because there is a line or point contact and there are alternating high compression stresses at the contact. In contrast, the surfaces in journal bearings are conformal, and the compression stresses are more evenly distributed over a relatively larger area. Therefore, the maximum compression stress is not as high as in rolling contacts, and adhesive wear is the dominant wear mechanism. In line and point contact, the surfaces are not conformal, and fatigue plays an important role in the wear mechanisms, causing pitting, i.e., shallow pits on the surface. Fatigue failure can start as surface cracks, which extend into the material, and eventually small particles become loose.

11.2.4

Corrosion Wear

Corrosion wear is due to chemical attack on the surface, such as in the presence of acids or water in the lubricant. In particular, a combination of corrosion and fatigue can often cause an early failure of the bearing.

Bearing Materials

11.3

275

SELECTION OF BEARING MATERIALS

A large number of publications describe the wear and friction characteristics of various bearing materials.* However, when it comes to the practical design and selection of materials, numerous questions arise concerning the application of this knowledge in practical situations. We must keep in mind that the bearing material is only one aspect of an integrated bearing design, and even the best and most expensive materials would not guarantee successful operation if the other design principles are ignored. Although hydrodynamic bearings are designed to operate with a full oil ﬁlm, direct contact of the material surfaces occurs during starting and stopping. Some bearings are designed to operate with boundary or mixed lubrication where there is a direct contact between the asperities of the two surfaces. Proper material combination is required to minimize friction, wear, and scoring damage in all bearing types, including those operating with hydrodynamic or hydrostatic ﬂuid ﬁlms. In a hydrostatic bearing, the ﬂuid pressure is supplied by an external pump, and a full ﬂuid ﬁlm is maintained during starting and stopping. The hydrostatic ﬂuid ﬁlm is much thicker in comparison to the hydrodynamic one. However, previous experience in machinery indicates that the bearing material is important even in hydrostatic bearings. Experience indicates that there are always unexpected vibrations and disturbances as well as other deviations from normal operating conditions. Therefore, the sliding materials are most likely to have a direct contact, even if the bearing is designed to operate as a full hydrodynamic or hydrostatic bearing. For example, in a certain design of a machine tool, the engineers assumed that the hydrostatic bearing maintains full ﬁlm lubrication at all times, and selected a steel-on-steel combination. However, the machines were recalled after a short operating period due to severe bearing damage. There is a wide range of bearing materials to select from—metals, plastics, and composite materials—and there is no one ideal bearing material for all cases. The selection depends on the application, which includes type of bearing, speed, load, type of lubrication, and operating conditions, such as temperature and maximum contact pressure. In general, a bearing metal should have balanced mechanical properties. On the one hand, the metal matrix should be soft, with sufﬁcient plasticity to conform to machining and alignment errors as well as to allow any abrasive particles in the lubricant to be embedded in the bearing metal. On the other hand, the metal should have sufﬁcient hardness and compression strength, even at high operating temperature, to avoid any creep and squeezing ﬂow of the metal under load, as well as having adequate resistance to fatigue and impact. The selection is a *Examples are Kennedy et al. (1998), Kingsbury (1997), Blau (1992), Booser (1992), Kaufman (1980), and Peterson and Winer (1980).

276

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tradeoff between these contradictory requirements. For the manufacture of the bearing, easy melting and casting properties are required. In addition, the bearing metal must adhere to the steel shell and should not separate from the shell by metal fatigue. The following is a discussion of the most important performance characteristics that are usually considered in the selection of bearing materials.

11.3.1

Score and Seizure Resistance

Compatibility between two materials refers to their ability to prevent scoring damage and seizure under conditions of friction without adequate lubrication. Compatible materials demonstrate relatively low friction coefﬁcient under dry and boundary lubrication conditions. In metals, junctions at the tip of the surface asperities are formed due to high contact pressure. When these junctions are torn apart by tangential friction force, the surfaces are scored. The high friction energy raises the surface temperature, and in turn stronger junctions are formed, which can result in bearing failure by seizure. Similar metals are not compatible because they tend to have relatively high friction coefﬁcients, e.g., steel on steel. A more compatible combination would be steel on bronze or steel on white metal. Most plastic bearings are compatible with steel shafts.

11.3.2

Embeddability

This is an important characteristic of soft bearing materials, where small hard particles become embedded in the bearing material and thus prevent abrasion damage. Dust, such as silica, and metal particles (wear products) are always present in the oil. These small, hard particles can cause severe damage, in the form of abrasion, particularly when the oil ﬁlm is very thin, at low speeds under high loads. The abrasion damage is more severe whenever there is overheating of the bearing. When the hard particles are embedded in the soft bearing metal, abrasion damage is minimized.

11.3.3

Corrosion Resistance

Certain bearing metals are subject to corrosion by lubricating oils containing acids or by oils that become acidic through oxidation. Oil oxidation takes place when the oil is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods, such as in engines. Oxidation inhibitors are commonly added to oils to prevent the formation of corrosive organic acids. Corrosion fatigue can develop in the bearing metal in the presence of signiﬁcant corrosion. Corrosion-resistant materials should be applied in all applications where corrosives may be present in the lubricant or the environment. Improved alloys have been developed that are more corrosion resistant.

Bearing Materials

11.3.4

277

Fatigue Resistance

In bearings subjected to oscillating loads, such as in engines, conditions for fatigue failure exist. Bearing failure starts, in most cases, in the form of small cracks on the surface of the bearing, which extend down into the material and tend to separate the bearing material from the housing. When sufﬁciently large cracks are present in the bearing surface, the oil ﬁlm deteriorates, and failure by overheating can be initiated. It is impossible to specify the load that results in fatigue, because many operating parameters affect the fatigue process, such as frequency of oscillating load, metal temperature, design of the bearing housing, and the amount of journal ﬂexure. However, materials with high fatigue resistance are usually desirable.

11.3.5

Conformability

This is the ability to deform and to compensate for inaccuracy of the bearing dimensions and its assembly relative to the journal. We have to keep in mind that there are always manufacturing tolerances, and metal deformation can correct for some of these inaccuracies. An example is the ability of a material to conform to misalignment between the bearing and journal. The conformability can be in the form of plastic or elastic deformation of the bearing and its support. The characteristic of having large plastic deformation is also referred to as deformability. This property indicates the ability of the material to yield without causing failure. For example, white metal, which is relatively soft, can plastically deform to correct for manufacturing errors.

11.3.6

Friction Coe⁄cient

The friction coefﬁcient is a function of many parameters, such as lubrication, temperature, and speed. Proper selection of the rubbing materials is important, particularly in dry and boundary lubrication. A low coefﬁcient of friction is usually desirable in most applications. In most cases, a combination of hard and soft materials results in a low friction coefﬁcient. A low coefﬁcient of friction is usually related to the compatibility (score-resistance) characteristic, where partial welding of the surface asperities occurring at hot spots on the rubbing surfaces can increase friction.

11.3.7

Porosity

This property indicates the ability of the material to contain ﬂuid or solid lubricants. An example of a porous metal is sintered bronze, which can be impregnated with oil or white metal. Such porous bearings offer a signiﬁcant

278

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advantage, of reduction in maintenance cost in applications of boundary lubrication, where only a small amount of lubricant is required.

11.3.8

Thermal Conductivity

For most applications, a relatively high thermal conductivity improves the performance of the bearing. The friction energy is dissipated in the bearing as heat, and rapid heat transfer reduces the operating temperature at the sliding contact.

11.3.9

Thermal Expansion

The thermal expansion coefﬁcient is an important property in bearing design. It is desirable that the thermal expansion of the bearing be greater than the journal, to reduce the risk of thermal seizure. However, if the expansion coefﬁcient is excessively large in comparison to that of the steel shaft, a very large clearance would result, such as in plastic bearings. Unique designs with elastic ﬂexibility are available to overcome the problem of overexpansion.

11.3.10

Compressive Strength

A high compressive strength is required for most applications. The bearing should be capable of carrying the load at the operating temperature. This characteristic is in conﬂict with that of conformability and embeddability. Usually for high compressive strength, high-hardness bearing material is required. However, for conformability and embeddability, relatively low hardness values are desired.

11.3.11

Cost

The bearing material should be cost effective for any particular application. To reduce the bearing cost, material should be selected that can be manufactured in a relatively low-cost process. For metals, easy casting and machining properties are desirable to reduce the manufacturing cost. For metal bearings, a bronze bushing is considered a simple low-cost solution, while silver is the most expensive. Plastic bearings are widely used, primarily for their low cost as well as their lowcost manufacturing process. Most plastic bearings are made in mass production by injection molding.

11.3.12

Manufacturing

Consideration should be given to the manufacturing process. Bearing metals must have a relatively low melting point and have good casting properties. Also, they

Bearing Materials

279

should exhibit good bonding properties, to prevent separation from the backing material during operation.

11.3.13

Classi¢cation of Bearing Materials

Bearing materials can be metallic or nonmetallic. Included in the metallic category are several types of white metals (tin and lead-based alloys), bronzes, aluminum alloys, and porous metals. Certain thin metallic coatings are widely used, such as white metals, silver, and indium. The nonmetallic bearing materials include plastics, rubber, carbon-graphite, ceramics, cemented carbides, metal oxides, glass, and composites, such as glass-ﬁber- and carbon-ﬁber-reinforced PTFE (Teﬂon).

11.4

METAL BEARINGS

White Metal: Tin- and Lead-Based Alloys (Babbitts) Isaac Babbitt invented and in 1839 obtained a U.S. patent on the use of a soft white alloy for a bearing. This was a tin-based alloy with small amounts of added copper, antimony, and lead. These alloys are often referred to as babbitts. The term white metal is used today for tin- as well as lead-based alloys. A white metal layer is cast as a bearing surface for steel, aluminum, bronze, or cast iron sleeves. White metal can undergo signiﬁcant plastic deformation, resulting in excellent embeddability and conformability characteristics. Hard crystals are dispersed in the soft matrix and increase the hardness of the alloy, but they do not have a signiﬁcant adverse effect on the frictional properties because the soft matrix spreads out on the surface during sliding to form a thin lubricating ﬁlm. This results in a low friction coefﬁcient, since the shearing stress of the soft matrix is relatively low. The limit to the use of white metals is their relatively low melting temperature. Also, there are limits to the magnitude of steady compression pressure—7 N=mm2 (7 Mpa)—and much lower limits whenever there is fatigue under oscillating loads. Using very thin layers of white metal can extend the limit. Of course, the maximum loads must be reduced at elevated temperature, such as in engines, where the temperature is above 100 C, where white metal loses nearly 50% of its compression strength. Speciﬁcations and tables of properties of white metals are included in ASTM B23 (1990). White metal has considerable advantages as a bearing material, and it is recommended as the ﬁrst choice for most applications. In order to beneﬁt from these advantages, the design should focus on limiting the peak pressure and maximum operating temperature. Soft sleeve materials can tolerate some misalignment, and dust particles in the oil can be embedded in the soft material, thus

280

Chapter 11

preventing excessive abrasion and wear. However, white metal has a relatively low melting point and can creep if the maximum pressure is above its compressive strength. Thin white metal linings offer better resistance to creep and fatigue; see Fig. 11-1. At the beginning of the twentieth century, white metal linings were much thicker (5 mm and more) in comparison to current applications. The requirement to reduce the size of machines resulted in smaller bearings that have to support higher compressive loads. Also, faster machines require bearings with greater fatigue strength. These requirements were met by reducing the thickness of the white metal lining to 800 mm, and in heavy-duty applications to as low as 50– 120 mm. Fatigue strength is increased by decreasing the thickness of the white metal lining. The reduction of thickness is a tradeoff between fatigue resistance and the properties of embeddabilty and conformability of the thicker white metal lining. For certain applications, thick layers of white metal are still applied successfully. In automotive engines, a very thin lining, of thickness below 800 mm, is commonly applied. Tin-based white metal has been used exclusively in the past, but now has been replaced in many cases by the lower-cost lead-based white metal. The yield point of the lead-based white metal is lower, but when the white metal layer is very thin on a backing lining of good heat-conductor metals, such as aluminum or copper-lead, the lead-based white metal bearings give satisfactory performance.

F IG. 11-1

Fatigue resistance as a function of white metal thickness.

Bearing Materials

281

One advantage of the white metal is good adhesion to the shell material, such as steel or bronze. Also, it has better seizure resistance in comparison to harder materials, in the case of oil starvation or during starting and stopping. A thick wall lining has the advantage that the sleeve can be replaced (in most cases by centrifugal casting). For large bearings, there is an additional advantage in applying a thick layer, since the white metal can be scraped and ﬁtted to the journal during assembly of the machine. Therefore, a thick white metal layer is still common in large bearings. White metal has been considered the best bearing material, and the quality of other bearing materials can be determined by comparison to it.

11.4.2

Tin-Based Versus Lead-Based White Metals

The advantages of tin-based white metals in comparison to their lead-based counterparts include higher thermal conductivity, higher compression strength, higher fatigue and impact strength, and higher corrosion resistance. On the other hand, lead-based white metals exhibit a lower friction coefﬁcient, better bonding to the shells, and better properties for casting. However, the increase in use of lead-based white metal is attributed mostly to its lower cost.

11.4.3

Copper^Lead Alloys

These alloys contain from 28% to 40% Pb. They are used primarily in the automotive and aircraft industries. They are also used in general engineering applications. They have a higher load capacity and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to white metal. Also, they can operate at higher temperatures. But they have a relatively lower antiseizure characteristic. These alloys are usually cast or sintered to a steel backing strip. The higher-lead-content alloy is used on steel or cast iron–backed bearings. These are commonly used for medium-duty automotive bearings. In order to maintain the soft copper matrix, the tin content in these alloys is restricted to a low level. The higher lead content improves the corrosion and antiseizure properties. However, in most applications, the corrosion and antiseizure properties are improved by a thin lead-tin or lead-indium overlay. In engine bearings, bare copper-lead bearings are no longer common. Corrosive acids that are formed in the crankcase lubricant attack the lead material. Many of the copper-lead alloys, with lead contents near 25%, are plated with additional overlays. This forms the three-layer bearing—a steel backing covered by a layer of copper-lead alloy and a thin overlay of lead-tin or lead-indium. Such three-layer metal bearings are widely applied in automotive and diesel engines. Sintered and impregnated porous alloys are included in this group, such as SAE 482, 484, and 485.

282

11.4.4

Chapter 11

Bronze

All bronzes can be applied as bearing materials, but the properties of bronzes for bearings are usually improved by adding a considerable amount of lead. Lead improves the bearing performance by forming a foundation for the hard crystals. But lead involves manufacturing difﬁculties, since it is not easily kept in solution and its alloys require controlled casting. Bronzes with about 30% lead are referred to as plastic bronze. This signiﬁcant lead content enhances the material’s friction properties. However, the strength and hardness are reduced. These bronzes have higher strength than the white metals and are used for heavy mill bearings. A small amount of nickel in bearing bronze helps in keeping the lead in solution. Also, the resistance to compression and shock is improved. Iron content of up to 1% improves the resistance to shock and hardens the bronze. However, at the same time it reduces the grain size and tends to segregate the lead.

11.4.5

Cast Iron

In most applications, the relatively high hardness of cast iron makes it unsuitable as a bearing material. But in certain applications it is useful, particularly for its improved seizure resistance, caused by the graphite ﬁlm layer formed on its surface. The most important advantages of cast iron are a low friction coefﬁcient, high seizure resistance, high mechanical strength, the formation of a good bond with the shell, and, ﬁnally, low cost.

11.4.6

Aluminum Alloys

Aluminum alloys have two important advantages. The major advantage is their high thermal conductivity (236 W=m C). They readily transfer heat from the bearing, resulting in a lower operating temperature of the bearing surface. The second advantage is their high compressive strength [34 Mpa (5000 psi)]. The aluminum alloys are widely used as a backing material with an overlay of white metal. Examples of widely used aluminum alloys in automotive engines are an alloy with 4% silicon and 4% cadmium, and alloys containing tin, nickel, copper, and silicon. Also, aluminum-tin alloys are used, containing 20% to 30% tin, for heavily loaded high-speed bearings. These bearings are designed, preferably with steel backings, to conserve tin, which is relatively expensive, as well as to add strength. Addition of 1% copper raises the hardness and improves the physical qualities. The limit for the copper component is usually 3%. The copper is alloyed with the aluminum. However, the tin exists in the form of a continuous crystalline network in the aluminum alloy. These alloys must have a matrix of aluminum through which various elements are dispersed and not dissolved.

Bearing Materials

11.4.7

283

Silver

Silver is used only in unique applications in which the use of silver is required. Its high cost prohibits extensive application of this material. One example of an important application is the connecting rod bearings in aircraft engines. The major advantages of silver are its high thermal conductivity and excellent fatigue resistance. However, other mechanical properties of silver are not as good. Therefore, a very thin overlay of lead or lead-indium alloy (thickness of 25– 100 mm) is usually applied to improve compatibility and embeddability.

11.4.8

Porous Metal Bearings

Porous metal bearings, such as porous sintered bronze, contain ﬂuid or solid lubricants. The porous material is impregnated with oil or a solid lubricant, such as white metal. A very thin layer of oil or solid lubricant migrates through the openings to the bearing surface. These bearings are selected for applications where boundary lubrication is adequate with only a small amount of lubricant. Porous bearings impregnated with lubricant offer a signiﬁcant advantage of reduction of maintenance cost.

11.5

NONMETAL BEARING MATERIALS

Nonmetallic materials are widely used for bearings because they offer diversiﬁed characteristics that can be applied in a wide range of applications. Generally, they have lower heat conductivity, in comparison to metals; therefore, they are implemented in applications that have a low PV (load–speed product) value. Nonmetallic bearings are selected where self-lubrication and low cost are required (plastic materials) and where high temperature stability must be maintained as well as chemical resistance (e.g., carbon graphite). Nonmetallic bearing materials include the following groups: Plastics: PTFE (Teﬂon), nylon, phenolics, ﬁber-reinforced plastics, etc. Ceramics Carbon Graphite Rubber Other diverse materials, such as wood and glass

11.5.1

Plastic Bearing Materials

Lightly loaded bearings are fabricated mostly from plastic materials. Plastics are increasingly used as bearing materials, not only for the appropriate physical characteristics, but also for their relatively low cost in comparison to metal bearings. Many polymers, such as nylon, can be formed to their ﬁnal shape by

284

Chapter 11

injection molding, where large quantities are manufactured in mass production, resulting in low unit manufacturing cost. Plastic bearings can be used with or without liquid lubrication. If possible, liquid lubrication should be applied, because it reduces friction and wear and plays an important role in cooling the bearing. Whenever liquid lubrication is not applied, solid lubricants can be blended into the base plastics to reduce friction, often referred to as improving the lubricity of plastics. Polymer is synthetically made of a monomer that is a basic unit of chemical composition, such as ethylene or tetraﬂuorethlene. The monomer molecules always have atoms of carbon in combination with other atoms. For example, ethylene is composed of carbon and hydrogen, and in tetraﬂuorethlene, the hydrogen is replaced by ﬂuorine. The polymers are made by polymerization; that is, each monomer reacts with many other similar monomers to form a very longchain molecule of repeating monomer units (see Fig. 11-2). The polymers become stronger as the molecular weight increases. For example, low-molecu-

F IG. 11-2

Examples of monomers and their multiunit polymers.

Bearing Materials

285

lar-weight polyethylene, which has at least 100 units of CH2 , is a relatively soft material. Increasing the number of units makes the material stronger and tougher. The longest chain is ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). It has up to half a million units of CH2 , and it is the toughest polyethylene. This material has an important application as a bearing material in artiﬁcial replacement joints, such as hip joints. Over the last few decades, there has been an increasing requirement for low-cost bearings for various mass-produced machinery and appliances. This resulted in a dramatic rise in the development and application of new plastic materials for bearings. It was realized that plastics are lighter and less expensive than metals, have good surface toughness, can be manufactured by mass production processes such as injection molding, and are available in a greater variety than metallic sleeve bearings. In automotive applications, plastic bearings have steadily replaced bronze bushings for most lightly loaded bearings. The recent rise in the use of plastic bearings can also be attributed to the large volume of research and development that resulted in a better understanding of the properties of various polymers and to the development of improved manufacturing technology for new engineering plastics. An additional reason for the popularity of plastic bearings is the development of the technology of composite materials. Fiber-reinforced plastics improve the bearing strength, and additives of solid lubricants improve wear resistance. Also, signiﬁcant progress has been made in testing and documenting the properties of various plastics and composites. Widely used engineering plastics for bearings include phenolics, acetals, polyamides, polyesters, and ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene. For many applications, composites of plastics with various materials have been developed that combine low friction with low wear rates and creep rates and good thermal conductivity. Reinforced plastics offer a wide selection of wear-resistant bearing materials at reasonable cost. Various plastics can be mixed together in the polymer melt phase. Also, they can be combined in layers, interwoven, or impregnated into other porous materials, including porous metals. Bearing materials can be mixed with reinforcement additives, such as glass or carbon ﬁbers combined with additives of solid lubricants. There are so many combinations that it is difﬁcult to document the properties of all of them. 11.5.1.1

Thermoplastics vs. Thermosets

Polymers are classiﬁed into two major groups: thermoplastics and thermosets. 11.5.1.1.1

Thermoplastics

The intermolecular forces of thermoplastics, such as nylon and polyethylene, become weaker at elevated temperature, resulting in gradual softening and melting (similar to the melting of wax). Exposure to high temperature degrades

286

Chapter 11

the polymer properties because the long molecular chains fracture. Therefore, thermoplastics are usually processed by extrusion or injection molding, where high pressure is used to compress the high-viscosity melt into the mold in order to minimize the process temperature. In this way, very high temperature is not required to lower the melt viscosity. 11.5.1.1.2

Thermosets

Unlike the thermoplastics, the thermosets are set (or cured) by heat. The ﬁnal stage of polymerization is completed in the mold by a cross-linking reaction between the molecular chains. The thermosets solidify under pressure and heat and will not melt by reheating, so they cannot be remolded. An example of thermosets is the various types of phenolics, which are used for bearings. In the ﬁrst stage, the phenolics are partially polymerized by reacting phenol with formaldehyde under heat and pressure. This reaction is stopped before the polymer completely cures, and the resin can be processed by molding it to its ﬁnal shape. In the mold, under pressure and heat, the reaction ends, and the polymer solidiﬁes into its ﬁnal shape. Although the term thermoset means ‘‘set by heat’’, the thermosets include polymers such as epoxy and polyester, which do not require heat and which cure via addition of a curing agent. These thermosets are liquid and can be cast. Two ingredients are mixed together and cast into a mold, where the molecular chains cross-link and solidify. In most cases, heat is supplied to the molds to expedite the curing process, but it can be cured without heating.

11.5.2

Solid Lubricant Additives

Whenever liquid lubrication is not applied, solid lubricants can reduce friction and wear. Solid lubricants are applied only once during installation, but better results can be achieved by blending solid lubricants in the plastic material. Bearings made of thermoplastics can be blended with a variety of solid lubricants, resulting in a signiﬁcant reduction of the friction and improved wear resistance. Solid lubricant additives include graphite powder and molybdenum disulﬁde, MoS2 , which are widely used in nylon bearings. Additional solid lubricant additives are PTFE and silicone, separately or in combination, which are blended in most plastics to improve the friction and wear characteristics. The amount of the various additives may vary for each plastic material; however, the following are recommended quantities, as a fraction of the base plastic: PTFE Silicone Graphite MoS2

15–20% 1–5% 8–10% 2–5%

Bearing Materials

287

These solid lubricants are widely added to nylon and acetal, which are good bearing materials. In certain cases, solid lubricants are blended with base plastics having poor tribological properties but desirable other properties. An example is polycarbonate, which has poor wear resistance but can be manufactured within precise tolerances and has relatively high strength. Bearings and gears are made of polycarbonate blended with dry lubricants. 11.5.1.2

Advantages of Plastic Bearings

Low cost: Plastic materials are less expensive than metals and can be manufactured by mass production processes, such as injection molding. When mass-produced, plastic hearings have a far lower unit manufacturing cost in comparison to metals. In addition, plastics can be easily machined. These advantages are important in mass-produced machines, such as home appliances, where more expensive bearings would not be cost effective. In addition to initial cost, the low maintenance expenses of plastic bearings is a major advantage when operating without liquid lubricant. Lubricity (self-lubrication): Plastic bearings can operate well with very little or no liquid lubricant, particularly when solid lubricants are blended with the base plastics. This characteristic is beneﬁcial in applications where it is necessary for a bearing to operate without liquid lubrication, such as in the pharmaceutical and food industries, where the lubricant could be a factor in contamination. In vacuum or cryogenic applications it is also necessary to operate without oil lubrication. Plastic bearings have relatively high compatibility with steel shafts, because they do not weld to steel. This property results in a lower friction coefﬁcient and eliminates the risk of bearing seizure. The friction coefﬁcient of plastic bearings in dry and boundary lubrication is lower than that of metal bearings. Their friction coefﬁcients range from 0.15 to 0.35, and coefﬁcients of friction as low as 0.05 have been obtained for certain plastics. Conformability: This is the ability to deform in order to compensate for inaccuracy of the bearing dimensions. Plastics are less rigid in comparison to metals, and therefore they have superior conformability. Plastic materials have a relatively low elastic modulus and have the ability to deform to compensate for inaccuracy of the bearing-journal assembly. Tolerances are less critical for plastics than for metals because they conform readily to mating parts. Vibration absorption: Plastic bearings are signiﬁcantly better at damping vibrations. This is an important characteristic, since undesirable vibra-

288

Chapter 11

tions are always generated in rotating machinery. Also, most plastics can absorb relatively high-impact loads without permanent deformation. In many applications, plastic bearings are essential for quiet operation. Embeddability: Contaminating particles, such as dust, tend to be embedded into the plastic material rather than scoring, which occurs in metal bearings. Also, plastics are far less likely to attract dust when running dry, compared with oil- or grease-lubricated bearings. Low density: Plastics have low density in comparison to metals. Lightweight materials reduce the weight of the machine. This is an important advantage in automotives and particularly in aviation. Corrosion resistance: An important property of plastics is their ability to operate in adverse chemical environments, such as acids, without appreciable corrosion. In certain applications, sterility is an additional important characteristic associated with the chemical stability of plastics. Low wear rate: Plastics, particularly reinforced plastics, have relatively lower wear rates than metals in many applications. The exceptional wear resistance of plastic bearings is due to their compatibility with steel shafts and embeddability. Design ﬂexibility: Bearing parts can be molded into a wide variety of shapes and can be colored, painted, or hot-stamped where appearance is important, such as in toys and baby strollers. Electrical insulation: Plastics have lower electrical conductivity in comparison to metals. In certain applications, such as electric motors, sparks of electrical discharge can damage the bearing surfaces, and an electrical insulator, such as a plastic bearing, will prevent this problem. Wide temperature range: Plastics can operate without lubricants, at low and high temperatures that prohibit the use of oils or greases. Some plastics have coefﬁcients of friction that are signiﬁcantly lower at very low temperatures than at room temperature. Advanced engineering plastic compounds have been developed with PV ratings as high as 1230 Pam=s (43,000 psi-fpm), and they can resist operating temperatures as high as 260 C. But these compounds are not as low cost as most other plastics. 11.5.1.3

Disadvantages of Plastic Bearings

A major disadvantage is low thermal conductivity, which can result in high temperatures at the bearing surface. Most low-cost plastic materials cannot operate at high temperatures because they have low melting temperatures or because they deteriorate when exposed continuously to elevated temperatures. The combination of low thermal conductivity (in comparison to metals) and low

Bearing Materials

289

melting temperatures restricts plastic bearings to light-load applications and lowspeed (low PV rating in comparison to metals). The adverse effect of low thermal conductivity can be reduced by using a thin plastic layer inside a metal sleeve, but this is of higher cost. The following are additional disadvantages of plastic materials in bearing applications. Plastics have a relatively high thermal coefﬁcient of expansion. The difference in the thermal coefﬁcient of expansion can be 5–10 times greater for plastics than for metals. Innovative bearing designs are required to overcome this problem. Several design techniques are available, such as an expansion slot in sleeve bearings. The effect of thermal expansion can be minimized by using a thin plastic layer inside a metal sleeve so that expansion will be limited in overall size. If thermal expansion must be completely restrained, structural materials can be added, such as glass ﬁbers. Another general disadvantage of plastics is creep under heavy loads, due to their relatively low yield point. Although plastics are compatible with steel shafts, they are not recommended to support nonferrous shafts, such as aluminum, due to the adhesion between the two surfaces. 11.5.1.4

PTFE (Te£on)

PTFE (Teﬂon) is a thermoplastic polymer material whose unique characteristics make it ideal for bearing applications (Tables 11-2 and 11-3). The chemical composition of PTFE is polytetraﬂuoroethylene. The molecular structure is similar to that of ethylene, but with all the hydrogen atoms replaced by ﬂuorine (see Fig. 11-2). The characteristics of this structure include high chemical inertness due to the strong carbon-ﬂuorine bonding and stability at low and high temperatures. It has very low surface energy and friction coefﬁcient. At high loads and low sliding velocity, the friction coefﬁcient against steel is as low as 0.04. PTFE is relatively soft and has low resistance to wear and creep. However, these properties can be improved by adding ﬁbers or particulate of harder materials. Wear resistance can be improved 1000 times by these additives. TABLE 11-2

Bearing Design Properties of PTFE Max pressure

Max velocity

Max Temp.

PV

Material

MPa

Psi

m=s

ft=min

psi-ft=min

Pa-m=s

PTFE Reinforced PTFE

3.4 17.2

500 2500

0.51 5.1

100 1000

1000 10,000

35,000 350,000

C

260 260

F

500 500

290 TABLE 11-3

Chapter 11 Physical and Mechanical Properties of PTFE

Properties Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion ð105 in:=in:- FÞ Speciﬁc volume (in:3 =lb) Water absorption % (24 h,1=8 in. thick) Tensile strength (psi) Elongation (%) Thermal conductivity (BTU-in.=h-ft2 - F) Hardness (Shore D) Flexural modulus ð105 psi) Impact strength (Izod, ft-lb.=in.) Thermal conductivity (BTU=h-ft- FÞ

5.5–8.4 13 1:3 Fr

.060 .060 .100 .010 .060 .100 .060 .060 .100

Max. ﬁllet radius inch

3250 6100 4550 8300 7500 11400 3050 4150 4500

2240 4400 3200 6300 5600 9150 2040 2900 3200

Load ratings dynamic static C C0 lbs lbs

Angular Contact Bearing of Series 909 a ¼ 25 , separable. (From FAG Bearing Catalogue, with permission)

EQUIVALENT DYNAMIC LOAD F P ¼ Fr when a 0:68 Fr Fa P ¼ 0:41 Fr þ 0:87 Fa when > 0:68 Fr

TABLE 13-2

382 Chapter 13

909024 909025 909026 909027 909028 909029 909030 909052 909062 909067 909070

1.3128 .8440 1.4065 .9379 1.5000 1.1250 1.6250 1.2815 1.3750 .7502 1.2500

3.1496 2.2500 3.1496 2.8125 3.7500 3.1875 4.0625 2.9630 2.9630 2.0800 2.6500

.9170 .6590 .9170 .8000 1.0700 .8750 1.1875 .8700 .8700 .4690 .7000

.8510 .6900 .8510 .8500 1.0150 .9730 1.0950 .7700 .7700 .4690 .5150

1.2260 .7900 1.2260 .9100 1.4500 1.0730 1.5620 1.1450 1.1450 .7080 .8000

.98 .75 .98 .91 1.18 1.02 1.20 .91 .91 .69 .81

.100 .060 .060 .100 .100 .100 .100 .060 .060 .040 .040

7350 4300 6550 6300 9800 8300 11400 6100 6000 3900 5300

5600 3100 5500 4550 7650 6300 9150 4400 4550 2750 3800

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 383

7300B 7301B 7302B 7303B 7304B 7305B 7306B 7307B 7308B 7309B 7310B

Number 10 12 15 17 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

d 35 37 42 47 52 62 72 80 90 100 110

D mm 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

B 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3

r .5 .8 .8 .8 1 1 1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.5

r1 15 16 18 20 23 27 31 35 39 43 47

.3937 .4724 .5906 .6693 .7874 .9842 1.1811 1.3780 1.5748 1.7716 1.9685

Dimensions a d inch 1.3780 1.4567 1.6535 1.8504 2.0472 2.4409 2.8346 3.1496 3.5433 3.9370 4.3307

D .4331 .4724 .5118 .5512 .5906 .6693 .7480 .8268 .9055 .9842 1.0630

B

.59 .63 .71 .79 .91 1.06 1.22 1.38 1.54 1.69 1.85

a

EQUIVALENT STATIC LOAD F when a 1:9 Po ¼ Fr Fr Fa > 1:9 Po ¼ 0:5 Fr þ 0:26 Fa when Fr

.025 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .060 .060 .060 .080

.012 .020 .020 .020 .025 .025 .025 .030 .030 .030 .040

Max. ﬁllet radius for r r1 inch

1460 1830 2240 2750 3250 4500 5600 6800 8650 10200 12000

830 1080 1340 1730 2120 3050 3900 4800 6300 7800 9300

Load ratings dynamic static C C0 lbs lbs

Angular Contact Ball Bearings Series 73B, a ¼ 40 C, Non-separable. (From FAG Bearing Catalogue, with permission)

EQUIVALENT DYNAMIC LOAD F when a 1:14 P ¼ Fr Fr Fa > 1:14 P ¼ 0:35 Fr þ 0:57 Fa when Fr

T ABLE 13-3

384 Chapter 13

7311B 7312B 7313B 7314B 7315B 7316B 7317B 7318B 7319B 7320B 7321B 7322B

55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110

120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 215 225 240

29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 50

3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4 4 4 4 4 4

1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

51 55 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 90 94 98

2.1654 2.3622 2.5590 2.7559 2.9528 3.1496 3.3464 3.5433 3.7402 3.9370 4.1338 4.3307

4.7244 5.1181 5.5118 5.9055 6.2992 6.6929 7.0866 7.4803 7.8740 8.4646 8.8582 9.4488

1.1417 1.2205 1.2992 1.3780 1.4567 1.5354 1.6142 1.6929 1.7716 1.8504 1.9291 1.9685

2.01 2.17 2.36 2.52 2.68 2.83 2.99 3.15 3.31 3.54 3.70 3.86

.080 .080 .080 .080 .080 .080 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10

.040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040

13400 15600 17600 19600 22000 24000 26000 28000 30000 33500 35500 38000

10800 12500 14300 16300 19000 22000 24000 27000 29000 34000 38000 43000

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 385

2 7300 2 7301 2 7302 2 7303 2 7304 2 7305 2 7306

2 7300 2 7301 2 7302 2 7303 2 7304 2 7305 2 7306 B.UL B.UL B.UL B.UL B.UL B.UL B.UL

10 12 15 17 20 25 30

35 37 42 47 52 62 72

Dimensions 2B r r1

1 .5 1.5 .8 1.5 .8 1.5 .8 2 1 2 1 2 1

22 24 26 28 30 34 38

B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA

B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO

D

2 7300 2 7301 2 7302 2 7303 2 7304 2 7305 2 7306

d

d

1.3780 1.4567 1.6535 1.8504 2.0472 2.4409 2.8346

.8661 .9449 1.0236 1.1024 1.1811 1.3386 1.4961

inch

Dimensions D 2B

Fa 1:9 Fr F when a > 1:9 Fr when

30 .3937 33 .4724 37 .5906 41 .6693 45 .7874 53 .9842 62 1.1811

2a

P ¼ 0:5 Fr þ 0:26 Fa O and X arrangements Po ¼ Fr þ 0:52 Fa

mm

Fa 1:14 Fr Fa when > 1:14 Fr when

EQUIVALENT STATIC LOAD Tandem arrangement Po ¼ Fr

Bearing pair number

P ¼ 0:57 Fr þ 0:93 Fa

O and X arrangements P ¼ Fr þ 0:55 Fa

P ¼ 0:35 Fr þ 0:57 Fa

Fa 1:14 Fr Fa when > 1:14 Fr when

Angular Contact Ball Bearings. (From FAG Bearing Catalogue, with permission)

EQUIVALENT DYNAMIC LOAD Tandem arrangement P ¼ Fr

TABLE 13-4

1.18 1.26 1.42 1.57 1.81 2.13 2.44

2a

.025 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040

.012 .020 .020 .020 .025 .025 .025

inch

Max. ﬁllet radius for r r1

2360 3050 3600 4500 5300 7350 9150

1660 2160 2750 3400 4250 6100 7800

Load ratings for bearing pair dynamic static C1 C0 lbs lbs

386 Chapter 13

2 7307 2 7308 2 7309 2 7310 2 7311 2 7312 2 7313 2 7314 2 7315 2 7316 2 7317 2 7318 2 7319 2 7320 2 7321 2 7322

B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA B.UA

2 7307 2 7308 2 7309 2 7310 2 7311 2 7312 2 7313 2 7314 2 7315 2 7316 2 7317 2 7318 2 7319 2 7320 2 7321 2 7322 B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO B.UO

2 7307 2 7308 2 7309 2 7310 2 7311 2 7312 2 7313 2 7314 2 7315 2 7316 2 7317 2 7318 2 7319 2 7320 2 7321 2 7322 B.UL 35 80 42 B.UL 40 90 46 B.UL 45 100 50 B.UL 50 110 54 B.UL 55 120 58 B.UL 60 130 62 B.UL 65 140 66 B.UL 70 150 70 B.UL 75 160 74 B.UL 80 170 78 B.UL 85 180 82 B.UL 90 190 86 B.UL 95 200 90 B.UL 100 215 94 B.UL 105 225 98 B.UL 110 240 100

2.5 2.5 2.5 3 3 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4 4 4 4 4 4

1.2 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

69 78 86 94 102 111 119 127 136 144 152 160 169 179 187 197

1.3780 1.5748 1.7716 1.9685 2.1654 2.3622 2.5590 2.7559 2.9528 3.1496 3.3464 3.5433 3.7402 3.9370 4.1338 4.3307

3.1496 3.5433 3.9370 4.3307 4.7244 5.1181 5.5118 5.9055 6.2992 6.6929 7.0866 7.4803 7.8740 8.4646 8.8582 9.4488

1.6535 1.8110 1.9685 2.1260 2.2835 2.4409 2.5984 2.7559 2.9134 3.0709 3.2283 3.38583 3.5433 3.7008 3.8583 3.9370

2.76 3.07 3.39 3.70 4.02 4.33 4.72 5.04 5.35 5.67 5.98 6.30 6.61 7.09 7.40 7.72

.060 .060 .060 .080 .080 .080 .080 .080 .080 .080 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10

.030 .030 .030 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040 .040

11000 13700 17000 19600 22000 25000 28500 32000 35500 39000 42500 45000 48000 54000 58500 64000

9650 12500 15300 18600 21600 25000 28500 32500 37500 44000 48000 54000 58500 69500 76500 86500

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 387

388

Chapter 13

13.1.2

Permissible Static Load and Safety Coe⁄cients

The operation of most machines is associated with vibrations and disturbances. The vibrations result in dynamic forces: in turn, the actual maximum stress can be much higher than that calculated by the static load. Therefore, engineers always use a safety coefﬁcient, fs . In addition, whenever there is a requirement for low noise, the maximum permissible load is reduced to much lower value than C0 . Low loads would result in a signiﬁcant reduction of permanent deformation of the races and rolling-element surfaces. Plastic deformation distorts the bearing geometry and causes noise during bearing operation. The permissible static load on a bearing, P0 , is usually less than the basic static load rating, C0 , according to the equation

P0 ¼

C0 fs

ð13-1Þ

The safety coefﬁcient, fs , depends on the operating conditions and bearing type. Common guidelines for selecting a safety coefﬁcient, fs are in Table 13-5.

13.1.3

Static Equivalent Load

Most bearings in machinery are subjected to combined radial and thrust loads. It is necessary to establish the combination of radial and thrust loads that would result in the limit stress of a particular bearing. Static equivalent load is introduced to allow bearing selection under combined radial and thrust forces. It is deﬁned as a hypothetical load (radial or axial) that results in a maximum contact stress equivalent to that under combined radial and thrust forces. In radial bearings, the static equivalent load is taken as a radial equivalent load, while in thrust bearings the static equivalent load is taken as a thrust equivalent load.

TABLE 13-5

Safety Coefﬁcient, fs for Rolling Element Bearings (From FAG 1998) For ball bearings

Standard operating conditions Bearings subjected to vibrations Low-noise applications

fs ¼ 1 fs ¼ 1:5 fs ¼ 2

For roller bearings fs ¼ 1:5 fs ¼ 2 fs ¼ 3

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13.1.4

389

Static Radial Equivalent Load

For radial bearings, the higher of the two values calculated by the following two equations is taken as the static radial equivalent load: P0 ¼ X0 Fr þ Y0 Fa

ð13-2Þ

P0 ¼ Fr

ð13-3Þ

Here, P0 ¼ static equivalent load Fr ¼ static radial load Fa ¼ static thrust (axial) load X0 ¼ static radial load factor Y0 ¼ static thrust load factor Values of X0 and Y0 for several bearing types are listed in Table 13-6.

13.1.5

Static Thrust Equivalent Load

For thrust bearings, the static thrust equivalent load is obtained via the following equation: P0 ¼ X0 Fr þ Fa

ð13-4Þ

This equation can be applied to thrust bearings for contact angles lower than 90 . The value of X0 is available in bearing tables in catalogues provided by bearing TABLE 13-6

Values of Coefﬁcients X0 and Y0 (From SKF, 1992, with permission)

Bearing type Deep groove ball bearings* Angular contact ball bearings a ¼ 15 a ¼ 20 a ¼ 25 a ¼ 30 a ¼ 35 a ¼ 40 a ¼ 45 Self-aligning ball bearings

Single row bearings X0 Y0

Double row bearings X0 Y0

0.6

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.46 0.42 0.38 0.33 0.29 0.26 0.22 0.22ctga

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.92 0.84 0.76 0.66 0.58 0.52 0.44 0.44ctga

*Permissible maximum value of Fa=C0 depends on bearing design (internal clearance and raceway groove depth).

390

Chapter 13

manufacturers. For a contact angle of 90 , the static thrust equivalent load is P0 ¼ Fa .

13.2

FATIGUE LIFE CALCULATIONS

The rolling elements and raceways are subjected to dynamic stresses. During operation, there are cycles of high contact stresses oscillating at high frequency that cause metal fatigue. The fatigue life—that is, the number of cycles (or the time in hours) to the initiation of fatigue damage in identical bearings under identical load and speed—has a statistical distribution. Therefore, the fatigue life must be determined by considering the statistics of the measured fatigue life of a large number of dimensionally identical bearings. The method of estimation of fatigue life of rolling-element bearings is based on the work of Lundberg and Palmgren (1947). They used the fundamental theory of the maximum contact stress, and developed a statistical method for estimation of the fatigue life of a rolling-element bearing. This method became a standard method that was adopted by the American Bearing Manufacturers’ Association (ABMA). For ball bearings, this method is described in standard ANSI=ABMA-9, 1990; for roller bearings it is described in standard ANSI= ABMA-11, 1990.

13.2.1

Fatigue Life, L10

The fatigue life, L10 , (often referred to as rating life) is the number of revolutions (or the time in hours) that 90% of an identical group of rolling-element bearings will complete or surpass its life before any fatigue damage is evident. The tests are conducted at a given constant speed and load. Extensive experiments have been conducted to understand the statistical nature of the fatigue life of rolling-element bearings. The experimental results indicated that when fatigue life is plotted against load on a logarithmic scale, a negative-slope straight line could approximate the curve. This means that fatigue life decreases with load according to power-law function. These results allowed the formulation of a simple equation with empirical parameters for predicting the fatigue life of each bearing type. The following fundamental equation considers only bearing load. Life adjustment factors for operating conditions, such as lubrication, will be discussed later. The fatigue life of a rolling-element bearing is determined via the equation k C L10 ¼ ½in millions of revolutions

ð13-5Þ P Here, C is the dynamic load rating of the bearing (also referred to as the basic load rating), P is the equivalent radial load, and k is an empirical exponential

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

391

parameter (k ¼ 3 for ball bearings and 10=3 for roller bearings). The units of C and P can be pounds or newtons (SI units) as long as the units for the two are consistent, since the ratio C=P is dimensionless. Engineers are interested in the life of a machine in hours. In industry, machines are designed for a minimum life of ﬁve years. The number of years depends on the number of hours the machine will operate per day. Equation (13-5) can be written in terms of hours: L10

13.2.2

106 ¼ 60N

k C P

½in hours

ð13-6Þ

Dynamic Load Rating, C

The dynamic load rating, C, is deﬁned as the radial load on a rolling bearing that will result in a fatigue life of 1 million revolutions of the inner ring. Due to the statistical distribution of fatigue life, at least 90% of the bearings will operate under load C without showing any fatigue damage after 1 million revolutions. The value of C is determined empirically, and it depends on bearing type, geometry, precision, and material. The dynamic load rating C is available in bearing catalogues for each bearing type and size. The actual load on a bearing is always much lower than C, because bearings are designed for much longer life than 1 million revolutions. The dynamic load rating C has load units, and it depends on the design and material of a speciﬁc bearing. For a radial ball bearing, it represents the experimental steady radial load under which the radial bearing endured a fatigue life, L10 , of 106 revolutions. To determine the dynamic load rating, C, a large number of identical bearings are subjected to fatigue life tests. In these tests, a steady load is applied, and the inner ring is rotating while the outer ring is stationary. The fatigue life of a large number of bearings of the same type is tested under various radial loads.

13.2.3

Combined Radial and Thrust Loads

The equivalent radial load P is the radial load, which is equivalent to combined radial and thrust loads. This is the constant radial load that, if applied to a bearing with rotating inner ring and stationary outer ring, would result in the same fatigue life the bearing would attain under combined radial and thrust loads, and different rotation conditions. In Eq. (13-5), P is the equivalent dynamic radial load, similar to the static radial load. If the load is purely radial, P is equal to the bearing load. However,

392

Chapter 13

when the bearing is subjected to combined radial and axial loading, the equivalent load, P, is determined by: P ¼ XVFr þ YFa

ð13-7Þ

Here, P ¼ equivalent radial load Fr ¼ bearing radial load Fa ¼ bearing thrust (axial) load V ¼ rotation factor: 1.0 for inner ring rotation, 1.2 for outer ring rotation and for a self-aligning ball bearing use 1 for inner or outer rotation X ¼ radial load factor Y ¼ thrust load factor The factors X and Y differ for various bearings (Table 13-7). The equivalent load (P), is deﬁned by the Anti-Friction Bearings Manufacturers Association (AFBMA). It is the constant stationary radial load that, if applied to a bearing with rotating inner and stationary outer ring, would give the same life as what the bearing would attain under the actual conditions of load and rotation.

13.2.4

Life Adjustment Factors

Recent high-speed tests of modern ball and roller bearings, which combine improved materials and proper lubrication, show that fatigue life is, in fact, longer than that predicted previously from Eq. (12-5). It is now commonly accepted that an improvement in fatigue life can be expected from proper lubrication, where the rolling surfaces are completely separated by an elastohydrodynamic lubrication ﬁlm. In Sec. 13.4 the principles of rolling-element bearing lubrication are discussed. For a rolling bearing with adequate EHD lubrication, adjustments to the fatigue life should be applied. The adjustment factor is dependent on the operating speed, bearing temperature, lubricant viscosity, size and type of bearing, and bearing material. In many applications, higher reliability is required, and 10% probability of failure is not acceptable. Higher reliability, such as L5 (5% failure probability) or L1 (failure probability of 1%), is applied. As deﬁned in the AFBMA Standards, fatigue life is calculated according to the equation P C Lna ¼ a1 a2 a3 106 ðrevolutionsÞ ð13-8Þ P

20 25

Radial Contact Groove Ball Bearings

Bearing type

TABLE 13-7

25 50 100 150 200 300 500 750 1000

0.084 0.11 0.17 0.28 0.42 0.56

3 Fa iZD2w

0.014 0.028 0.056

3 Fa C0

0.43 0.41

0.56

X

Y

1.55 1.45 1.31 1.15 1.04 1.00 1.00 0.87

2.30 1.99 1.71

Fa > e1 Fr

Single row bearings1

1

X

1.09 0.92

Y1

Fa e Fr

0.70 0.67

0.56

X

Y2

1.55 1.45 1.31 1.15 1.04 1.00 1.63 1.44

2.30 1.99 1.71

Fa >e Fr

Double row bearings2

Factors X and Y for Radial Bearings. (From FAG Bearing Catalogue, with permission)

0.28 0.30 0.34 0.38 0.42 0.44 0.57 0.68 (continued)

0.19 0.22 0.26

e

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 393

Continued.

For single row bearings, when

1

0.4 cot a

0.40

Fa e use X ¼ 1 and Y ¼ 0. Fr

1

1

X

0.76 0.66 0.57 0.4 cot a

Y

0.39 0.37 0.35 0.40

X

Fa > e1 Fr

Single row bearings1

0.45 cot a

0.78 0.66 0.55 0.42 cot a

Y1

Fa e Fr

0.67

0.63 0.60 0.57 0.65 cot a

X

Y2

0.67 cot a

1.24 1.07 0.93 1.5 tan a

Fa >e Fr

Double row bearings2

1.5 tan a

0.80 0.95 1.14

e

5

e¼

0:6 1 for double tow tapers. for single row tapers, and e ¼ Y Y2

For two single row angular contact ball or roller bearings mounted ‘‘face-to-face’’ or ‘‘back-to-back’’ use the values of X and Y which apply to double row bearings. For two or more single row bearings mounted ‘‘in tandem’’ use the values of X and Y which apply to single row bearings. 2 Double row bearings are presumed to be symmetrical. 3 C0 ¼ static load rating, i ¼ number of rows of rolling elements. Z ¼ number of rolling elements=row, Dw ¼ ball diameter. 4 Y values for tapered roller bearings are shown in the bearing tables.

1

30 35 40 Self-Aligning6 Ball Bearings Spherical6 and Tapered4,5 Roller Bearings

Bearing type

TABLE 13-7

394 Chapter 13

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings TABLE 13-8

395

Life Adjustment Factor a1 for Different Failure Probabilities

Failure probability, n 10 1

5 0.62

4 0.53

3 0.44

2 0.33

1 0.1

where Lna ¼ adjusted fatigue life for a reliability of (100 7 n)%, where n is a failure probability (usually, n ¼ 10) a1 ¼ life adjustment factor for reliability (a1 ¼ 1.0 for Ln ¼ L10 ) (Table 13-8) a2 ¼ life adjustment factor for bearing materials made from steel having a higher impurity level a3 ¼ life adjustment factor for operating conditions, particularly lubrication (see Sec. 13.4) Example Problem 13-2 demonstrates the calculation of adjusted rating life; see Sec. 13.4 on bearing lubrication. Experience indicated that the value of the two parameters a2 and a3 ultimately depends on proper lubrication conditions. Without proper lubrication, better materials will have no signiﬁcant beneﬁt in improvement of bearing life. However, better materials have merit only when combined with adequate lubrication. Therefore, the life adjustment factors a2 and a3 are often combined, a23 ¼ a2 a3 .

13.3

BEARING OPERATING TEMPERATURE

Advanced knowledge of rolling bearing operating temperature is important for bearing design, lubrication, and sealing. Attempts have been made to solve for the bearing temperature at steady-state conditions. The heat balance equation was used, equating the heat generated by friction (proportional to speed and load) to the heat transferred (proportional to temperature rise). It is already recognized that analytical solutions do not yield results equal to the actual operating temperature, because the bearing friction coefﬁcient and particularly the heat transfer coefﬁcients are not known with an adequate degree of precision. For these reasons, we can use only approximations of average bearing operating temperature for design purposes. The temperature of the operating bearing is not uniform. The point of maximum temperature is at the contact of the races with the rolling elements. At the contact with the inner race, the temperature is higher than that of the contact with the outer race. However, for design purposes, an average (approximate) bearing temperature is considered. The average oil temperature is

396

Chapter 13

lower than that of the race surface. It is the average of inlet and outlet oil temperatures. Several attempts to present precise computer solutions are available in the literature. Harris (1984) presented a description of the available numerical methods for solving the temperature distribution in a rolling bearing. Numerical calculation of the bearing temperature is quite complex, because it depends on a large number of heat transfer parameters. For simpliﬁed calculations, it is possible to estimate an average bearing temperature by considering the bearing friction power losses and heat transfer. Friction power losses are dissipated in the bearing as heat and are proportional to the product of friction torque and speed. The heat is continually transferred away by convection, radiation, and conduction. This heat balance can be solved for the temperature rise, bearing temperature minus ambient (atmospheric) temperature (Tb Ta ). More careful consideration of the friction losses and heat transfer characteristics through the shaft and the housing can only help to estimate the bearing temperature rise. This data can be compared to bearings from previous experience where the oil temperature has been measured. It is relatively easy to measure the oil temperature at the exit from the bearing. (The oil temperature at the contact with the races during operation is higher and requires elaborate experiments to be determined). It is possible to control the bearing operating temperature. In an elevatedtemperature environment, the oil circulation assists in transferring the heat away from the bearing. The ﬁnal bearing temperature rise, above the ambient temperature, is affected by many factors. It is proportional to the bearing speed and load, but it is difﬁcult to predict accurately by calculation. However, for predicting the operating temperature, engineers rely mostly on experience with similar machinery. A comparative method to estimate the bearing temperature is described in Sec. 13.3.1. A lot of data has been derived by means of ﬁeld measurements. The bearing temperature for common moderate-speed applications has been measured, and it is in the range of 40 –90 C. The relatively low bearing temperature of 40 C is for light-duty machines such as the bench drill spindle, the circular saw shaft, and the milling machine. A bearing temperature of 50 C is typical of a regular lathe spindle and wood-cutting machine spindle. The higher bearing temperature of 60 C is found in heavier-duty machinery, such as an axle box of train locomotives. A higher temperature range is typical of machines subjected to load combined with severe vibrations. The bearing temperature of motors, of vibratory screens, or impact mills is 70 C; and in vibratory road roller bearings, the higher temperature of 80 C has been measured. Much higher bearing temperatures are found in machines where there is an external heat source that is conducted into the bearing. Examples are rolls for

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

397

paper drying, turbocompressors, injection molding machines for plastics, and bearings of large electric motors, where considerable heat is conducted from the motor armature. In such cases, air cooling or water cooling is used in the bearing housing for reducing the bearing temperature. Also, fast oil circulation can help to remove the heat from the bearing.

13.3.1

Estimation of Bearing Temperature

The following derivation is useful where there is already previous experience with a similar machine. In such cases, the temperature rise can be predicted whenever there are modiﬁcations in the machine operation, such as an increase in speed or load. The friction power loss, q, of a bearing is calculated from the frictional torque Tf ½N -m and the shaft angular speed o [rad=s]: q ¼ Tf o

½W

ð13-9Þ

The angular speed can be written as a function of the speed N ½RPM : o¼

2pN 60

ð13-10Þ

Under steady-state conditions there is heat balance, and the same amount of heat that is generated by friction, q, must be transferred to the environment. The heat transferred from the bearing is calculated from the difference between the bearing temperature, Tb , and the ambient temperature, Ta , from the size of the heat-transmitting areas AB ½m2 and the total heat transfer coefﬁcient Ut ½W =m2 -C : q ¼ Ut AB ðTb Ta Þ

½W

ð13-11Þ

In the case of no oil circulation, all the heat is transferred through the bearing surfaces (in contact with the shaft and housing). Equating the two equations gives Tb Ta ¼

pNTf 30Ut AB

ð13-12Þ

According to Eq. (13-12), the temperature rise, Tb Ta , is proportional to the speed N and the friction torque, Tf , while all the other terms can form one constant k, which is a function of the heat transfer coefﬁcients and the geometry and material of the bearing and housing: DT ¼ Tb Ta ¼ k N Tf

ð13-13Þ

The friction torque Tf is Tf ¼ f R F

ð13-14Þ

398

Chapter 13

where f is the friction coefﬁcient, R is the rolling contact radius, and F is the bearing load. The temperature rise, in Eq. (13–13), can be expressed as DT ¼ ðTb Ta Þ ¼ K f N F

ð13-15Þ

where K ¼ kR is a constant. The result is that the temperature rise, DT ¼ Tb Ta , is proportional to the friction coefﬁcient, speed, and bearing load. Prediction of the bearing temperature can be obtained by determining the steady-state temperature in a test run and calculating the coefﬁcient K. If the friction coefﬁcient is assumed to be constant, then Eq. (13-15) will allow estimation with sufﬁcient accuracy of the steady-state temperature rise of this bearing for other operating conditions, under various speeds and loads. A better temperature estimation can be obtained if additional data is used concerning the function of the friction coefﬁcient, f , versus speed and load. In the case of oil circulation lubrication, the oil also carries away heat. This can be considered in the calculation if the lubricant ﬂow rate and inlet and outlet temperatures of the bearing oil are measured. The bearing temperature can then be calculated by equating q ¼ q1 þ q2

½W

ð13-16Þ

where q1 is the heat transferred by conduction according to Eq. (13–11) and q2 is the heat transferred by convection via the oil circulation.

13.3.2

Operating Temperature of the Oil

For selecting an appropriate lubricant, it is important to estimate the operating temperature of the oil in the bearing. It is possible to estimate the operating oil temperature by measuring the temperature of the bearing housing. If the machine is only in design stages, it is possible to estimate the housing temperature by comparing it to the housing temperature of similar machines. During the operation of standard bearings that are properly designed, the operating temperature of the oil is usually in the range of 3 –11 C above that of the bearing housing. It is relatively simple to measure the housing temperature in an operating machine and to estimate the oil temperature. Knowledge of the oil temperature is important for optimal selection of lubricant, oil replacement, and fatigue life calculations. Tapered and spherical roller bearings result in higher operating temperatures than do ball bearings or cylindrical roller bearings under similar operating conditions. The reason is the higher friction coefﬁcient in tapered and spherical roller bearings.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13.3.3

399

Temperature Di¡erence Between Rings

During operation, the shaft temperature is generally higher than the housing temperature. The heat is removed from the outer ring through the housing much faster than from the inner ring through the shaft. There is no good heat transfer through the small contact area between the rolling elements and rings (theoretical point or line contact). Therefore, heat from the inner ring is conducted through the shaft, and heat from the outer ring is conducted through the housing. In general, heat conduction through the shaft is not as effective as through the housing. The outer ring and housing have good heat transfer, because they are in direct contact with the larger body of the machine. In comparison, the inner ring and shaft have more resistance to heat transfer, because the cross-sectional area of the shaft is small in comparison to that of the housing as well as to its smaller surface area, which has lower heat convection relative to the whole machine. If there is no external source of heat outside the bearing, the operating temperature of the shaft is always higher than that of the housing. For mediumspeed operation of standard bearings, if the housing is not cooled, the temperatures of the inner ring are in the range of 5 –10 C higher than that of the outer ring. If the housing is cooled by air ﬂow, the temperature of the inner ring can increase to 15 –20 C higher than that of the outer ring. An example of air cooling of the housing is in motor vehicles, where there is air cooling whenever the car is in motion. It is possible to reduce the temperature difference by means of adequate oil circulation, which assists in the convection heat transfer between the rings. A higher temperature difference can develop in very high-speed bearings. The temperature difference depends on several factors, such as speed, load, and type of bearing and shape of the housing. This temperature difference can result in additional thermal stresses in the bearing.

13.4

ROLLING BEARING LUBRICATION

13.4.1

Objectives of Lubrication

Various types of grease, oils, and, in certain cases, solid lubricants are used for the lubrication of rolling bearings. Most bearings are lubricated with grease because it provides effective lubrication and does not require expensive supply systems (grease can operate with very simple sealing). In most applications, rollingelement bearings operate successfully with a very thin layer of oil or grease. However, for high-speed applications, such as turbines, oil lubrication is important for removing the heat from the bearing or for formation of an EHD ﬂuid ﬁlm.

400

Chapter 13

The ﬁrst objective of liquid lubrication is the formation of a thin elastohydrodynamic lubrication ﬁlm at the rolling contacts between the rolling elements and the raceways. Under appropriate conditions of load, viscosity, and bearing speed, this ﬁlm can completely separate the surfaces of rolling elements and raceways, resulting in considerable improvement in bearing life. The second objective of lubrication is to minimize friction and wear in applications where there is no full EHD ﬁlm. Experience has indicated that if proper lubrication is provided, rolling bearings operate successfully for a long time under mixed lubrication conditions. In practice, ideal conditions of complete separation are not always maintained. If the height of the surface asperities is larger than the elastohydrodynamic lubrication ﬁlm, contact of surface asperities will take place, and there is a mixed friction (hydrodynamic combined with direct contact friction). In addition to pure rolling, there is also a certain amount of sliding contact between the rolling elements and the raceways as well as between the rolling elements and the cage. At the sliding surfaces of a rolling bearing, such as the roller and lip in a roller bearing and at the guiding surface of the cage, a very thin lubricant ﬁlm can be formed, resulting in mixed friction under favorable conditions. Any sliding contact in the bearing requires lubrication to reduce friction and wear. The third objective of lubrication (applies to ﬂuid lubricants) is to cool the bearing and reduce the maximum temperature at the contact of the rolling elements and the raceways. For effective cooling, sufﬁcient lubricant circulation should be provided to remove the heat from the bearing. The most effective cooling is achieved by circulating the oil through an external heat exchanger. But even without elaborate circulation, a simple oil sump system can enhance the heat transfer from the bearing by convection. Solid lubricants or greases are not effective in cooling; therefore, they are restricted to relatively low-speed applications. Additional objectives of lubrication are damping of vibrations, corrosion protection, and removal of dust and wear debris from the raceways via liquid lubricant. A full EHD ﬂuid ﬁlm plays an important role as a damper. A full EHD ﬂuid ﬁlm acts as noncontact support of the shaft that effectively isolates vibrations. The ﬂuid ﬁlm can be helpful in reducing noise and vibrations in a machine. Lubricants for rolling bearings include liquid lubricants (mineral and synthetic oils), greases, and solid lubricants. The most common liquid lubricants are petroleum-based mineral oils with a long list of additives to improve the lubrication performance. Also, synthetic lubricants are widely used, such as ester, polyglycol, and silicone ﬂuoride. Greases are commonly applied in relatively lowspeed applications, where continuous ﬂow for cooling is not essential for successful operation. The most important advantages of grease are that it seals

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

401

the bearing from dust and provides effective protection from corrosion. To minimize maintenance, sealed bearings are widely used, where the bearing is ﬁlled with grease and sealed for the life of the bearing. The grease serves as a matrix that retains the oil. The oil is slowly released from the grease during operation. In addition to grease, oil-saturated solids, such as oil-saturated polymer, are used successfully for similar applications of sealed bearings. The saturated solid ﬁlls the entire bearing cavity and effectively seals the bearing from contaminants. The advantage of oil-saturated polymers over grease is that grease can be ﬁlled only into half the bearing internal space in order to avoid churning. In comparison, oil-saturated solid lubricants are available that can ﬁll the complete cavity without causing churning. The oil is released from oil-saturated solid lubricants in a similar way to grease. Rolling bearings successfully operate in a wide range of environmental conditions. In certain high-temperature applications, liquid oils or greases cannot be applied (they oxidize and deteriorate from the heat) and only solid lubricants can be used. Examples of solid lubricants are PTFE, graphite and molybdenum disulﬁde (MoS2). Solid lubricants are effective in reducing friction and wear, but obviously they cannot assist in heat removal as liquid lubricants. In summary: Lubrication of rolling bearings has several important functions: to form a ﬂuid ﬁlm, to reduce sliding friction and wear, to transfer heat away from the bearing, to damp vibrations, and to protect the ﬁnished surfaces from corrosion. Greases and oils are mostly used. Grease packed sealing is commonly used to protect against the penetration of abrasive particles into the bearing. Reduction of friction and wear by lubrication is obtained in several ways. First, a thin ﬂuid ﬁlm at high pressure can separate the rolling contacts by forming elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Second, lubrication reduces friction of the sliding contacts that do not involve rolling, such as between the cage and the rolling elements or between the rolling elements and the guiding surfaces. Also, the contacts between the rolling elements and the raceways are not pure rolling, and there is always a certain amount of sliding. Solid lubricants are also effective in reducing sliding friction.

13.4.2

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

In Chapter 12, the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication equations were discussed. EHD theory is concerned with the formation of a thin ﬂuid ﬁlm at high pressure at the contact area of a rolling element and a raceway under rolling conditions. Both the roller and the raceway surfaces are deformed under the load. In a similar way to ﬂuid ﬁlm in plain bearings, the oil that is adhering to the surfaces is drawn into a thin clearance formed between the rolling surfaces. An important effect is that the viscosity of the oil rises under high pressure; in turn, a

402

Chapter 13

load-carrying ﬂuid ﬁlm is formed at high rolling speed. The clearance thickness, h0 , is nearly constant along the ﬂuid ﬁlm, and it is reducing only near the outlet side (Fig. 12-20). Under high loads, the EHD pressure distribution is similar to the pressure distribution according to the Hertz equations, because the inﬂuence of the elastic deformations dominates the pressure distribution. But at high speeds, the hydrodynamic effect prevails. In Chapter 12, the calculation of the ﬁlm thickness was quite complex. For many standard applications, engineers often resort to a simpliﬁed method based on charts. The simpliﬁed approach also considers the effect of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication in improving the fatigue life of the bearing. Even if the EHD ﬂuid ﬁlm does not separate completely the rolling surfaces (mixed EHD lubrication), the lubrication improves the performance, and longer fatigue life will be obtained. In this chapter, the use of charts is demonstrated for ﬁnding the effect of lubrication in improving the fatigue life of a bearing.

13.4.3

Selection of Liquid Lubricants

The best performance of a rolling bearing is under operating conditions where the elastohydrodynamic minimum ﬁlm thickness, hmin , is thicker than the surface asperities, Rs . The required viscosity of the lubricant, m, for this purpose can be solved for from the EHD equations (see Chapter 12). However, for many standard applications, designers determine the viscosity by a simpler practical method. It is based on an empirical chart, where the required viscosity is determined according to the bearing speed and diameter. For rolling bearings, the decision concerning the oil viscosity is a compromise between the requirement of low viscous friction (low viscosity) and the requirement for adequate EHD ﬁlm thickness (high viscosity). The friction of a rolling bearing consists of two components. The ﬁrst component is the rolling friction, which results from deformation at the contacts between a rolling element and a raceway. The second friction component is viscous resistance of the lubricant to the motion of the rolling elements. The ﬁrst component of rolling friction is a function of the elastic modulus, geometry, and bearing load. The second component of viscous friction increases with lubricant viscosity, quantity of oil in the bearing, and bearing speed. The viscous component increases with speed, so it becomes a dominant factor in high–speed machinery. It is possible to minimize the viscous resistance by applying a very small quantity of oil, just sufﬁcient to form a thin layer over the contact surface. In addition, using low-viscosity oil can reduce the viscous resistance. However, minimum lubricant viscosity must be maintained to ensure elastohydrodynamic lubrication with adequate ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

403

For lubricant selection, a knowledge of the operating bearing temperature is required. One must keep in mind that the lubricant viscosity decreases with temperature. In applications where the bearing temperature is expected to rise signiﬁcantly, lubricant of higher initial viscosity should be selected. It is possible to reduce the bearing operating temperature via oil circulation for removing the heat and cooling the bearing. The ﬁnal bearing temperature rise, above the ambient temperature, is affected by many factors, such as speed and load. A simpliﬁed method for estimating the bearing temperature was discussed earlier. For predicting the operating temperature, this method relies mostly on experience with similar machinery for determining the heat transfer coefﬁcients. For bearings that do not dissipate heat from outside the bearing and that operate at moderate speeds and under average loads, it is possible to estimate the oil temperature by measuring the housing temperature. During operation, the temperature of the oil is usually in the range of 3 –11 C above that of the bearing housing. This simple temperature estimation is widely used for lubricant selection. In order to simplify the selection of oil viscosity, charts based on bearing speed and bearing average diameter are used. Figure 13-1 is used for determining the minimum oil viscosity for lubrication of rolling-element bearings as a function of bearing size and speed. The ordinate on the left side shows the kinematic viscosity in metric units, mm2 =s ðcStÞ. The ordinate on the right side shows the viscosity in Saybolt universal seconds (SUS). The abscissa is the pitch diameter, dm , in mm, which is the average of internal bore, d, and outside bearing diameter, D.

dm ¼

dþD 2

ð13-17Þ

The diagonal straight lines in Fig. 13-1 are for the various bearing speed N in RPM (revolutions per minute). The dotted lines show examples of determining the required lubricant viscosity.

Example Problem 13-1

Calculation of Minimum Viscosity A rolling bearing has a bore diameter d ¼ 45 mm and an outside diameter D ¼ 85 mm. The bearing rotates at 2000 RPM. Find the required minimum viscosity of the lubricant.

404

Chapter 13

F IG. 13-1 Requirement for minimum lubricant viscosity in rolling bearings (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

Solution The pitch diameter according to Eq. (13-17) is dm ¼

45 þ 85 ¼ 65 mm 2

Line I in Fig. 13-1 shows the intersection of dm ¼ 65 with the diagonal straight line of 2000 RPM. The horizontal dotted line indicates a minimum viscosity required of 13 cSt ðmm2 =sÞ. Based on the required viscosity, the oil grade should be selected. The oil viscosity decreases with temperature, and the relation between the oil grade and

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-2

405

Viscosity–temperature charts (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

its viscosity depends on the oil temperature. In Fig. 13-2, viscosity–temperature charts for several rolling bearing oil grades are presented. Estimation of the oil temperature inside the operating bearing is required before one can select the oil grade according to Fig. 13-2. It is preferable to estimate the temperature with an error on the high side. This would result in higher viscosity, which can ensure a full EHD ﬂuid ﬁlm at the rolling contact, although the friction resistance can be slightly higher. If a lubricant with higher-than-required viscosity is selected, an improvement in bearing life can be expected. However, since a higher viscosity raises the bearing operating temperature, there is a limit to the improvement that can be obtained in this manner. The improvement in the bearing fatigue life due to higher lubricant viscosity (above the minimum required viscosity) is shown in Fig. 13-3. The life adjustment factor a3 (sec. 13.2.4) is a function of the viscosity ratio, k, deﬁned as k¼

n nmin

ð13-18Þ

406

Chapter 13

F IG. 13-3 Fatigue life adjustment factor for lubrication (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

Here, n is the actual viscosity of the lubricant (at the operating temperature) and nmin is the minimum required lubricant viscosity from Fig. 13-1. According to Fig. 13-3, the life adjustment factor a3 is an increasing function of the viscosity ratio k. This means that there is an improvement in fatigue-life due to improvement in EHD lubrication at higher viscosity. However, there is a limit to this improvement. For n higher than 4, Fig. 13-3 indicates that there is no additional improvement in fatigue life from using higher-viscosity oil. This is because higher viscosity has the adverse effect of higher viscous friction, which in turn results in higher bearing operating temperature. In conclusion, there is a limit on the beneﬁts obtained from increasing oil viscosity. Moreover, oils with excessively high viscosity introduce a higher operating temperature and in turn a higher thermal expansion of the inner ring.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

407

This results in extra rolling contact stresses, which counteract any other beneﬁts obtained from using high-viscosity oil. The fatigue life adjustment factor a3 in Fig. 13-3 is often used as a23 ¼ a2 a3 . This is because experience indicated that there is no signiﬁcant improvement in fatigue life due to better bearing steel if there is inadequate lubrication.

Example Problem 13-2 Calculation of Adjusted Fatigue Life Find the life adjustment factor and adjusted fatigue life of a deep-groove ball bearing. The bearing operates in a gearbox supporting a 25-mm shaft. The bearing is designed for 90% reliability. The shaft speed is 3600 RPM, and the gearbox is designed to transmit a maximum power of 10 kW. The lubricant is SAE 20 oil, and the maximum expected surrounding (ambient) temperature is 30 C. One helical gear is mounted on the shaft at equal distance from both bearings. The rolling bearing data is from the manufacturer’s catalog: Designation bearing: Bore diameter: Outside diameter: Dynamic load rating: Static load rating:

No. 61805 d ¼ 25 mm D ¼ 37 mm C ¼ 4360 N C0 ¼ 2600 N

The gear data is Helix angle c ¼ 30 Pressure angle (in a cross section normal to the gear) f ¼ 20 Diameter of pitch circle ¼ 5 in. Solution Calculation of Radial and Thrust Forces Acting on Bearing: Power transmitted by gear: E_ ¼ 10 kW ¼ 104 N-m=s Rotational speed of shaft: N ¼ 3600 RPM Helix angle: c ¼ 30 Pressure angle: f ¼ 20 Pitch circle diameter of gear: dp ¼ 5 in. ¼ 0.127 m The angular velocity of the shaft, o, is o¼

2pN 2p3600 ¼ ¼ 377 rad=s 60 60

Given:

408

Chapter 13

Torque produced by the gear is T¼

F t dp 2

Substituting this into the power equation, E_ ¼ T o, yields E_ ¼

Ft dp o 2

Solving for the tangential force, Ft , results in Ft ¼

2E_ 2 10;000 N-m=s ¼ 418 N ¼ dp o 0:127 m 377 rad=s

Once the tangential component of the force is solved, the radial force Fr , and the thrust load (axial force), Fa , can be calculated, as follows: Fa ¼ Ft tan c Fa ¼ 417 N tan 30 ¼ 241 N Fr ¼ Ft tan f Fr ¼ 418 N tan 20 Fr ¼ 152 N The force components Ft and Fr are both in the direction normal to the shaft centerline. The bearing force reacting to these two gear force components, Wr , is the radial force component of the bearing. The gear is in the center, and the bearing radial force is divided between the two bearings. The resultant, Wr , for each bearing is calculated by the equation qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2Wr ¼ Ft2 þ Fr2 ¼ 4182 þ 1522 ¼ 445 N The resultant force of the gear is supported by the two bearings. It is a radial bearing reaction force, because it is acting in the direction normal to the shaft centerline. Since the helical gear is mounted on the shaft at equal distance from each bearing, each bearing will support half of the radial load: Wr ¼

445 N ¼ 222:25 N 2

However, the thrust load will act on one bearing only. The direction of the thrust load depends on the gear conﬁguration and the direction of rotation. Therefore, each bearing should be designed to support the entire thrust load: Fa ¼ 241 N

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

409

Calculation of Adjusted Fatigue Life of Rolling Bearing. In this example, combined radial and thrust loads are acting on a bearing. In all cases of combined load, it is necessary to determine the equivalent radial load, P, from Eq. (13-7). The radial and thrust load factors X and Y in the following table are available in manufacturers manuals. The values of X and Y differ for different bearings. Table 13-7 includes the factors X and Y of a deep-groove ball bearing. For Fa =Fr > e, the values are Fa =Co

e

X

Y

0.025 0.04 0.07 0.13 0.25 0.5

0.22 0.24 0.27 0.31 0.37 0.44

0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56 0.56

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1

The ratio of the axial load, Fa , and the basic static load rating C0 must be calculated: Fa 241:17 ¼ 0:093 ¼ 2600 C0 Then, by interpolation, the values for e; X , and Y can be determined: e ¼ 0:29

X ¼ 0:56

Y ¼ 1:5

Also, the ratio of Fa to Fr is Fa 241 ¼ 1:09 ¼ Fr 222

1:09 > e

Therefore P ¼ XFr þ YFa P ¼ ð0:56Þð222:2Þ þ ð1:5Þð241:17Þ P ¼ 486 N

410

Chapter 13

Using the bearing life equation, the bearing life is determined from the equation p C 106 L10 ¼ P 3 4360 L10 ¼ 106 486 L10 ¼ 722 106 ðrevolutionsÞ ¼

722 106 rev ¼ 3343 hr 3600 rev=min 60 min=hr

This is the fatigue life without adjustment for lubrication. Following is the selection of the minimum required viscosity and the adjustment for the bearing fatigue life when operating with lubricant SAE 20. There is improvement in the fatigue life when the lubricant is of higher viscosity than the minimum required viscosity. Selection of Oil. The selection of an appropriate oil is an important part of bearing design. The most important property is the oil’s viscosity, which is inversely related to temperature. The minimum required viscosity is determined according to the size and rotational speed of the bearing. The bearing size is determined by taking the average of the inner (bearing bore) and outer diameters of the bearing. The pitch diameter of the bearing is dþD 2 25 þ 37 dm ¼ 2 dm ¼

dm ¼ 31 mm From Fig 13-1, at a speed of 3600 RPM and a pitch diameter of 31 mm, the minimum required viscosity is 14 mm2=s. As discussed earlier, the temperature of the oil of an operating bearing is usually 3 –11 C above the housing temperature. In this problem, the maximum expected surrounding (ambient) temperature is 30 C, and it is assumed that 5 C should be added for the maximum operating oil temperature. From Fig. 13-2 (viscosity–temperature charts), the viscosity of SAE 20 (VG 46) oil at 35 C is approximately 52 mm2=s. The viscosity ratio, k, is k¼

n 52 ¼ 3:7 ¼ nmin 14

For 90% reliability, the life adjustment factor a1 is given a value of 1. The life adjustment factor a2 for material is also given a value of 1 (standard material).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

411

Based on the viscosity ratio, the operating conditions factor, a3 , can be obtained using Fig. 13-3: a3 ¼ 2:2. The adjusted rating life is: L10a ¼ a1 a2 a3 ðL10 Þ;

where a1 a2 ¼ 1

L10a ¼ 2:2 3343 hr ¼ 7354 hr Discussion. The fatigue life of an industrial gearbox must be at least ﬁve years. If we assume operation of eight hours per day, the minimum fatigue life must be for 14,400 hours. In this case, the tested bearing has an adjusted life of only 7354 hr. The conclusion is that the bearing tested in this example is not a suitable selection for use in an industrial gearbox. The adjusted life is much shorter than required. A more appropriate bearing, therefore, should be selected, of higher dynamic load rating C, and the foregoing procedure should be repeated to verify that the selection is adequate.

13.5

BEARING PRECISION

Manufacturing tolerances specify that the actual dimensions of a bearing be within speciﬁed limits. For precision applications, such as precise machine tools and precision instruments, ultrahigh-precision rolling bearings are available with very narrow tolerances. In high-speed machinery, it is important to reduce vibrations, and high-precision bearings are often used. In precision applications and high-speed machinery, it is essential that the center of a rotating shaft remain at the same place, with minimal radial displacement during rotation. During rotation under steady load, any variable eccentricity between the shaft center and the center of rotation is referred to as radial run-out. At the same time, any axial displacement of the shaft during its rotation is referred to as axial run-out. If the shaft is precise and centered, the radial and axial run-outs depend on manufacturing tolerances of the rolling-element bearing. Radial run-out depends on errors such as eccentricity between the inside and outside diameters of the rings, deviation from roundness of the races, and deviations in the actual diameters of the rolling elements. For running precision, it is necessary to distinguish between run-out of the inner ring and that of the outer ring, which are not necessarily equal. There are many applications where different levels of precision of run-out and dimensions are required, such as in machine tools of various precision levels. Of course, higher precision involves higher cost, and engineers must not specify higher precision than really required. The Annular Bearing Engineering Committee (ABEC) introduced ﬁve precision grades (ABEC 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9). Each precision grade has an increasing grade of smaller tolerance range of all bearing dimensions. ABEC 1 is the standard bearing and has the lowest cost; it has about

412

Chapter 13

80% of the bearing market share. Bearings of ABEC 3 and 5 precision have very low market share. Bearings of ABEC 7 and 9 precision are for ultraprecision applications. The American Bearing Manufactures Association (ABMA) has adopted this standard for bearing tolerances, ANSI=ABMA-20, 1996, which is accepted as the international standard. The most important characteristics of precise bearings are the inner ring and outer ring run-outs. However, tolerances of all dimensions are more precise, such as inside and outside diameters, and width. All bearing manufacturers produce standard bearings that conform to these standard dimensions and tolerances.

13.5.1

Inner Ring Run-Out

The inner ring run-out of a rolling bearing is measured by holding the outer ring stationary by means of a ﬁxture and turning the inner ring under steady load. The radial inner ring run-out is measured via an indicator normal to the inner ring surface (inner ring bore). The axial inner ring run-out is measured by an indicator in contact with the face of the inner ring, in a direction normal to the face of the inner ring (parallel to the bearing centerline). In both cases, the run-out is the difference between the maximum and minimum indicator readings. In machine tools where the shaft is turning, such as in a lathe, the inner ring radial run-out is measured by turning a very precise shaft between two centers, under steady load. A precise dial indicator is ﬁxed normal to the shaft surface. The shaft rotates slowly, and the radial run-out is the difference between the maximum and minimum indicator readings. The axial run-out is measured by an indicator normal to the face of the shaft.

13.5.2

Outer Ring Run-Out

In a similar way, an indicator measures the outer ring run-out. But in that case, the inner ring is constrained by a ﬁxture and the run-out is measured when the outer ring is rotating. In the two cases, a small load, or gravity, is applied to cancel the internal clearance. In this way, the clearance does not affect the run-out measurement, because the run-out depends only on the precision of the bearing parts. For example, an eccentricity between the bore of the inner ring and its raceway will result in a constant inner-ring radial run-out but will not contribute to any outer ring radial run-out. In precision applications, such as machine tools, there is a requirement for bearings with very low levels of run-out. In addition, there is a requirement for low run-out for high-speed rotors, where radial run-out would result in imbalance and excessive vibrations. For machine tools, it is important to understand the effect of various types of run-out on the precision of the workpiece. Also, it is necessary to distinguish between a bearing where the inner ring is rotating, such as an electric motor, and a

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

413

bearing where the outer ring is rotating, such as in car wheels. In the case of an electric motor, the inner ring radial run-out will cause radial run-out of the rotor centerline. If, instead, there is only outer ring radial run-out, there would be no inﬂuence on the rotor, because the rotor continues to operate with a new, steady center of rotation (although not concentric with the bearing outer ring). The opposite applies to a car wheel, where only the outer ring radial run-out is causing run-out of the wheel, while the radial inner ring run-out does not affect the running of the car wheel. In machine tools the precision is measured by the axial and radial run-out of a spindle. However, it is necessary to distinguish between machinery where the workpiece is rotating and where the cutting tool is rotating. It is necessary to distinguish between steady and time-variable run-out. Steady radial run-out is where the spindle axis has a constant run-out (resulting from eccentricity between the inner ring bore and inner ring raceway). If the workpiece is turning, a steady radial run-out does not result in machining errors, because the workpiece forms its own, new center of rotation, and it will not result in a deviation from roundness. But the workpiece must not be reset during machining, because the center would be relocated. An example is a lathe where the bearing inner ring is rotating together with the spindle and workpiece while the outer ring is stationary. In this conﬁguration, if the spindle has a constant radial displacement, the cutting tool will form a round shape with a new center of rotation without any deviation from roundness. However, any deviation from roundness of the two races, in the form of waviness or elliptical shape, will result in a similar deviation from roundness in the workpiece. In contrast to a lathe, in a milling machine the cutting tool is rotating while the workpiece is stationary. In this case, operating the rotating tool with a constant eccentricity can result in manufacturing errors. This is evident when trying to machine a planar surface: A wavy surface would be produced, with the wave level depending on the cutting tool run-out (running eccentricity). Such manufacturing error can be minimized by a very slow feed rate of the workpiece. The load affects the concentric running of a shaft, due to elastic deformations in the contact between rolling elements and raceways. During operation, radial and axial run-outs in rolling bearings are caused not only by deviations from the ideal dimensions, but also by elastic deformation in the bearing— whenever there are rotating forces on the bearing. Most of the elastic deformation is at the contact between the rolling elements and the raceways. Roller-element bearings, such as cylindrical roller bearings, have less elastic deformation than ball bearings. By designing an adjustable arrangement of two opposing angular ball bearings or tapered bearings, it is possible to eliminate clearance and introduce preload in the bearings (negative clearance). In this way, the bearings are stiffened and the run-out due to elastic deformation or clearance is signiﬁcantly reduced.

414

13.6

Chapter 13

INTERNAL CLEARANCE OF ROLLING BEARINGS

Rolling bearings are manufactured with internal clearance. The internal clearance is between the rolling elements and the inner and outer raceways. In the absence of clearance, the rolling elements will ﬁt precisely into the space between the raceways of the outer and inner rings. However, in practice this space is always a little larger than the diameter of the rolling elements, resulting in a small clearance. The radial and axial clearances are measured by the displacements in the radial and axial directions that one ring can have relative to the other ring. The purpose of the clearance is to prevent excessive rolling contact stresses due to uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer rings. In addition, the clearance prevents excessive rolling contact stresses due to tight-ﬁt assembly of the rings into their seats. During operation, the temperature of the inner ring is usually higher than that of the outer ring, resulting in uneven thermal expansion. In addition, for most bearings the inner and outer rings are tightly ﬁtted into their seats. Tight ﬁt involves elastic deformation of the rings that can cause negative clearance (bearing preload), which results in undesired extra contact stresses between the raceways and the rolling elements. The extra stresses can be prevented if the bearing is manufactured with sufﬁcient internal clearance. In the case of negative clearance, the uneven thermal expansion and elastic deformation due to tight-ﬁt mounting are combined with the bearing load to cause excessive rolling contact stresses. It can produce a chain reaction where the high stresses result in higher friction and additional thermal expansion, which in turn can eventually lead to bearing seizure. Therefore, in most cases bearing manufacturers provide internal clearance to prevent bearing seizure due to excessive contact stresses. Catalogues of rolling-element bearings specify several standard classes of bearing clearance. This speciﬁcation of internal bearing clearance is based on the ABMA standard. The speciﬁcation is from tight, ABMA Class 2, to extra-loose clearance, ABMA Class 5. Standard bearings have ﬁve classes of precision. Table 13-9 shows the classes for increasing levels of internal clearance: C2, Normal, C3, C4, and C5. C2 has the lowest clearance, while C5 has the highest clearance. It should be noted that the normal class is between C2 and C3. The clearance in each class increases with bearing size. In addition, there is a tolerance range for the clearance in each class and bearing size. After the selection of bearing type and size has been completed, the selection of appropriate internal clearance is the most important design decision. Appropriate internal clearance is important for successful bearing operation. Internal clearance can be measured by displacement of the inner ring relative to the outer ring. This displacement can be divided into radial and axial components. The clearance is selected according to the bearing type and diameter as well as the level of precision required in operation.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings TABLE 13-9

Classes of Radial Clearance in Deep Groove Ball Bearing Radial clearance mm

Normal bore diameter d (mm) Over

incl.

d < 10 10 18 18 24 24 30 30 40 40 50 50 65 65 80 80 100 100 120 120 140 140 160 160 180 180 200 200 225 225 250 250 280 280 315 315 335 355 400 400 450 450 500 500 550 560 630 630 710 710 800

415

C2

Normal

C3

C4

C5

min.

max.

min.

max.

min.

max.

min.

max.

min.

max.

0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 10 10 20 20

7 9 10 11 11 11 15 15 18 20 23 23 25 30 35 40 45 55 60 70 80 90 100 110 130 140

2 3 5 5 6 6 8 10 12 15 18 18 20 25 25 30 35 40 45 55 60 70 80 90 110 120

13 18 20 20 20 23 28 30 36 41 48 53 61 71 85 95 105 115 125 145 170 190 210 230 260 290

8 11 13 13 15 18 23 25 30 36 41 46 53 63 75 85 90 100 110 130 150 170 190 210 240 270

23 25 28 28 33 36 43 51 58 66 81 91 102 117 140 160 170 190 210 240 270 300 330 360 400 450

14 18 20 23 28 30 38 46 53 61 71 81 91 107 125 145 155 175 195 225 250 280 310 340 380 430

29 33 36 41 46 51 61 71 84 97 114 130 147 163 195 225 245 270 300 340 380 420 470 520 570 630

20 25 28 30 40 45 55 65 75 90 105 120 135 150 175 205 225 245 275 315 350 390 440 490 540 600

37 45 48 53 64 73 90 105 120 140 160 180 200 230 265 300 340 370 410 460 510 570 630 690 760 840

The operating clearance is usually lower than the bearing clearance before its assembly. The clearance is reduced by tight ﬁt and thermal expansion during operation. Much care should be taken during design to secure an appropriate operating clearance. Example Problem 13-3 presents a calculation for predicting the operating clearance. Low operating clearance is very important in precision machines and highspeed machines. Operating clearance affects the concentric running of a shaft, it causes radial and axial run-out, and reduction of precision. Therefore, elimination of clearance is particularly important for precision machinery, such as machine tools and measuring machines, and high-speed machines, such as turbines, where radial clearance can cause imbalance and vibrations.

416

Chapter 13

Moreover, a small amount of preload (small negative bearing clearance) is desirable in order to stiffen the support of the shaft. This is done in order to reduce the level of vibrations, particularly in high-speed machines or highprecision machines, such as machine tools. In such cases, much care is required in the design, to secure that the preload is not excessive during operation. In certain applications, it is desirable to run the bearing as close as possible to clearance-free operation. Experiments have indicated that clearance-free operation reduces the bearing noise. Clearance-free operation requires accurate design that includes calculations of the housing and shaft tolerances. In the following sections, it is shown that a widely used method for eliminating the clearance and providing an accurate preload is an adjustable bearing arrangement. In this arrangement, two angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller bearings are mounted in opposite directions on one shaft. This arrangement is designed to allow, during mounting, for one ring to be forced to slide in its seat, in the axial direction, to adjust the bearing clearance or even provide preload inside the bearing. An adjustable arrangement is not appropriate in all applications. In order to reduce the operating clearance, the designer can select high-precision bearings manufactured with relatively low clearances. Another method often used in precision machines is to incorporate a tapered bore or tapered housing. It is possible to design a tapered-bore bearing, which reduces radial clearance by either expanding elastically the inner ring with a tapered shaft or press-ﬁtting the outer ring with a tapered housing bore. In many cases, a ﬂoating bearing is required to prevent thermal stresses due to thermal elongation of the shaft (thermal expansion in the axial direction). If, at the same time, precise concentric shaft running is required, the designer should not specify a sliding ﬁt (radial clearance) between the bore of the inner ring and the shaft or outer ring and housing. Instead, it is possible to use a cylindrical roller bearing, which can be installed with interference ﬁt to both the shaft and housing and still allow small axial displacements.

13.7

VIBRATIONS AND NOISE IN ROLLING BEARINGS

Theoretically, vibrations can be generated in rolling bearings even if the bearing is manufactured with great precision and its geometry does not signiﬁcantly deviate from the ideal dimensions. Under external load, the rotation of a rolling element induces periodic cycles of variable elastic deformation, which result in audible noise. In practice, however, vibrations resulting from inaccuracy in dimensions generate most of the noise. Deviation from roundness of the races or rolling elements results in vibrations and noise. Dimensional inaccuracy results in imbalances in the bearing that induce noise.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

417

The noise level of rolling bearings increases with the inaccuracy of the dimensions of the rolling elements and races. It is well known that there are always small deviations from the ideal geometry. Even the most precise manufacturing processes can only reduce dimensional errors, not eliminate them completely. The level of noise increases with the magnitude of the deviation from the nominal dimensions, particularly deviation from roundness of rolling elements or races or uneven diameters of the rolling elements, which can vary within a certain tolerance, depending on the speciﬁed tolerances. In addition, the waviness of the surface ﬁnish of the raceways and rolling-element surfaces can result in audible noise. In order to reduce the noise, it is important to minimize dimensional errors as well as the magnitude of the surface waviness, which is speciﬁed as deviation from roundness. Additional parameters that play a role in the noise level and vibrations include: elastic deformations at the contacts, design and material of the cage, and clearances between the rolling elements and the cage. A steady radial run-out (resulting from eccentricity of the inner and outer diameters of the rotating ring) generates a vibrational frequency equal to that of the shaft frequency. This frequency is usually too low to cause audible noise, but deviations from roundness, in the form of a few oscillations over the circumference of the race, can generate audible noise. One must keep in mind that a machine is a dynamic system, and vibrations, which originate in the rolling bearing, can excite vibrations and audible noise in other parts of the machine. In the same way, vibrations originating in other parts of the machine can excite audible noise in the rolling bearing. In particular, a high level of vibrations is expected whenever the exciting frequency is close to one of the natural frequencies in the machine. High-frequency vibrations generate audible noise as well as ultrasonic sound waves. Ultrasonic sound waves can be measured and used for predictive maintenance. The ultrasonic measurements are analyzed and the results used to predict the condition of rolling bearings while the machine is running. A signiﬁcant change in the level or frequency of ultrasonic sound is an indication of possible damage on the surface of the races or rolling elements. Experiments have indicated that when the bearing runs as close as possible to clearance free, the operating conditions are optimal for minimum noise and vibrations. This can be achieved by proper tight-ﬁt mounting to eliminate bearing clearance; however, thermal expansion must be considered, to avoid excessive preload. Noise generated by roller bearings is a concern in many applications, particularly in ofﬁce or hospital machines. Moreover, there is an increasing interest in improving the manufacturing environment and reducing the noise level in all machinery. Bearing manufacturers supply low-noise bearings. These bearings are of high precision and pass quality control tests. The tests include a plot of the actual roundness of rings in polar coordinates, where deviations from theoretical roundness are magniﬁed. In addition, samples are tested in operation, the level of noise is measured and recorded, and the correlation between certain

418

Chapter 13

dimensional deviations and noise level can be established. In this way, better lownoise bearings are developed. In additional to manufacturing precision, low-noise bearings must be mounted properly. Manufacturing errors in the form of deviations from roundness can be transferred by elastic deformation of the thin rings from the housing and shaft seats to the races. Therefore, for low-noise applications, high precision is required for the housing and shaft seats. Also, minimal misalignment is required. There are many parameters that inﬂuence vibrations in bearings, including bearing clearance. To minimize noise, it is desirable to have a clearance-free operating bearing. On the one hand, large clearance generates a characteristic hollow noise. On the other hand, a bearing that is excessively press-ﬁtted (negative clearance) induces another characteristic high-pitch noise. For optimum results, an effort must be made to operate the bearing as closely as possible to a clearance-free condition. But in practice this is difﬁcult to achieve, because the operating clearance is affected by several factors and there are variable conditions during operation. The design engineer must take into account the reduction of clearance after installation due to the interference ﬁts at the bearing seats, and thermal expansion must be considered (usually the operating temperature of the inner ring is higher than that of the outer ring). Example Problem 13-3 covers a radial clearance calculation during operation. Another method to achieve clearance-free running is to include adjustable arrangements of two angular ball bearings or tapered rolling bearings in opposition. By axial movement of the inner or outer ring, either through the use of a nut, which is tightened once the machine has reached thermal equilibrium, or with the use of spring washers, it is possible to adjust the clearance. The operating temperatures of the inner and outer rings are not always known, and an adjustable arrangement that is adjusted during machine assembly does not ensure clearance-free operation. Therefore, the best results can be achieved by designs that allow for clearance adjustment while the bearing is running and after thermal steady state has been reached. In addition to precise geometry, noise reduction is often achieved by using special greases with better damping characteristics for noise and vibrations. Grease manufacturers recommend certain greases that have been tested and proved to reduce noise more effectively than other types.

13.8

SHAFT AND HOUSING FITS

For successful bearing operation, care must be taken to specify tolerances of the appropriate ﬁts between the bearing bore and the shaft seat as well as the outer diameter and the housing seat. It is important that the rotating shaft always be tightly ﬁtted into the bearing bore, because a loose ﬁt will damage the bearing bore as well as the shaft seat. The type of ﬁt, such as tight ﬁt or loose ﬁt, depends

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

419

on the application. Since the tolerances for the bore and outside bearing diameter are standardized, the required ﬁts are obtained by selecting the proper tolerances for the shaft diameter and the housing bore. The ﬁts and tolerances are selected based on the ISO standard, which contains a very large selection of shaft and housing tolerances for any desirable ﬁt, from a tight ﬁt to a loose ﬁt. For the housing and shaft, the ISO standard provides for various degrees of tightness: very tight, moderately tight, sliding, and loose ﬁt. According to the ISO standard, a letter and a number are used for specifying tolerances; capital letters are used for housing bores, and small letters for shaft diameters. The letter speciﬁes the location of the tolerance zone (range between minimum and maximum dimensions) relative to the nominal dimension. In fact, the letter determines the degree of clearance or tightness of the housing or shaft in relation to the outside diameter or bore of the bearing. At the same time, the number speciﬁes the size of the tolerance zone. A demonstration of the tolerance zone of the housing and shaft is shown in Fig. 13-4. The tolerance zone of the housing and shaft is relative to the bearing tolerance, for various tolerance grades, from the loosest, G7, to the tightest, P7. Table 13-10 lists the tolerances of the shaft for various nominal diameters; Table 13-11 lists the tolerances of the housing for various nominal diameters. Table 13-12 provides recommendations for shaft tolerances for various applications; Table 13-13 gives similar recommendations for housing tolerances.

F IG. 13-4

Illustration of tolerance grades (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

k5

js6

js5

j6

j5

h6

h5

g6

g5

f6

Diagram of ﬁt Shaft

Ddmp

over to

2 8 18 4 4 0 9 9 4 4 1 12 12 8 0 4 5 5 8 0 3 8 8 11 þ3 7 2 2 14 þ6 8 2 2 11 þ2.5 6 2.5 3 12 þ4 7 4 4 14 þ6 9 þ1 1

10 18

5 11 22 3 5 2 11 11 3 5 3 14 14 8 0 3 6 6 8 0 2 9 9 12 þ4 7 2 2 15 þ7 9 2 2 11 þ3 6 3 3 13 þ4.5 7 4.5 5 15 þ7 10 þ1 1

13 22

8 15 27 2 6 3 14 14 2 6 4 17 17 8 0 3 8 8 8 0 2 11 11 13 þ5 8 3 3 16 þ8 10 3 3 12 þ4 6 4 4 14 þ5.5 8 5.5 6 17 þ9 12 þ1 1 16 27

þ11 þ2

þ6.5 6.5

þ4.5 4.5

þ9 4

þ5 4

0 13

0 9

7 20

7 16

20 33

10 17 33 3 3 16 3 5 20 10 4 9 10 2 13 15 9 4 19 11 4 15 9 5 17 9 7 21 15 2

13 22 41 3 9 5 20 20 3 9 6 25 25 12 0 4 11 11 12 0 3 16 16 18 þ6 10 5 5 23 þ11 14 5 5 18 þ5.5 10 5.5 6 20 þ8 11 8 8 25 þ13 17 þ2 2 25 41

0 15

50 65 0 15

65 80 0 20

80 100 0 20

100 120

þ15 þ2

þ9.5 9.5

þ6.5 6.5

þ12 7

þ6 7

0 19

0 13

10 29

10 23

30 49

15 26 49 5 4 23 5 6 29 15 6 13 15 4 19 21 12 7 27 16 7 22 13 7 25 13 10 30 21 2 þ15 þ2

þ9.5 9.5

þ6.5 6.5

þ12 7

þ6 7

0 19

0 13

10 29

10 23

30 49

15 26 49 5 4 23 5 6 29 15 6 13 15 4 19 21 12 7 27 16 7 22 13 7 25 13 10 30 21 2 þ18 þ3

þ11 11

þ7.5 7.5

þ13 9

þ6 9

0 22

0 15

12 34

12 27

36 58

16 30 58 8 4 27 8 6 34 20 8 15 20 6 22 26 14 9 33 19 9 28 16 8 31 17 11 38 26 3 þ18 þ3

þ11 11

þ7.5 7.5

þ13 9

þ6 9

0 22

0 15

12 34

12 27

36 58

16 30 58 8 4 27 8 6 34 20 8 15 20 6 22 26 14 9 33 19 9 28 16 8 31 17 11 38 26 3

Shaft tolerance, interference or clearance in microns (0.001 mm)

Dimensions in mm 3 6 10 18 30 6 10 18 30 50 Tolerance in microns (0.001 mm) (normal tolerance) 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 10 12

Tolerances of the Shaft (from FAG (1999) with permission of FAG and Handel AG)

Bearing bore diameter deviation

Nominal shaft dimension

TABLE 13-10

þ21 þ3

þ12.5 12.5

þ9 9

þ14 11

þ7 11

0 25

0 18

14 39

14 32

43 68

0 25

120 140

18 34 68 11 3 32 11 6 39 25 11 18 25 8 25 32 18 11 39 22 11 34 20 9 38 21 13 46 32 3

þ21 þ3

þ12.5 12.5

þ9 9

þ14 11

þ7 11

0 25

0 18

14 39

14 32

43 68

0 25

140 160

18 34 68 11 3 32 11 6 39 25 11 18 25 8 25 32 18 11 39 22 11 34 20 9 38 21 13 46 32 3

þ21 þ3

þ12.5 12.5

þ9 9

þ14 11

þ7 11

0 25

0 18

14 39

14 32

43 68

0 25

160 180

18 34 68 11 3 32 11 6 39 25 11 18 25 8 25 32 18 11 39 22 11 34 20 9 38 21 13 46 32 3

þ24 þ4

þ14.5 14.5

þ10 10

þ16 13

þ7 13

0 29

0 20

15 44

15 35

50 79

0 30

180 200

20 40 79 15 2 35 15 5 44 30 13 20 30 10 29 37 20 13 46 26 13 40 23 10 45 25 15 54 37 4

5

Minimum material

18 10 5

þ27 þ15

þ23 þ15

þ24 þ12

þ20 þ12

þ16 þ8

þ13 þ8

þ12 þ4

þ9 þ4

þ9 þ1

17 11 1 17 13 4 20 15 4 21 17 8 24 19 8 28 23 12 32 25 12 31 25 15 35 28 15 þ34 þ19

þ28 þ19

þ30 þ15

þ24 þ15

þ19 þ10

þ16 þ10

þ15 þ6

þ12 þ6

þ10 þ1

18 12 1 20 15 6 23 17 6 24 19 10 27 21 10 32 26 15 38 30 15 36 30 19 42 34 19 þ41 þ23

þ34 þ23

þ36 þ18

þ29 þ18

þ23 þ12

þ20 þ12

þ18 þ7

þ15 þ7

þ12 þ1

20 14 1 23 18 7 26 20 7 28 23 12 31 25 12 37 31 18 44 35 18 42 35 23 49 40 23

Numbers in boldface print identify interference. Standard-type numbers in right column identify clearance.

þ6

Example: Shaft dia 40 j5 Maximum material

r7

r6

p7

p6

n6

n5

m6

m5

k6

þ49 þ28

þ41 þ28

þ43 þ22

þ35 þ22

þ28 þ15

þ24 þ15

þ21 þ8

þ17 þ8

þ15 þ2

25 17 2 27 21 8 31 23 8 34 28 15 38 30 15 45 37 22 53 43 22 51 44 28 59 49 28

30 21 2 32 24 9 37 27 9 40 32 17 45 36 17 54 45 26 63 51 26 62 53 34 71 59 34 þ71 þ41

þ60 þ41

þ62 þ32

þ51 þ32

þ39 þ20

þ33 þ20

þ30 þ11

þ24 þ11

þ21 þ2

36 25 2 39 30 11 45 34 11 48 39 20 54 43 20 66 55 32 77 62 32 75 64 41 86 71 41 þ73 þ43

þ62 þ43

þ62 þ32

þ51 þ32

þ39 þ20

þ33 þ20

þ30 þ11

þ24 þ11

þ21 þ2

36 25 2 39 30 11 45 34 11 48 39 20 54 43 20 66 55 32 77 62 32 77 66 43 88 73 43 þ86 þ51

þ73 þ51

þ72 þ37

þ59 þ37

þ45 þ23

þ38 þ23

þ35 þ13

þ28 þ13

þ25 þ3

45 31 3 48 36 13 55 42 13 58 46 23 65 51 23 79 65 37 92 73 37 93 79 51 106 87 51 þ89 þ54

þ76 þ54

þ72 þ37

þ59 þ37

þ38 þ23 65 þ45 þ23

þ35 þ13

þ28 þ13

þ25 þ3

45 31 þ28 3 þ3 48 36 þ33 13 þ15 55 42 þ40 13 þ15 58 46 þ45 23 þ27 65 51 þ52 23 þ27 79 65 þ68 37 þ43 92 73 þ83 37 þ43 96 82 þ88 54 þ63 109 90 þ103 54 þ63

53 36 þ28 3 þ3 58 44 þ33 15 þ15 65 48 þ40 15 þ15 70 56 þ45 27 þ27 77 60 þ52 27 þ27 93 76 þ68 43 þ43 108 87 þ83 43 þ43 113 97 þ90 63 þ65 128 107 þ105 63 þ65

Interference or clearance when upper shaft deviations coincide with lower bore deviations Probable interference or clearance Interference or clearance when lower shaft deviations coincide with upper bore deviations

þ59 þ34

þ50 þ34

þ51 þ26

þ42 þ26

þ33 þ17

þ28 þ17

þ25 þ9

þ20 þ9

þ18 þ2

53 36 þ28 3 þ3 58 44 þ33 15 þ15 65 48 þ40 15 þ15 70 56 þ45 27 þ27 77 60 þ52 27 þ27 93 76 þ68 43 þ43 108 87 þ83 43 þ43 115 99 þ93 65 þ68 130 109 þ108 65 þ68

53 36 þ33 3 þ4 58 44 þ37 15 þ17 65 48 þ46 15 þ17 70 56 þ51 27 þ31 77 60 þ60 27 þ31 93 76 þ79 43 þ50 108 87 þ96 43 þ50 118 102 þ106 68 þ77 133 112 þ123 68 þ77

63 43 4 67 50 17 76 56 17 81 64 31 90 70 31 109 89 50 126 101 50 136 116 77 153 128 77

JS6

J7

J6

H8

H7

H6

G7

G6

F7

E8

Diagram of ﬁt Housing

DDmp þ0

Ddmp

over to

25 32 35 þ59 44 55 þ32 67 13 16 þ28 21 þ34 25 þ13 36 þ16 42 5 6 þ14 11 þ17 12 þ5 22 þ6 25 5 6 þ20 13 þ24 15 þ5 28 þ6 32 0 0 þ9 6 þ11 6 0 17 0 19 0 0 þ15 8 þ18 9 0 23 0 26 0 0 þ22 10 þ27 12 0 30 0 35 4 5 þ5 2 þ6 1 4 13 5 14 7 8 þ8 1 þ10 1 7 16 8 18 4.5 5.5 þ4.5 2 þ5.5 1 þ47 þ25

þ6.5

þ12 9

þ8 5

þ33 0

þ21 0

þ13 0

þ28 þ7

þ20 þ7

þ41 þ20

þ73 þ40

40 54 82 20 30 50 7 14 29 7 17 37 0 7 22 0 10 30 0 14 42 5 2 17 9 1 21 6.5 0 þ8

þ14 11

þ10 6

þ39 0

þ25 0

þ16 0

þ34 þ9

þ25 þ9

þ50 þ25

þ89 þ50

0 40

315 400 0 45

400 500

85 85 112 þ148 114 þ172 166 þ85 173 þ100 43 43 62 þ83 64 þ96 101 þ43 108 þ50 14 14 28 þ39 31 þ44 57 þ14 64 þ15 14 14 33 þ54 36 þ61 72 þ14 79 þ15 0 0 14 þ25 17 þ29 43 0 50 0 0 0 19 þ40 22 þ46 58 0 65 0 0 0 27 þ63 29 þ72 81 0 88 0 7 7 7 þ18 10 þ22 36 7 43 7 14 14 5 þ26 8 þ30 44 14 51 16 12.5 12.5 1 þ12.5 3 þ14.5

100 134 202 50 75 126 15 35 74 15 40 91 0 20 59 0 25 76 0 34 102 7 13 52 16 9 60 14.5 5

110 þ191 149 þ214 þ110 226 þ125 56 þ108 85 þ119 þ56 143 þ62 17 þ49 39 þ54 þ17 84 þ18 17 þ69 46 þ75 þ17 104 þ18 0 þ32 22 þ36 0 67 0 0 þ52 29 þ57 0 87 0 0 þ81 39 þ89 0 116 0 7 þ25 15 þ29 7 60 7 16 þ36 13 þ39 16 71 18 16 þ16 7 þ18

0 50

500 630

125 135 145 168 þ232 182 þ255 199 254 þ135 277 þ145 305 62 68 76 94 þ131 104 þ146 116 159 þ68 176 þ76 196 18 20 22 43 þ60 48 þ66 54 94 þ20 105 þ22 116 18 20 22 50 þ83 56 þ92 62 115 þ20 128 þ22 142 0 0 0 25 þ40 28 þ44 32 76 0 85 0 94 0 0 0 32 þ63 36 þ70 40 97 0 108 0 120 0 0 0 43 þ97 47 þ110 54 129 0 142 0 160 7 7 18 þ33 21 69 7 78 18 20 14 þ43 16 79 20 88 18 20 22 6 þ20 8 þ22 10

Housing tolerance, interference or clearance in microns (0.001 mm)

120 150 180 250 150 180 250 315 Tolerance in microns (0.001 mm) (normal tolerance) 0 0 0 0 18 25 30 35

50 60 72 67 þ106 79 þ126 85 þ148 100 þ60 119 þ72 141 þ85 25 30 36 37 þ60 44 þ71 53 þ83 61 þ30 73 þ36 86 þ43 9 10 12 18 þ29 21 þ34 24 þ39 36 þ10 42 þ12 49 þ14 9 10 12 21 þ40 24 þ47 29 þ54 45 þ10 53 þ12 62 þ14 0 0 0 9 þ19 11 þ22 12 þ25 27 0 32 0 37 0 0 0 0 12 þ30 14 þ35 17 þ40 36 0 43 0 50 0 0 0 0 17 þ46 20 þ54 23 þ63 50 0 59 0 69 0 6 6 6 3 þ13 5 þ16 6 þ18 21 6 26 6 31 7 11 12 13 1 þ18 2 þ22 4 þ26 25 12 31 13 37 14 8 9.5 11 1 þ9.5 0 þ11 1 þ12.5

Housing tolerance, interference or clearance in microns (0.001 mm)

Dimensions in mm Dimensions in mm 6 10 18 30 50 80 10 18 30 50 80 120 Tolerance in microns (0.001mm) (normal tolerance) 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 9 11 13 15

Tolerances of the Housing (from FAG (1999) with permission of FAG OEM and Handel AG)

Bearing outside diameter deviation

Nominal housing bore

TABLE 13-11

þ 0

þ

þ þ

þ þ

þ þ

þ þ

35

18 15

35

5.5 13.5 6.5 15.5 8 19 9.5 22.5 11 26 12.5 30.5 12.5 37.5 14.5 44.5 16 9 10.5 12.5 15 17.5 20 20 23 þ9 0 þ10.5 1 þ12.5 1 þ15 1 17.5 1 20 1 20 1 23 2 þ26 9 17 10.5 19.5 12.5 23.5 15 28 17.5 32.5 20 38 20 45 23 53 26 9 11 13 15 18 21 21 24 þ2 3 þ2 4 þ3 4 þ4 4 þ4 6 þ4 7 þ4 4 þ5 4 þ5 9 10 11 11 13 14 15 17 18 19 21 22 21 29 24 35 27 12 15 18 21 25 28 28 33 þ6 3 þ6 5 þ7 6 þ9 7 þ10 8 þ12 9 þ12 6 þ13 8 þ16 12 14 15 15 18 18 21 22 25 25 28 30 28 37 33 43 36 15 17 20 24 28 33 33 37 4 9 4 10 4 11 5 13 6 16 8 19 8 16 8 17 9 15 4 17 5 20 7 24 8 28 9 33 10 33 17 37 22 41 18 21 25 30 35 40 40 46 0 9 0 11 0 13 0 16 0 18 0 21 0 18 0 21 0 18 8 21 9 25 11 30 13 35 15 40 18 40 25 46 30 52 20 24 28 33 38 45 45 51 9 14 11 17 12 19 14 22 16 26 20 31 20 28 22 31 25 20 1 24 2 28 1 33 1 38 1 45 2 45 5 51 8 57 23 28 33 39 45 52 52 60 5 14 7 18 8 21 9 25 10 28 12 33 12 30 14 35 14 23 3 28 2 33 3 39 4 45 5 52 6 52 13 60 16 66 26 31 37 45 52 61 61 70 15 20 18 24 21 28 26 34 30 40 36 47 36 44 41 50 47 26 7 31 9 37 10 45 13 52 15 61 18 61 11 70 11 79 29 35 42 51 59 68 68 79 11 20 14 25 17 30 21 37 24 42 28 49 28 46 33 54 36 29 3 35 5 42 6 51 8 59 9 68 10 68 3 79 3 88

Interference or clearance when upper outside diameter deviations of ring coincide with lower housing bore deviations Probable interference or clearance Interference or clearance when lower outside diameter deviations of ring coincide with upper housing bore deviations

4.5 12.5 7.5 þ7.5 1 7.5 15.5 7 þ2 1 7 10 10 þ5 2 10 13 12 3 6 12 5 15 0 7 15 8 16 7 10 16 1 19 4 11 19 4 21 12 15 21 4 24 9 16 24 1

Numbers in boldface print identify interference. Standard-type numbers in right column identify clearance.

Maximum material

Example: Housing bore dia 100 M7 Minimum material 0

P7

P6

N7

N6

M7

M6

K7

K6

JS7

51 18 58 20 65 22 72 26 28.5 31.5 35 3 þ28.5 3 31.5 4 þ35 5 61 28.5 68.5 31.5 76.5 35 85 27 29 32 44 5 þ7 4 þ8 4 0 12 40 29 47 32 53 44 50 36 40 45 70 7 þ17 8 þ18 9 0 30 51 40 57 45 63 70 50 41 46 50 70 19 10 21 10 22 26 38 30 26 46 30 50 35 70 24 80 52 57 63 96 23 0 25 0 27 26 56 30 35 57 40 63 45 96 24 11 57 62 67 88 35 26 37 27 39 44 56 50 10 62 14 67 18 88 6 10 66 73 80 114 37 16 41 17 44 44 74 50 21 73 24 80 28 114 6 13 79 87 95 122 57 51 62 55 67 122 28 13 12 87 11 95 10 122 28 13 88 98 108 148 59 41 66 45 72 78 108 88 1 98 1 108 0 148 28 16

Examples

j6 k6 j5 k5 (k6)2 m5 (m6)2 m6 n6 p6 r6 r7 n63 p63 r63 — 40 (40) to 65 (65) to 100 (100) to 140 (140) to 280 (280) to 500 > 500 (50) to 100 (100) to 140 > 140

— 40 (40) to 100 (100) to 140 (140) to 200 (200) to 400 — — (50) to 140 (140) to 200 > 200

Tolerance symbol

— —

Spherical roller bearings

40 (40) to 100

Shaft diameter, mm ball Cylindrical bearings1 roller bearing

Rotating inner ring load or direction of loading indeterminate Light loads Conveyors, lightly (18) to 100 loaded gearbox (100) to 140 bearings 18 Normal loads Bearing applications (18) to 100 generally (100) to 140 electric motors (140) to 200 turbines, pumps (200) to 280 internal combustion — engines, gearing — woodworking machines — — Heavy loads Axleboxes for heavy — railway vehicles, — traction motors, rolling mills

Conditions

TABLE 13-12 Recommendations for Shaft Tolerances Selection of Solid Steel Shaft Tolerance Classiﬁcation for Metric Radial Ball and Roller Bearings of Tolerance Classes ABEC-1, RBEC-1 (Except Tapered Roller Bearings) (From SKF, 1992, with permission)

424 Chapter 13

Stationary inner ring load Easy axial displacement of inner ring on shaft desirable Easy axial displacement of inner ring on shaft unnecessary Axial loads only

High demands on running accuracy with light loads

Bearing applications of all kinds

Wheels on non-rotating axles Tension pulleys, rope sheaves

Machine tools

all

all

all

all

all

— 40 (40) to 140 (140) to 200

all

18 (18) to 100 (100) to 200 —

all

all

all

— — — —

j6

h6

g6

h54 j54 k54 m54

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 425

Direction of load indeterminate Heavy shock loads Normal loads and heavy loads axial displacement of outer ring unnecessary Accurate or silent running

Cannot be displaced Cannot be displaced as a rule

Cannot be displaced as a rule Can be displaced Can easily be displaced

M7 K7

K61 J62 H6

Roller bearings for machine tool work spindles Ball bearings for grinding spindles, small electric motors Small electric motors

Cannot be displaced

Electric traction motors Electric motors, pumps, crankshaft bearings

M7

Cannot be displaced

N7

Ball bearing wheel hubs, big-end bearings, crane travelling wheels Conveyor rollers, rope sheaves, belt tension pulleys

Light and variable loads

Cannot be displaced

P7

Roller bearing wheel hubs, big-end bearings

Displacement of outer ring

SOLID HOUSINGS Rotating outer ring load Heavy loads on bearings in thin-walled housings, heavy shock loads Normal loads and heavy loads

Tolerence symbol

Examples

Recommendations for Housing Tolerances (From SKF, 1992, with permission)

Conditions

TABLE 13-13

426 Chapter 13

SPLIT OR SOLID HOUSING Direction of load indeterminate Light loads and normal loads axial displacement of outer ring desirable Stationary outer ring load Loads of all kinds Light loads and normal loads with simple working conditions Heat condition through shaft Can be normally displaced

Can easily be displaced Can easily be displaced

Can easily be displaced

J7

H73 H8

G74

Medium-sized electrical machines, pumps, crankshaft bearings Railway axleboxes General engineering

Drying cylinders, large electrical machines with spherical roller bearings

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 427

428

Chapter 13

For a standard rolling bearing, the tolerance zones of the outside and bore diameters are below the nominal diameter. The tolerance zone has two boundaries. One boundary is the nominal dimension, and the second boundary is of lower diameter. The lower boundary, which determines the tolerance zone, depends on the bearing precision and size. For example, for a normal bearing of outside diameter D ¼ 100 mm, the tolerance zone is þ0 to 18 mm. This means that the actual outside bearing diameter can be within the tolerance zone of the nominal 100 mm and 18 mm lower than the nominal dimension. In drawings, dimensions with a tolerance are speciﬁed in several ways, for example, 100þ0;18 . For a bearing bore diameter d ¼ 60 mm of a normal bearing, the tolerance is þ0, 15 mm. In this case, the actual bore diameter can be between the nominal 60 mm and 15 mm lower than the nominal dimension, 60þ0;15 . In addition, there are various precision classes, from class 2 to class 6, where class 2 is of the highest precision. For comparison with the previous example of a normal precision class, the dimension of class 2 of the outside diameter is D ¼ 100þ0;5 ; for the bore diameter it is d ¼ 60þ0;2:5 . As a rule, the rotating ring of a rolling-element bearing is always tightly ﬁtted in its seat. In most machines, the rotating ring is the inner ring, such as in a centrifugal pump, where the bearing bore is mounted by a tight ﬁt on the shaft. In that case, the outer ring can be mounted in the housing with tight ﬁt, or it can be mounted with a loose ﬁt to allow for free thermal expansion of the shaft. However, if the outer ring is rotating, such as in a grinding wheel, the outer ring should be mounted with a tight ﬁt, while the inner ring can be mounted on a stationary shaft with tight or loose ﬁt. Tight ﬁt of the rotating ring is essential for preventing sliding between the ring and its seat during start-up and stopping, when the rotating ring is subjected to high angular acceleration and tends to slide. Sliding of the ring will result in severe wear of the seat, and eventually the ring will be completely loose in its seat. In the case of a rotating force, such as centrifugal forces in an unbalanced spindle of a lathe, it is important that the two rings be tightly ﬁtted. Otherwise, the bearing will freely swing inside the free clearance, resulting in an excessive level of vibrations. Usually two or more bearings are used to support a shaft, and only the bearings at one end of the shaft can have a completely tight ﬁt of the two rings in their seats. The radial bearing on the other end of the shaft must have one ring with a loose ﬁt. This is essential to allow the ring to ﬂoat on the shaft or inside the housing seat in order to prevent thermal stresses during operation due to thermal expansion of the shaft length relative to the machine. In many designs, the bearing is located between a shoulder on the shaft and a standard locknut and lock washer, for preventing any axial bearing displacement (Fig. 13-5). Precision machining of the housing and shaft seats is required in order to prevent the bending of the bearing relative to the shaft. The shoulders on the shaft must form a plane normal to the shaft centerline, the threads on the

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-5

429

Locating a bearing by a locknut.

locknut and shaft must be precisely cut, with very small run-out tolerance, and the washers must have parallel surfaces in order to secure uniform parallel contact with the inner ring face. Many mass-produced small machines and appliances that operate under light conditions rely only on a tight ﬁt for locating the bearings, in order to reduce the cost of production.

13.9

STRESS AND DEFORMATION DUE TO TIGHT FITS

Tight-ﬁt mounting is where there is an interference (negative clearance) between the housing seat and the outer ring or between the bearing bore and the shaft. A hydraulic or mechanical press is used for bearing mounting. For larger bearings, a temperature difference is used for mounting. The bearing is heated and ﬁtted on the shaft, or the housing is heated for ﬁtting in the bearing. Tight-ﬁtting involves elastic deformation. Tight-ﬁtting shrinks the outer ring and expands the inner ring. After tight-ﬁt mounting of the inner ring on a shaft, the bore of the inner rings slightly increases in diameter, while the shaft diameter slightly decreases. This results in tangential tensile stresses around the ring, while tight-ﬁt mounting of the outer ring into the housing seat results in compression stresses. When the bearing housing and shaft are made of the same material (steel), the stress equation is simpliﬁed. In addition, in order to simplify the equation, it is assumed that the bearing rings have a rectangular cross section. If the diameter interference of the inner ring on the shaft is Dd, the equation for the tensile stress in the inner ring is 1 di2 Dd st ¼ E 1 þ 2 2 do di

ð13-19Þ

430

Chapter 13

where di ¼ ID (inside diameter) of inner ring do ¼ OD (outside diameter) of inner ring E ¼ modulus of elasticity Dd ¼ diameter interference (negative clearance) In a similar way, if the diameter interference of the outer ring inside the housing seat is DD, the equation for the compression stresses in the outer ring is st ¼

1 D2 DD E ð1 þ i2 Þ 2 Do Do

ð13-20Þ

where Di ¼ ID of outer ring Do ¼ the OD of outer ring DD ¼ diameter interference of outer ring For the two rings, there are compression stresses in the radial direction. At the interference boundary, the compression stress is in the form of pressure between the rings and the seats. The equation for the pressure between the inner ring and the shaft (for a full shaft) is 1 d 2 Dd pðshaftÞ ¼ E 1 þ i2 ð13-21Þ 2 do di In a similar way, the equation for the pressure between the outer ring and the housing is 1 D2i DD ð13-22Þ pðhousingÞ ¼ E 1 þ 2 2 Do Do The pressure keeps the rings tight in place, and the friction prevents any sliding in the axial direction or due to the rotation of the ring. The axial load required to pull out the ﬁtted ring or to displace it in the axial direction is Fa ¼ f pdLp

ð13-23aÞ

where f is the static friction coefﬁcient. In steel-on-steel bearings, the range of the static friction coefﬁcient is 0.1–0.25. In a similar way, the equation for the maximum torque that can be transmitted through the tight ﬁt by friction (without key) is Tmax ¼ f pLp

d2 2

ð13-23bÞ

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13.9.1

431

Radial Clearance Reduction Due to Interference Fit

Interference-ﬁt mounting of the inner or outer ring results in elastic deformation and, in turn, in a reduction of the radial clearance of the bearing. The reduction of radial clearance, Ds , due to tight-ﬁt mounting of interference Dd with the shaft is di Dd do

Ds ¼

ð13-24aÞ

In a similar way, the reduction in radial clearance due to interference with the housing seat is Dh ¼

13.9.2

Di Dd Do

ð13-24bÞ

Reduction of Surface Roughness by Tight Fit

The actual interference is reduced by a reduction of roughness (surface smoothing) of tight-ﬁt mating surfaces. Roughness reduction is equivalent to interference loss. For the calculation of the stresses and radial clearance reduction by interference ﬁt, the surface smoothing should be considered. The greater the surface roughness of the mating parts, the greater the resulting smoothing effect, which will result in interference loss. According to DIN 7190 standard, about 60% of the roughness depth, Rs , is expected to be smoothed (reduction of the outside diameter and increase of the inside diameter) when parts are mated by a tight-ﬁt assembly. In rolling bearing mounting, the smoothing of the hardened ﬁne-ﬁnish surfaces of the rolling bearing rings can be neglected in comparison to the smoothing of the softer surfaces of the shaft and housing. Table 13-14 can be T ABLE 13-14 Qualities

Surface Roughness for Various Machining Roughnes of surfaces, Rs

Ultraﬁne grinding Fine grinding Ultraﬁne turning Fine turning

mm

min

0.8 2 4 6

32 79 158 236

432

Chapter 13

used as a guide for determining the roughness, Rs , according to the quality of machining (Eschmann et al., 1985). The smoothing effect is neglected for precision-ground and hardened bearing rings, because the roughness Rs is very small. However, there is interference loss to the part ﬁtted to the bearing, such as a shaft or housing. Since 60% of the roughness depth, Rs , is smoothed, the reduction in diameter, DDs , by smoothing is estimated to be DDs ¼ 1:2Rs

ð13-25Þ

Here, DDs ¼ reduction in diameter due to smoothing (interference loss) Rs ¼ surface roughness (maximum peak to valley height) In addition to interference loss due to smoothing, losses due to uneven thermal expansion occur. When the outer ring and housing or inner ring and shaft are made from different materials, operating temperatures will alter the original interference. Usually, the bearing housing is made of a lighter material than the bearing outer ring (higher thermal expansion coefﬁcient), resulting in interference loss at operating temperatures higher than the ambient temperature. Interference loss due to thermal expansion can be calculated as follows: DDt ¼ Dðao ai ÞðTo Ta Þ

ð13-26Þ

Here, DDt ¼ interference loss due to thermal expansion D ¼ bearing OD ao ¼ coefficient of expansion of outside metal ai ¼ coefficient of expansion of inside metal To ¼ operating temperature Ta ¼ ambient temperature On the housing side, the effective interference after interference reduction due to surface smoothing and thermal expansion of dissimilar materials is u ¼ DDðmachining interferenceÞ DDs DDt where u ¼ effective interference DD ¼ machining interference DDs ¼ diameter reduction due to smoothing DDt ¼ interference loss due to thermal expansion

ð13-27Þ

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13.9.3

433

Bearing Radial Clearance During Operation

Bearings are manufactured with a larger radial clearance than required for operation. The original manufactured radial clearance is reduced by tight-ﬁt mounting and later by uneven thermal expansion of the rings during operation. The design engineer should estimate the radial clearance during operation. In many cases, the radical clearance becomes interference, and the design engineer should conduct calculations to ensure that the interference is not excessive. The interference results in extra rolling contact pressure, which can reduce the fatigue life of the bearing. However, small interference is desirable for many applications, because it increases the bearing stiffness. The purpose of the following section is to demonstrate the calculation of the ﬁnal bearing clearance (or interference). This calculation is not completely accurate, because it involves estimation of the temperature difference between the inner and outer rings.

13.9.4

E¡ects of Temperature Di¡erence Between Rings

During operation, there is uneven temperature distribution in the bearing. In Sec. 13.3.3, it was mentioned that for average operation speed the temperature of the inner ring is 5 –10 C higher than that of the outer ring (if the housing is cooled by air ﬂow, the difference increases to 15 –20 C). The temperature difference causes the inner ring to expand more than the outer ring, resulting in a reduction of the bearing radial clearance. The radial clearance reduction can be estimated by the equation DDtd ¼

DT aðd þ DÞ 2

ð13-28Þ

Here, DDtd ¼ diameter clearance reduction due to temperature difference between inner and outer rings DT ¼ temperature difference between inner and outer rings a ¼ coefficient of linear thermal expansion d ¼ bearing bore diameter D ¼ bearing OD

434

Chapter 13

Example Problem 13-3 Calculation of Operating Clearance Find the operating clearance (or interference) for a standard deep-groove ball bearing No. 6306 that is ﬁtted on a shaft and inside housing as shown in Fig. 13-6. During operation, the temperature of the inner ring as well as of the shaft is 10 C higher than that of the outer ring and housing. The dimensions and tolerances of the inner ring and shaft are: Bore diameter: Shaft diameter: OD of inner ring:

d ¼ 30 mm (10, þ0) mm ds ¼ 30 mm (þ15, þ2) mm k6 d1 ¼ 38.2 mm

The dimensions and tolerances of outer ring and housing seat are: OD of outer ring: D ¼ 72 mm (þ0, 11) mm ID of outer ring: D1 ¼ 59.9 mm ID of housing seat: DH ¼ 72 mm (15, þ4) mm K6 Shaft ﬁnish: ﬁne grinding Housing ﬁnish: ﬁne grinding Radial clearance before mounting: C5 Group, 40–50 mm Coefﬁcient of linear expansion of steel: a ¼ 0.000011 [1=K] Consider surface smoothing, elastic deformation, and thermal expansion while calculating the operating radial clearance.

F IG. 13-6

Dimensions and tolerances of rolling bearing, shaft, and housing.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

435

Solution In most cases, the machining process of the rings, shaft, and housing seat will stop not too far after reaching the desired tolerance. There is high probability that the actual dimension will be near one-third of the tolerance zone, measured from the tolerance boundary close to the surface where the machining started. Common engineering practice is to take two-thirds of the tolerance range and then add to that the lowest tolerance (Eschmann et al., 1985). The result should be a value close to the side on which the machining is started. Therefore, Shaft interference : Bearing bore:

ð10 þ 0Þ 2=3 þ 0 ¼ 7 mm

Shaft: ð15 2Þ 2=3 þ 2 ¼ þ11 mm Total theoretical interference fit is: 11 þ 7 ¼ þ18 mm Housing interference : OD of outer ring: ID of housing seat:

ð0 þ 11Þ 2=3 11 ¼ 4 mm ð15 4Þ 2=3 þ 4 ¼ 9 mm

Total theoretical interference fit: 9 4 ¼ þ5 mm The bearing is made of hardened steel and is precision ground, so smoothing of the bearing inner and outer rings can be neglected. The Rs value for a ﬁnely ground surface is obtained from Table 13-5: Smoothing to ﬁnely ground shaft: DDs ¼ 1.2Rs ¼ 1.2(2) ¼ 2.4 mm Smoothing to ﬁnely ground housing: DDs ¼ 1.2Rs ¼ 1.2(2) ¼ 2.4 mm In this example, the shaft and housing are both made of steel, so there is no change in interference due to different thermal expansion of two materials. The effective interference becomes: Inner ring: Outer ring:

u ¼ theoretical interference DDs ui ¼ 18 2:4 ¼ 15:6 mm uo ¼ 5 2:4 ¼ 2:6 mm

The radial clearance reduction due to tight-ﬁt installation of the rolling bearing is also considered. The reduction in clearance due to interference with the shaft is (Eq. 13-24) Ds ¼

d 30 mm 15:6 mm ¼ 12:25 mm ui ¼ d1 38:2 mm

The reduction in clearance due to interference with the housing is DH ¼

D1 59:9 mm 2:6 mm ¼ 2:16 mm u ¼ 72 mm D 0

436

Chapter 13

The total radial clearance reduction due to installation is therefore Ds þ DH ¼ 12:25 mm þ 2:16 mm ¼ 14:4 mm Finally, as stated in the problem, there is a temperature difference of DT ¼ 10 C between the inner and outer rings. This is due to the more rapid heat transfer away from the housing than from the shaft. In turn the shaft and inner ring will have a higher operating temperature than the outer ring. This will result in higher thermal expansion of the inner ring, which will further reduce the radial clearance. The thermal clearance reduction is DDth ¼

DT aðd þ DÞ 2

DDth ¼ 10ðKÞ 0:000011 ð1=KÞ ¼ 5:6 103 m ¼ 5:6 mm

ð30 þ 72Þ mm 1000 m 2 mm

In summary, the expected radial running clearance of this bearing will be: Radial clearance before mounting: Radial clearance reduction due to mounting: Radial clearance reduction by thermal expansion: Expected radial clearance during operation

13.10

40–50 mm 14.4 mm 5.6 mm 20–30 mm

BEARING MOUNTING ARRANGEMENTS

An important part of bearing design is the mounting arrangement, which requires careful consideration. For an appropriate design, the following aspects should be considered. The shaft should be able to have free thermal expansion in the axial direction, due to its temperature rise during operation. This is essential for preventing extra thermal stresses. The mounting arrangement should allow easy mounting and dismounting of the bearings. The designer must keep in mind that rolling bearings need maintenance and replacement. The shaft and bearings are part of a dynamic system that should be designed to have sufﬁcient rigidity to minimize vibrations and for improvement of running precision. For improved rigidity, the mounting arrangement is often designed for elimination of any clearance by preloading the bearings. Bearing arrangements should ensure that the bearings are located in their place while supporting the radial and axial forces.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

437

It was discussed earlier that during operation, if the housing has no cooling arrangement, the temperatures of the shaft and inner ring could be 5 –10 C higher than that of the outer ring. If the housing is cooled by air ﬂow, the temperatures of the inner ring can increase to 15 –20 C higher than that of the outer ring. During operation, the temperature difference between the shaft and the machine frame is higher than between the rings. This results in a thermal elongation of the shaft relative to the machine frame that can cause extra stresses at the rolling contact of the bearings. In addition, due to manufacturing tolerances, the distances between the shaft seats and the housing seats are not equal. The extra stresses caused by thermal elongation and manufacturing tolerances can be very high if the shaft is long and there is a large distance between the supporting bearings. This problem can be prevented by appropriate design of the bearing arrangement. The design must provide one bearing with a loose ﬁt so that it will have the freedom to ﬂoat in the axial direction ( ﬂoating bearing). In most cases, the loose ﬁt of the ﬂoating bearing is at the outer ring, which is ﬁtted in the housing seat. A ﬂoating bearing allows free axial elongation of the shaft. The common design is referred to as a locating=ﬂoating or ﬁxed-end=free-end bearing arrangement. In this design, one bearing is the locating bearing, which is ﬁxed in the axial direction to the housing and shaft and can support thrust (axial) as well as radial loads. On the other side of the shaft, the second bearing is ﬂoating, in the sense that it can slide freely, relative to its seat, in the axial direction. The ﬂoating bearing can support only radial loads, and only the locating bearing supports the entire thrust load on the shaft. In shafts supported by two or more bearings, only one bearing is designed as a locating bearing, while all the rest are ﬂoating bearings. This is essential in order to prevent extremely high thermal stresses in the bearings. An example of a locating=ﬂoating bearing arrangement is shown in Fig. 13-7. Additional practical examples are presented in Sec. 13-12. The bearing on the left side of the shaft is ﬁxed in the axial direction and can support thrust forces in the two directions as well as radial force. The bearing on the right end of the shaft can ﬂoat in the axial direction and can support only radial force. Axial ﬂoating of the bearing is achieved by providing the housing with a loose ﬁt (a clearance between the housing seat and the bearing outer ring). In certain applications, two angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller bearings that are symmetrically arranged and preloaded are used as locating bearings (see Sec. 13.11). This design provides for an accurate rigid location of the shaft. In principle, axial ﬂoating of the shaft is also possible by means of a loose ﬁt between the shaft and the bearing bore. However, for a rotating shaft and stationary housing, the clearance must be on the housing side, to prevent wear of the shaft surface during starting and stopping of the machine.

438

F IG. 13-7

Chapter 13

Locating=ﬂoating bearing arrangement.

During starting and stopping, the shaft has a high angular acceleration. In turn, the moment of inertia (of the inner ring and balls of the bearing) causes inertial torque resistance (in the direction opposite to that of the shaft angular acceleration). In many cases, the inertial torque is higher than the friction and the shaft would slide during the start-up inside the bearing bore. The relative sliding can cause severe wear of the shaft surface. This undesired effect can be prevented by means of a tight ﬁt (interference ﬁt) of the shaft inside the bearing inner ring bore. Shafts seats are often rebuilt due to the wear during starting and stopping. Therefore, for a rotating shaft, the clearance (loose ﬁt) of the ﬂoating arrangement is always on the housing seat, while a tight ﬁt is on the shaft side. In certain machines, the shaft is stationary and the outer ring rotates, e.g., a grinding machine or a centrifuge. In such applications, a tight ﬁt must be provided on the rotating side and a sliding ﬁt at the seat of the stationary shaft. Compensation for shaft elongation can also be achieved by using a cylindrical roller bearing. Certain cylindrical roller bearings are designed to operate as ﬂoating bearings by allowing the roller-and-cage assembly to shift in the axial direction on the raceway of the outer ring. For this purpose, the bearing rings are designed without ribs (often named lipless bearing rings). All other bearing types, such as a deep-groove ball bearing or a spherical roller bearing, can operate as ﬂoating bearings only if one bearing ring has a loose ﬁt in its seat.

13.10.1

Tandem Arrangement

Two angular contact ball bearings can be used in series for heavy unidirectional thrust loads. Precise dimensions and high quality surface ﬁnish are required to

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

439

secure load sharing of the two bearings. The arrangement of two or more angular contact bearings, adjacent to each other in the same direction, is referred to as tandem arrangement. This arrangement is used to increase the thrust load carrying capacity as well as the radial load capacity. Tandem arrangement is often used in spindles of machine tools, where high axial stiffness and high thrust load capacity are required; examples are shown in Sec. 13.12. Bearing manufacturers provide a combination of two angular contact ball bearings that are designed and made for tandem arrangement.

13.10.2

Bearing Seat Precision

For a locating bearing, the inner and outer rings are tightly ﬁtted into their seats. But a ﬂoating bearing has one ring that is ﬁtted tightly, while the other ring has a loose ﬁt to allow free axial sliding. For a ﬂoating bearing, if the shaft is rotating, only the inner ring must be mounted by interference ﬁt. If the outer ring is rotating, only the outer ring is mounted by interference ﬁt. The reason for a tight ﬁt of the rotating ring is to avoid sliding and wear during start-up and stopping. In interference ﬁt (tight ﬁt) there is elastic deformation of the ring that reduces the internal clearance of the bearing. Therefore, it is important to select the recommended standard ﬁt for a proper internal radial clearance after the bearing mounting. The bearings are manufactured with internal clearance to provide for this elastic deformation and for thermal expansion of the shaft and inner ring during operation. In the case of a tight ﬁt, the bearing can be mounted by application of heat or cold-mounted by pressing the face of the ring that is tightly ﬁtted (in order to prevent bearing damage, never apply force through the rolling elements). In many cases, such as a bore diameter over 70 mm, it is easier to mount via temperature difference. This can be obtained by heating one part, or heating and cooling, respectively, the two parts. An additional simple method for tight-ﬁt mounting is the use of tapered-bore bearings combined with tapered seats. The bearing is tightened in the axial direction by a locknut. A tapered adapter sleeve is another convenient method for tight-ﬁt mounting. For the shaft and housing seats, precision and good surface ﬁnish are required. In fact, the precision and surface ﬁnish of the seats should be similar to those of the rolling bearing in contact with the seat. Whenever possible, a ground ﬁnish of the bearing seats on the shaft and housing is preferred. Only in exceptional cases of low speed and load—if cost saving is critical—are rougher shaft and housing seats used. In such cases, rougher ball bearings can be used as well, in order to reduce the cost in low-cost machines. A common locating arrangement is where the ring is tightly ﬁxed between a shaft shoulder and a locknut, as shown in Fig. 13-5. Precision of the shaft shoulder seat is required because many rolling bearings are so narrow that they

440

Chapter 13

are not aligned accurately by the length of the seat on the shaft. The ﬁnal accurate alignment is by the shaft shoulder and nut. Precision of the seats and the nuts is particularly important for medium-and high-speed applications. The shoulder plane should be perpendicular to the shaft centerline (squareness). In the same way, locknut precision is required. A standard locknut should have precise thread having maximum face run-out within 0.05 mm (0.002 in.). Precision nuts with much lower face run-out are used for precision or high-speed applications. Quality inspection of shaft seats and shoulders for axial and radial run-out is required for medium and high speeds. Rotating the shaft between centers, with a dial indicator placed against the seat or shoulder, is the standard inspection. Proper manufacturing practice is to grind the seats for the inner ring and shaft shoulder together, in one clamping of the shaft, and the same applies to the housing. One clamping ensures that the two surfaces are perpendicular. The recommended height of a shaft shoulder is one-half of the inner ring face. Were the shoulder too low, it would result in a plastic deformation of the shoulder due to excessive pressure, particularly under high thrust load. On the other hand, the shaft shoulder should not be too high (more than half of the inner ring face), to allow disassembly and removal of the bearing from the shaft. A puller placed against the inner ring surface is usually used for removing the bearing. Careful design of the corners of the shaft shoulder and bearing seat is necessary. The corner radius of the seat must be less than that of the ring. In many designs, the corner has an undercut or a shaft ﬁllet to secure a proper ﬁt to the bearing ring. However, an undercut weakens the shaft and causes stress concentration at the corner. Whenever weakening of the shaft is not desired, a ﬁllet can be used. Standard ﬁllet sizes for each particular bearing are available and are listed in bearing catalogues. In many cases, a small taper is provided on the bearing seat edge to provide a guide to assist in mounting the bearing.

13.11

ADJUSTABLE BEARING ARRANGEMENT

The bearing clearance allows a free radial or axial displacement of the inner ring relative to the outer ring. The objective of an adjustable arrangement of angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller bearings is to eliminate this undesired clearance. In addition, by using an adjustable arrangement it is possible to preload the bearing (negative clearance). Preload means that there are compression stresses and elastic deformation at the contacts of the rolling elements and the raceways before the bearing is in operation. Bearing preload is important for many applications requiring high system rigidity. By preloading the bearing, the stiffness of the machine increases; namely, there is a reduction in the elastic deformation under external load. Bearing preload causes extra stresses at the contacts between the rolling elements and the

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

441

raceways, which can reduce the fatigue life of the bearing. Therefore, the preload must be precisely adjusted, because excessive contact stresses will have an adverse effect on bearing life. In an adjustable arrangement, angular ball bearings or tapered bearings are mounted in pairs against each other on one shaft and are preloaded. Deep-groove ball bearings are used as well for adjustable arrangements, because they act like angular contact ball bearings with a small contact angle. The arrangement is designed to allow, during mounting, for one ring to slide in its seat, in the axial direction, for adjusting the bearing clearance or even provide preload inside the bearing. This is done by tightening the inner ring by means of a nut on the shaft or via an alternative design for tightening the outer ring of the bearing in the axial direction. Examples of adjustable arrangements are shown in Figs. 13-8 and 13-9. It was discussed earlier that by a tight ﬁt of the bearing rings in their seats, the radial clearance can be eliminated and the bearing can be preloaded. However, better control and precision of the preload can be achieved via an adjustable arrangement using angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller bearings. Preload by tight ﬁt of the bearings in their seats is not always precise. This is due to machining tolerances of the seats and bearing rings. However, in an

F IG. 13-8 (a) Adjustable arrangement, apex points outside the two bearings. (b) Similar adjustable arrangement for angular contact bearings.

442

Chapter 13

F IG. 13-9 (a) Adjustable arrangement, apex points between the bearings overlap. (b) Adjustable arrangement, apex points coincide between the two bearings. (c) Adjustable arrangement, apex points apart between the bearings. (d) Similar adjustable arrangements for angular contact bearings.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

443

adjustable arrangement, the preload is independent of machining tolerances. Nevertheless, thermal expansion of the shaft during operation must be taken into consideration when the adjustment is performed during assembly, when the machine is cold. If the operation temperatures of the shaft and machine are known from previous experience, the thermal expansion can be calculated, and precise adjustment to the desired tightness during bearing operation is possible.

13.11.1

Thermal E¡ects

Whenever the operation temperatures are unknown, it is possible to reduce the thermal stresses by having the adjustable pair of bearings close to each other (a short shaft length between the two bearings). A better alternative is to design an adjustable bearing arrangement that can be adjusted after the machine is assembled and run. In such cases, the adjustment is performed after the machine has been operating for some time and thermal equilibrium has been reached. In a tapered bearing, the rolling elements and races have a conical shape, with a line contact between them. In order to have a rolling motion, all the contact lines of the tapered rollers and raceways must meet at a common point on the axis, referred to as the apex point. Similarly for angular contact ball bearings, the lines of contact angle meet at the apex point on the bearing axis. There are two types of adjustable bearing arrangement, depending on the location of the apex points. The ﬁrst type is where the two apex points, A, are outside the space between the two bearings (see Fig 13-8a and 8b). The second type is where the apex points are between the two bearings (see Fig. 13-9a, 9b, 9c, 9d). The designer should consider the level of thermal expansion in order to choose between these arrangements. It was discussed in Sec. 13.3.3 that the temperature of the inner ring is higher than that of the outer ring. For the same reason, the shaft temperature is higher than the housing temperature. In turn, the shaft is thermally expanding in the axial direction more than the distance between the two outer bearing seats in the housing. The thermal expansion of the shaft relative to the housing seats is proportional to the distance between the two bearings. The diameters of the shaft and inner ring will also expand thermally more than the outer ring and housing diameters. 13.11.1.1

Apex Points Outside the Two Bearings

This bearing arrangement is often referred to as X arrangement, because the lines in the direction normal to the contact lines, intersecting at point S, form an X shape. These lines are the directions of the forces acting on the rolling element. In angular contact ball bearings (Fig. 13-8b), these lines form the contact angle. The temperature rise of the shaft relative to that of the housing increases the length and diameter of the shaft as well as the diameter of the cone (inner ring) of

444

Chapter 13

the bearings. The ﬁrst type of an adjustable bearing arrangement is shown in Fig 13-8. In this arrangement, the apex points, A, are outside the two bearings. As shown in Fig. 13-8, tightening a threaded ring on the housing side does the adjustment. In this way, the bearing cup (outer ring) is shifted in the axial direction and, thus, the clearance in the two bearings can be adjusted. In this arrangement, a temperature rise will always result in a tighter bearing clearance. In the bearing arrangement of Figs. 13-8a and 13-8b, if the bearings are preloaded when the machine is cold, the temperature rise results in a higher bearing preload and rolling contact stresses. If some bearing clearance is left after the adjustment, the clearance will be reduced due to the thermal expansion. As discussed earlier, the advantage of this arrangement type is that it can be designed to allow a ﬁnal adjustment during operation, after the machine has reached a steady thermal equilibrium. 13.11.1.2

Apex points between the two bearings

This arrangement is often referred to as O arrangement, because the lines in the direction normal to the contact lines, intersecting at point S, form an O shape. These lines are the directions of the forces acting on the rolling element. In angular contact ball bearings (see Fig. 13-9d), these lines form the contact angle. In general, arrangement of apex points between the two bearings (O arrangement) is preferred whenever a strong axial guidance is required. This means that the shaft is supported more rigidly than the adjustable arrangement with apex points outside the bearings. The direction of the rolling-elements reaction force resists better any rotational vibrations of the shaft around an axis perpendicular to the shaft centerline. The effect of a temperature rise may be different in the second arrangement type, which is shown in Figs. 13-9a, 13-9b, and 13-9c, where the apex points are between the bearings. As shown in these ﬁgures, tightening a nut on the shaft side does the adjustment. The bearing cone (inner ring) is shifted in the axial direction, and the clearance in the two bearings is adjusted. During operation, the temperature rise increases the shaft length and at the same time increases the diameter of the inner ring (cone). In the second arrangement type (Figs. 13-9), a thermal expansion of the shaft length has a loosening effect on the two bearings; however, at the same time, the thermal expansion of the cone diameter has a tightening effect. The combined effect depends on the ratio of the shaft length to the cone diameter. The combined thermal effects can be determined by the location of the apex points. This arrangement can be divided into three cases: 1.

For a short distance between the two bearings, the roller cone apex points overlap, as shown in Fig. 13-9a. In this case, the thermal expansion of the cone (inner ring) diameter has a larger effect than

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

2.

3.

445

the axial expansion of the shaft. The combined effect is that the thermal expansion increases the preload. This combined effect should be considered and the bearings should be adjusted with a reduced preload in comparison to the desired preload during operation. The two apex points coincide, as shown in Fig. 13-9b. In this case, the axial and the radial thermal expansions compensate each other without any signiﬁcant thermal effect on the clearance. The distance between the bearings is large and the roller cone apices do not overlap, as shown in Fig. 13-9c. In this case, the cone (inner ring) thermal expansion is less than that of the shaft. In turn, the combined thermal effect is to increase the clearances of the two bearings (or reduce the preload). This should be considered, and the bearings are usually adjusted tighter with more preload in comparison to the desired preload during operation.

The selection of the adjustment arrangement type depends on several factors. The second type, where the roller cone apices are between the bearings, has more rigidity to keep the shaft centerline in place. In addition, it can be designed so that the thermal expansion is compensated. The ﬁrst type, where the roller cone apices are outside the bearings, is often selected in order to allow a ﬁne adjustment during operation. This is possible to do only if the threaded ring (or other adjustment design) is accessible for adjustment during the operation of the machine.

13.11.2

Inner and Outer Ring Fits

The inner or outer ring that is adjusted should move freely by means of a slightly loose ﬁt, while the other ring is mounted with a tight ﬁt. As with other rolling bearings, the inner ring (cone) should always be mounted with a tight ﬁt when the cone rotates. Similarly, the outer ring (cup) should be mounted with a tight ﬁt when it rotates. For a rotating shaft, this requirement usually favors the ﬁrst type of adjustable bearing arrangement, where the apex points are outside the two bearings. However, the second type is often used for rotating shafts as well. If the housing rotates, as in a nondriven car wheel, the cup is tightly ﬁtted. If the bearing is subjected to severe loads, shocks, or frequent direction reversals, such as in construction equipment, both cup and cone must be tightly ﬁtted. For high-speed applications, such as turbines and high-speed machine tools, an adjustable arrangement of angular contact ball bearings is preferred, because tapered rolling bearings have higher friction. In a similar way to the intersection of cone apices, in angular contact bearings the arrangement type is determined by the intersection of the lines normal to the angular bearing contact lines.

446

Chapter 13

Manufactured pairs of angular contact ball bearings or tapered bearings are available. The bearings are paired in a ﬁrst-or second-type arrangement. Angular contact ball bearings of these designs are accurately ﬁnished and can be selected with a low axial clearance, a zero clearance, or a light preload.

13.11.3

Designs for Reduction of Thermal E¡ects on Bearings Preload

It is important that the bearings in an adjustable arrangement will operate with the desired precise preload force. However, the operating temperature can ﬂuctuate resulting in a variable preload force. Excessive preload can reduce the fatigue life of the bearing, and if the preload is reduced, the bearings’ stiffness may be too low. Engineers are always looking for new designs for mitigating the thermal effect, so that a precise preload will be sustained in the bearings. It is possible to design a preloaded bearing arrangement where springs provide the thrust force. The spring force is not as sensitive to the thermal elongation in comparison to the rigid shaft in the common adjustable bearing arrangement. The advantage is that the spring force is constant, and the preload force does not increase by the temperature rise during bearing operation. Examples of designs where springs provide the preload force are shown in Sec. 13.12. Additional example for reducing the effect of the temperature on the level of the preload force is by using two spacer sleeves between the two bearings for the outer and inner rings of the adjustable arrangement. The two spacer sleeves have only a small contact area with the rings and housing. The spacer for the inner rings has an air clearance with the shaft, and the spacer for the outer rings has an air clearance with the housing. It results that the two long spacer sleeves are nearly thermally isolated, and have approximately equal temperature during operation. In this way, the axial elongation of the two long spacer sleeves is equal without any signiﬁcant effect on the preload. An example of a design where two long spacer sleeves are used for a NC Lathe spindle bearing arrangement is shown in Sec. 13.12.

13.11.4

Machine Tool Spindles

The two most important requirements for machine tool spindle bearings are (a) high precision (very low bearing run-out) (b) high rigidity (very low elastic deformation under load). High precision spindle bearings are manufactured with very low tolerances, which are tested for very small radial and axial run-out. In addition, the bearing seats must have similar precision, and very good surface ﬁnish. The requirement

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

447

of high stiffness can be achieved by using relatively large bearings that are precisely preloaded. For precision machining, the cutting forces should result in very small elastic deformation. Therefore, the system of spindle and bearings must be rigid. For this purpose, machine tool designs entail large diameter spindle and large bearings, in comparison to other machines with similar forces. Moreover, to ensure rigidity of the system, the bearings must be preloaded, in order to minimize the elastic deformation at the contacts of rolling elements and races. The requirement for high stiffness results in large bearings relative to other machines with similar forces; therefore, the fatigue life is usually not a problem in machine tool spindle bearings. Spindle bearings usually do not fail by fatigue, but can wear out, and it is important to have clean lubricant to reduce wear. In most cases, machine tools are ﬁtted with angular contact ball bearings to support the high thrust load. The requirement for high axial stiffness under heavy thrust cutting forces is achieved in many cases by arrangement of two or more angular contact ball bearings in tandem arrangement (see Sec. 13.10.1). The bearings are preloaded by adjustable arrangement, and care must be taken to ensure that the preload will remain constant and will not vary due to variable bearing temperature. Examples of bearing arrangements for machine tool spindles are presented in Sec. 13.12.

13.12

EXAMPLES OF BEARING ARRANGEMENTS IN MACHINERY

13.12.1

Vertical-Pump Motor (Fig. 13-10a)

Design data Power: 160 kW Speed: 3000 RPM Thrust force: 14 kN (Total of weight of rotor and impeller, pump thrust force and spring force). Tolerances cylindrical roller bearing shaft m5; housing M6 deep grove ball bearing: shaft k5; housing H6 angular contact bearing: shaft k5; housing E8 Lubrication: Grease lubrication with time period of 1000 hours between lubrications. Design: This is a locating=ﬂoating bearing arrangement. The two bearings at the top form the locating side, whereas the lower cylindrical roller bearing is a ﬂoating bearing. In the locating top bearings, preload is

448

Chapter 13

F IG. 13-10a Handel AG.)

Vertical pump motor. (From FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG and

done via springs. The springs ensure a constant predetermined load (see Sec. 13.11.3). The angular contact bearing carries the thrust load, and the deep grove bearing carries any possible radial load (and the small spring axial preload). A clearance ﬁt relieves the angular contact bearing from any radial load, which can reduce its fatigue life. The lower cylindrical roller bearing carries only radial load.

13.12.2

NC-Lathe Spindle

Figure 13-10b shows a bearing arrangement for a spindle of numerically controlled (NC) lathe. The bearings have adjustable arrangement and are lightly preloaded. The adjustable arrangement is of the type of apex points between the two bearings (often referred to as an O arrangement). As the speed is relatively high, the spindle is ﬁtted with angular contact ball bearings (lower friction than tapered bearings). However, in order to support the high thrust load and provide

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

449

F IG. 13-10b NC-lathe main spindle. (From FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and Handel AG).

the required rigidity, two angular contact ball bearings in tandem arrangement are ﬁtted at each side. For mitigating the effect of the temperature rise on the preload level, the design includes two spacer sleeves of approximately equal temperature between the two bearings for axial support of the outer and inner rings of the adjustable arrangement (see Sec. 13.11.3). Design data Power: 27 kW speed: 9000 RPM Lubrication: The bearings are greased and sealed for the bearing life, and 35% of cavity is ﬁlled. Sealing is via labyrinth seals. Tolerances: High precision spindle bearings are used. The bearings have tight ﬁt on the shaft seat (shaft seat tolerance þ5=5 mm), and sliding ﬁt on the housing seats, (housing seat tolerance þ2=þ10 mm).

13.12.3

Bore Grinding Spindle (Fig. 13-10c)

Design data Power: 1.3 kW Speed: 16,000 RPM Lubrication: The bearings are greased and sealed for the bearing life. Sealing is by labyrinth seals. Design: High rigidity is required. Angular contact ball bearings are used of 15 contact angle for high radial stiffness, and each side has a tandem arrangement for axial stiffness. Bearings have adjustable arrangement and are lightly preloaded by a coil spring.

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Chapter 13

F IG. 13-10c Bore-grinding spindle. (From FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and Handel AG).

13.12.4

Rough-turning lathe (Fig. 13-10d)

Design data Power: 75 kW Speed: 300–3600 RPM Machining tolerances seats for the outer ring G6 seats for the inner ring js5

F IG. 13-10d Rough-turning lathe (from FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and Handel AG).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

451

Lubrication: Oil injection lubrication. A well designed, non-contact labyrinth seal prevents oil leaks and protects the bearings from any penetration of cutting ﬂuid and metal chips. Design: The bearings have adjustable arrangement and lightly preloaded by springs.

13.12.5

Gearbox (Fig 13-10e)

Design data Power: 135 kW Speed: 1000 RPM Tolerances: shaft m5, housing H6 Lubrication: Splash oil from the gears. Shaft seals are ﬁtted at the shaft openings.

F IG. 13-10e AG).

13.12.6

Gearbox (from FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and Handel

Worm Gear Transmission (Fig. 13-10f)

Design data Power: 3.7 kW Speed: 1500 RPM

452

Chapter 13

F IG. 13-10f AG).

Worm gear (From FAG 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and Handel

Tolerances Angular contact ball bearing: shaft j5; housing J6 Cylindrical roller bearing: shaft k5; housing J6 Deep groove ball bearing: shaft k5; housing K6 Lubrication: Oil. Contact sealing rings at the shaft opening prevent oil from escaping and protect from contamination. Design: The two shafts have a locating=ﬂoating bearing arrangement.

13.12.7

Passenger Car Di¡erential Gear (Fig. 13-10g)

Design Data Torque: 160 N-m Speed: 3000 RPM Tolerances Pinion shaft:

m6 (larger size bearing) h6 (smaller size bearing) housing P7 Crown wheel: hollow shaft r6 housing H6 Lubrication: Gear oil Design: The turn shafts have adjustable bearing arrangement.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-10g Handel AG).

13.12.8

453

Passenger car differential gear (with permission of FAG OEM and

Guide Roll for Paper Mill (Fig. 13-10h)

Design Data Speed: 750 RPM Roll weight: 80 kN Paper pull force: 9 kN Bearing load: 44.5 N Bearing temperature: 105 C Tolerances: housing G7, inner ring ﬁtted to a tapered shaft Lubrication: oil circulation Sealing: double noncontact seal, as shown in Fig 13-10h. The double noncontact seals prevent oil from leaking out. Design: Special bearings durable to the high operation temperature of the dryer are required. Bearing manufacturers offer high-temperature bear-

454

Chapter 13

F IG. 13-10h Guide roll for paper mill (from FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and Handel AG).

ings, which passed special heat treatment, and are dimensionally stable up to 200 C. Operating clearance is required for preventing thermal stresses, due to the large temperature rise during operation. Also, locating= ﬂoating arrangement must be included in this design of relatively high operating temperature. Self-aligning bearings are used to compensate for any misaligning due to thermal distortion.

13.12.9

Centrifugal pump (Fig. 13-10i)

Design Data Power: 44 kW Speed: 1450 RPM Radial load: 6 kN Thrust force: 7.7 kN Lubrication: Oil bath lubrication, the oil level should be no higher than the center of the lowest rolling element. Sealing: Contact seals are used on the two sides. At the impeller side, a noncontact labyrinth seal provides extra sealing protection.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-10i Handel AG).

13.12.10

455

Centrifugal pump (from FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG OEM and

Support Roller of a Rotary Kiln (Fig. 13-10j)

Design Data Radial load: 1200 kN Thrust load: 700 kN Speed: 5 RPM Tolerances Shaft n6 Housing H7 Lubrication and Sealing: Grease lubrication with lithium soap base grease. At the roller side, the bearings are sealed with felt strips and grease packed labyrinths. Design: The bearings are under very high load, and are exposed to a severe dusty environment. Lithium soap base grease is used for bearing lubrication and for sealing. These rollers support a large rotary kiln, which is used in cement manufacturing. Self-aligning spherical roller bearings are used. The two bearings are mounted in a ﬂoating arrange-

456

F IG. 13-10j

Chapter 13

Support roller of a rotary kiln (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

457

ment (to allow axial adjustment to the kiln). The bearings are mounted into split plummer block housings with a common base. The grease is fed directly into the bearing through a grease valve and a hole in the outer rings. The grease valve restricts the grease ﬂow and protects the bearing from overﬁlling. The bearings have double seal of felt strip and grease packed labyrinth. A second grease valve feeds grease directly into the labyrinth seal and prevents penetration of any contamination into the bearings. The support roller shown in this ﬁgure has diameter of 1.6 m and width of 0.8 m. The speed is low, N ¼ 5 RPM and the load on one bearing is high, Fr ¼ 1200 kN. These rollers support the rotary kiln for cement production. The kiln dimensions are 150 m long and 4.4 m diameter. The supports are spaced at 30 m intervals.

13.12.11

Crane Pillar Mounting (Fig. 13-10k)

Design Data Thrust load: 6200 kN Radial force: 2800 kN Speed: 1 RPM Tolerances: Shaft j6, housing K7 Lubrication and Sealing: Oil bath lubrication with rollers fully immersed in oil.

F IG. 13-10k

Crane pillar mounting (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

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Chapter 13

Sealing: Noncontact labyrinth seal as shown in Fig 13-10k. The crane usually operates in severe dust environment. The labyrinth is full of oil, to prevent any penetration of dust from the environment into the bearing.

13.13

SELECTION OF OIL VERSUS GREASE

Greases and oils are widely used for lubrication of rolling-element bearings. In this section, the considerations for selection of oil versus grease are discussed. In addition to considerations directly related to bearing performance, selection depends on economic considerations as well as the ease of maintenance and effective sealing of the bearing. Whenever possible, greases are preferred by engineers because they are easier to use and involve lower cost. For example, grease lubrication is widely selected for light-and-medium-duty industrial applications, in order to reduce the cost of maintenance. However, at high speeds, considerable amount of heat is generated in the bearings, and greases usually deteriorate at elevated temperatures. In addition, liquid oils improve the heat transfer from the bearing. Empirical criterion that is widely used by engineers for the selection of oil versus grease is the DN value, which is the product of rolling bearing bore (equal to shaft diameter) in mm and shaft speed in RPM. Rolling bearings operating at DN value above 0.2 million usually require liquid oil, although there are special high-temperature greases that can operate above this limit. Below this limit, both greases and oils can be used. This is an approximate criterion, which considers only the bearing speed for medium loads. In fact, the load, friction coefﬁcient, and heat sources outside the bearing also affect the bearing temperature. In addition to the DN value, the product of speed and load is used to determine whether the bearing operates under light or heavy-duty conditions. This product is proportional to the bearing temperature rise (see estimation of the temperature rise in Sec. 13.3). The bearing operation temperature must be much lower than the temperature limit speciﬁed for the grease. For low-speed rolling bearings, grease is the most widely used lubricant, because it has several advantages and the maintenance cost is lower. In comparison to oil, grease does not leak out easily through the seals. Prevention of leakage is essential in certain industries such as food, pharmaceuticals and textiles. Tight contact seals on the shafts are undesirable because they introduce additional friction and wear. The advantage of grease is that it can be used in bearing housings with noncontact labyrinth seals. The grease does not leak out, as oil would, and it seals the bearing from abrasive dust particles and a corrosive environment. Rolling bearings are sensitive to penetration of dust, which causes severe erosion, and the bearings must be properly sealed. Section 13.23 presents various types of contact and noncontact seals.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

459

Contact seals are often referred to as tight seals or rubbing seals. They are tightly ﬁtted on the shaft and are used mostly for oil lubrication. They introduce additional energy losses due to high friction between the seal and the rotating shaft, which raises the bearing temperature. Tightly ﬁtted seals are also undesirable because they wear out and require frequent replacements; they should be avoided wherever possible. Moreover, the shaft wears out due to friction with the seal. In high-speed machines, expensive mechanical seals are often used to replace the regular contact seals. An important advantage of grease lubrication is that noncontact labyrinth seals of low friction and wear can be used effectively. In certain applications, unique designs of noncontact seals are used successfully for oil lubrication (see Sec. 13.12.11). Grease is particularly effective where the shaft is not horizontal and oils leak easily through the seals. For grease, a relatively simple noncontact labyrinth seal with a small clearance is adequate in most applications. A very thin layer of grease can be applied on the races to reduce the friction resistance. In such cases, the friction is lower than for oil sump lubrication. Another important advantage of grease is the low cost of maintenance in comparison to oil. Oil requires extra expense to reﬁll and maintain oil levels. In addition, oil can be lost due to leakage, and expensive frequent inspections of oil levels must be conducted in order to prevent machine failure. In comparison, in grease lubrication, there is no need to maintain oil levels, and the addition of lubricant is less frequent. In most cases, grease lubrication results in a lower cost of maintenance. Economic considerations favor grease lubrication. Oil lubrication systems involve higher initial cost and the long-term bearing maintenance is also more expensive. Therefore, oil is selected only where the selection can be justiﬁed based on performance. Oil has several important performance advantages over grease. 1.

2.

3. 4.

5.

Unlike grease, oil ﬂows through the bearing and assists in heat transfer from the bearing. This advantage is particularly important in applications of high speed and high temperature. Continuous supply of oil is essential for the formation of an EHD ﬂuidﬁlm. This is very important in high-speed machinery, such as gas turbines. Oil circulation through the bearing has an important function in removing wear debris. Liquid oil is much easier to handle via pumps and tubes, in comparison to grease. In addition, oil is relatively simple to ﬁll and drain; therefore it should be selected particularly when frequent replacements of lubricant are required. In most applications, only a very thin lubrication layer is required. This can be obtained by introducing an accurate slow ﬂow rate of lubricant

460

Chapter 13

6.

(measured in drops per minute) into the bearing. Flow dividers (described in Chapter 10) can be used for feeding at the desired ﬂow rate to each bearing. A precise amount of lubricant at a steady ﬂow rate can be supplied to the bearing and controlled only if the lubricant is oil; this is not feasible with grease. Oil can provide lubrication to all the parts of a machine. An example is a gearbox, where the same oil lubricates the gears as well as the bearings.

As this discussion indicates, grease can be selected for light- and mediumduty applications, whereas oil should be selected for heavy-duty applications in which sufﬁcient ﬂow rates of liquid oil are essential for removing the heat from the bearing and for the formation of a ﬂuid ﬁlm.

13.14

GREASE LUBRICATION

The compositions and properties of various greases are discussed in Chapter 3. Greases are suspensions of mineral or synthetic oil in soaps, such as sodium, calcium, aluminum, lithium, and barium soaps, as well as other thickeners, such as silica and treated clays. The thickener acts as a sponge that contains and slowly releases small quantities of oil. When the rolling elements roll over the grease, the thickener structure breaks down gradually. Minute quantities of oil release and form a thin lubrication layer on the races and rolling-element surfaces. The lubrication layer is very thin and cannot generate a proper elastohydrodynamic ﬁlm for separation of the rolling contacts, but it is effective in reducing friction and wear. In addition, the oil layer is too thin to play a role in cooling the bearing or in removing wear debris.

13.14.1

Design of Bearing Housings for Grease Lubrication

The design of the housing and grease supply depends mostly on the temperature, bearing size, load, and speed as well as the environment. The following is a survey of the most common designs. 13.14.1.1

Bearings Packed and Sealed for Life

If the bearing operating temperature is low and its speed and load are not high, the life of the grease can equal or exceed the bearing life. In such cases, using a bearing packed with grease and sealed for life would reduce signiﬁcantly the maintenance cost. Sealed-for-life small bearings are commonly used under lightduty conditions. Sealed-for-life bearings are also used for occasional operation (not for 24 hours a day), such as in cars, domestic appliances, and pumps for

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

461

occasional use. Examples are small electric motors for domestic appliances, bearings supporting the drum of a washing machine, and many bearings in passenger cars, such as water pump bearings. The grease life is sensitive to a temperature rise, and sealed-for-life bearings are not used in machines having a heat source that can raise the bearing temperature. In some applications that involve a moderate temperature rise, such as small electric motors, sealed-for-life bearings with high-temperature grease are used successfully. We have to keep in mind that the life of sealed ball bearings is limited to the lower of bearing life and lubricant life. A method for estimating grease life is presented in Sec. 13.15. Fig. 13-11 presents an example of the front wheel of a front-wheel-drive car. A double-row angular contact ball bearing is used. Certain cars use angular contact ball bearings or tapered roller bearings that are adjusted. The bearing is packed with grease and sealed on both sides for the life of the bearing.

F IG. 13-11 Sealed-for-life bearing in the front wheel of a front-wheel-drive car (from FAG, 1988, with permission).

462

13.14.1.2

Chapter 13

Housing Without Feeding Fittings

For industrial machines that operate for many hours, if the bearings operate at low temperature under light-to-medium duty, the original grease in the housing can last one to two years or even longer. In such cases, the grease can be replaced by new grease only during machine overhauls and the housing is not provided with grease-feeding ﬁttings. Housing without feeding ﬁttings are used only if there is no heat source from any process outside the bearing and if the bearing operating temperature due to friction is low. This can be applied to light- and medium-duty bearings, namely, where the load and speed are not very high. The advantage of elimination of any grease ﬁttings is that it prevents overﬁlling of grease in the housing. The old grease is replaced by new grease only during overhauls, and this can be done manually without using grease guns. Only one-third to one-half the volume of the housing is ﬁlled with grease for regular applications. However, to minimize friction in small machines, only a very thin layer of grease is applied on the bearing surfaces, particularly if the drive motor is small and has low power. Overﬁlling of grease in the bearing housing results in a high resistance to the motion of the rolling elements and grease overheating, as well as early breakdown of the grease (the grease is overworked). Therefore, the use of highpressure guns for feeding grease into the housing of rolling bearings is undesirable, particularly for large bearings, because it packs too much grease into the housing and causes bearing overheating. Moreover, feeding under high pressure always results in grease loss. During the assembly and periodic relubrication, it is very important to keep the bearing and lubricant completely clean from dust or even from old grease. Although less than half the volume of the housing is ﬁlled for regular applications, if the bearing is exposed to a severe environment of dust or moisture, the bearing should be fully packed to seal the bearing and prevent its contamination. Grease-feeding ﬁttings are provided for frequent topping-up of grease. In many cases, additional grease ﬁttings feed grease directly to the labyrinth seals (see Sec. 13.12). Fully packed bearings are used only for low- and medium-speed bearings, where the extra friction power loss is not signiﬁcant.

13.14.1.3

Housings with Feeding Fittings

The common bearing design includes ﬁttings for grease topping-up (adding grease between replacements by grease gun). Although it is desirable not to overﬁll the housing with grease, this is difﬁcult to avoid. Low-cost maintenance is an important consideration, and in most cases the new grease replaces the old by pushing it out with grease guns. Experience indicates that small, light-duty

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

463

bearings can operate successfully even when overﬁlled with grease. Overﬁlling initially generates extra resistance, but the extra grease is lost over time through the labyrinth seals. The housing is often designed with an outlet hole at the lower side of the housing and noncontact labyrinth seals. The temperature of the overﬁlled grease rises; after running a few hours (depending on bearing size and grease consistency), the surplus grease escapes through the hole and labyrinth seals. Low-consistency grease is used for this purpose. If the bearing is exposed to an environment of dust, overﬁlling prevents contamination of the bearing. Frequent topping-up of grease ensures overﬁlling, particularly near the seals. The grease ﬁttings must be completely clean before adding grease. For small and medium-size bearings, it is possible to avoid overﬁlling and at the same time simplify the grease replacement. This is done via a simple housing design that allows one to force the old grease out completely with the new grease. The design includes a large-diameter drain outlet with a plug, in the side opposite the inlet grease ﬁtting and at the lower side of the housing. This way the grease must pass through the bearing. In order to avoid overﬁlling, the replacement procedure is as follows: The outlet plug is removed; the shaft is rotating while the new grease is pumped into the housing. The old grease is worked out so that it is easier to replace. The new grease is pumped until it starts to come out of the drain. The shaft rotates for about half an hour to allow the surplus grease to drain out before locking the outlet. This method is not applicable to large bearings because the pressure of the grease gun is not sufﬁcient to remove all the old grease through the outlet. Also, the bearing might be overﬁlled, resulting in overheating during operation. Therefore, in large bearings, the grease is replaced manually during overhauls. In addition, large bearings require topping-up of grease at certain intervals, determined according to the temperature and operating conditions. It is important to avoid overﬁlling during relubrication. The addition of grease is done with grease guns, and it is important to design the housing and ﬁttings to prevent overﬁlling. These designs involve higher cost and can be justiﬁed only for larger bearings.

13.14.2

Design Examples of Bearing Housings

It is important to ensure by appropriate design that during topping-up of grease, the new grease (fed by grease guns) will pass as much as possible through the bearings. The grease is supplied as close as possible to the bearings and discharged through the bearing into the space on the opposite side. In this way, the new grease must pass through the bearing, and the new grease will replace the old grease as much as possible.

464

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F IG. 13-12 Grease lubrication of crane wheel bearings (from FAG, 1986, with permission of FAG and Handel AG).

13.14.2.1

Crane Wheel Bearing Lubrication

An example of grease lubrication in a crane wheel is shown in Fig. 13-12. The crane wheel runs on a rail. The grease is fed through holes in the stationary shaft between two self-aligning spherical roller bearings. The design limits the grease volume between the two bearings. The grease passes through the two bearings, and the surplus grease is discharged through a double labyrinth seal clearance. Lithium soap base grease is used. The time period between grease replacements is approximately one year. 13.14.2.2

Grease-Quantity Regulators

An example of large bearing housing that is designed for avoiding overﬁlling during relubrication by grease guns is shown in Fig. 13-13. This design is widely used for large electric motors (SKF, 1992). The grease is fed at the bottom of the housing, near the left side of the outer ring. The design of the housing includes

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-13 permission).

465

Bearing housing for a large electric motor (from SKF, 1992, with

radial ribs inside the left cover of the housing. They direct the new grease into the bearing without overﬁlling the space on the left side of the bearing. The old grease escapes through the bearing into the large space at the right side of the bearing. The ribs also keep the grease in place and prevent it from being worked by the rotating shaft during regular operation. In this way, the ribs prevent overheating. In this design, the cover is split to simplify the removal of the old grease during overhauls. 13.14.2.3

Grease Chamber

Another method that prevents overﬁlling of a bearing is shown in Fig. 13-14. It uses a double-sealed, prelubricated bearing. The concept is that only one side of the bearing housing is full of grease (fed by a grease gun). The advantage of this method is that only a small quantity of grease is gradually released from the

466

F IG. 13-14 permission).

Chapter 13

Grease chamber for double-sealed bearings (from SKF, 1992, with

grease packing and penetrates into the bearing. This design of a double-sealed bearing combined with noncontact labyrinth seals protects the bearing from dust.

13.14.2.4

Dust Environment

Small bearings in a dusty environment are fully packed with grease. However, for large bearings, it is important to prevent overﬁlling with grease, which results in overheating and early failure of the bearing. An example of a double-shaft hammer mill for crushing large material (FAG, 1986) exposed to a severe dust environment is shown in Fig. 13-15. This example combines a design for a grease-quantity regulating disk that prevents overﬁlling and a separate arrangement for packing the grease between the labyrinth and felt seals.

13.14.2.5

Regulating Disk

The bearing housing design consists of a regulating disk that rotates together with the shaft. It is mounted at the side opposite the grease inlet side. If the grease quantity in the bearing cavity is too high, the rotating disc shears and softens part of the grease. By centrifugal action, the grease drains through the radial clearance into the volume between the disk and seals, as shown in Fig. 13-15.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

467

F IG. 13-15 Bearing housing of a double-shaft hammer mill (from FAG, 1986, with permission of FAG and Handel AG).

13.14.2.6

Sealing in a Severe Dust Environment

In Fig. 13-15, grease is fed directly into the bearing through a grease valve and a hole in the outer rings. The bearings have a double seal of felt strip and greasepacked labyrinth. A second grease valve feeds grease between the labyrinth and the felt seal. Frequent relubrication of the grease in the labyrinth seal prevents penetration of abrasive dust particles into the bearing.

13.15

GREASE LIFE

The life of greases and oils is limited due to oxidation. High temperature accelerates the oxidation rate, and the life of greases and oils is very sensitive to a temperature rise. An approximate rule is that grease life is divided by 2 for every 15 C (27 F) temperature rise above 70 C (160 F). In addition to oxidation, the bleeding of the oil from the grease and its evaporation limit the life of the grease at high temperature. At low operating temperature, the life of the grease is long, and bearings packed with grease and sealed for life are widely used. Adding fresh grease to sealed-for-life bearings is not necessary, because the life of the grease is longer than the bearing life. If the life of the grease is shorter than the life of the bearing, the grease should be replaced. Since it is difﬁcult to precisely predict the grease life, fresh grease should be added much before the grease loses its effectiveness. The time period between lubrications (also referred to as relubrication intervals) is a function of many operating parameters, such as temperature, grease type, bearing

468

Chapter 13

type and size, speed, and grease contamination. The time period, Dt, between grease replacements is determined empirically. It is based on the requirement that less than 1% of the bearings not be effectively lubricated by the end of the period. In Fig. 13-16, curves are presented of the recommended time period Dt (in hours) as a function of bearing speed N (RPM) and bearing bore diameter d (SKF, 1992). The charts are based on experiments with lithium-based greases at temperatures below 70 C (160 F). For higher temperatures, the time period Dt is divided by two for every 15 C (27 F) of temperature rise above 70 C (160 F). However, the temperature should never exceed the maximum temperature allowed for the grease. In the same way, the time period Dt can be longer at temperatures lower than 70 C (160 F), but Dt should not be more than double that obtained from the charts in Fig. 13-16. Also, one should keep in mind that at very low temperatures, the grease releases less oil. The time period Dt between grease replacements is a function of the bearing speed N (RPM), and bearing bore diameter d (mm), and bearing type. According to the bearing type, the time period Dt is determined by one of the following scales. Scale a: is for radial ball bearings. Scale b: is for cylindrical and needle roller bearings. Scale c: is for spherical roller bearings, tapered roller bearings, and thrust ball bearings. Figure 13-16 is valid only for bearings on horizontal shafts. For vertical shafts, only half of Dt from in Fig. 13-16 is applied. The maximum time period between grease replacements, Dt should not exceed 30,000 hours. Bearings subjected to severe operating conditions, such as elevated temperature, high speed, contamination, or humidity, must have more frequent grease replacements. Under severe conditions, the best way to determine the time period between grease replacements is by periodic inspections of the grease. The following cases require shorter periods between lubrications: 1. 2. 3.

Full-complement cylindrical rolling bearing, 0:2 Dt (in scale c) Cylindrical rolling bearing with a cage, 0:3 Dt (in scale c) Cylindrical roller thrust bearing, needle roller thrust bearing, spherical roller thrust bearing. 0:5 Dt (in scale c)

Experience has indicated that large bearings, of bore diameter over d ¼ 300 mm, need more frequent grease replacements than indicated in Fig. 13-16 (the large bearings are marked by dotted lines). Frequent grease replacements are required if there are high contact stresses, high speed and high temperature. Whenever the time period between grease replacements is short, a continuous grease supply can be provided via a grease pump and a grease valve. For a continuous grease supply, the grease mass per unit of time, G, fed into the

FIG. 13-16

Time between grease replacements, Dt (in hours) (from SKF, 1992, with permission from SKF, USA).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings 469

470

Chapter 13

large bearing is determined by an empirical equation (SKF, 1992). The following empirical equation is for regular conditions, without any conduction of external heat into the bearing (the bearing temperature is only due to friction losses): G ¼ ð0:3 0:5ÞDL 104

ð13-29Þ

Here, G ¼ continuous mass ﬂow rate supply of grease (g=h) D ¼ bearing OD (mm) L ¼ bearing width (mm) [for thrust bearings use total height, H]

13.15.1

Topping-Up Intervals

In applications where the grease life is considerably shorter than the bearing life, either complete replacements (relubrication) or more frequent applications of topping-up grease (by grease guns) are required. Topping-up grease is much faster and it is preferred whenever possible. In most cases, during topping-up, the fresh grease replaces only part of the used grease, and more frequent applications are needed in comparison to complete grease replacements. The initial ﬁlling and subsequent topping-up and complete replacement of grease (after cleaning at main overhauls) is done as follows (SKF, 1992): 1.

2.

If the period between grease replacements, Dt (in hours) is less than 6 months of machine operation, the grease is topped-up at half the recommended Dt from Fig. 13.6. After three periods of topping-up, all grease is replaced by fresh grease. If the period between grease replacements, Dt (in hours) is equivalent to more than 6 months of machine operation, topping-up should be avoided, and all the grease in the housing is replaced with fresh grease after each period.

13.15.2

Topping-Up Quantity

In the topping-up procedure, the grease in the bearing housing is only partially replaced by adding a small quantity of fresh grease after each period. The recommended grease quantity to be added can be obtained from the following empirical equation (SKF, 1992): Gp ðgÞ ¼ 0:005DðmmÞ LðmmÞ

ð13-30Þ

Here, Gp ¼ grease mass quantity to be added (grams) D ¼ bearing OD (mm) L ¼ total bearing width (mm) [for thrust bearings use total height, H]

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13.16

471

LIQUID LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

Oil lubrication can be provided by several methods. For low and moderate speeds, an oil bath, also called an oil sump, is used. For low speeds, the oil level in an oil bath is the center of the lower rolling element. For heavy-duty large bearings cooling is necessary, and the oil is circulated in the oil bath. If the oil level is the center of the lower rolling element, it is referred to as a wet sump; if all the oil is drained, it is referred to as a dry sump. The level is determined by the height of the outlet. A pump feeds the oil through ﬂow dividers to the bearing housing. The oil can be supplied also by gravitation. The major advantage of circulation lubrication is that it can cool the bearings. Circulation lubrication of many bearings is relatively inexpensive. An additional method is mist lubrication. In this method, the oil is not recovered. The most important advantage is that the lubrication layer is very thin. It results in low viscous resistance to the motion of the rolling elements. For example, mist lubrication is used for machine tool spindles. Several examples of the various methods of oil lubrications follow.

13.16.1

Bearing Housing with Oil Sump

Oil lubrication requires a special design of the bearing housing, often referred to as a pillow block. Various standard designs of pillow blocks are available from bearing manufacturers. It is possible to select a design based on the optimal oil level and rate of ﬂow of lubricant that is appropriate for each application. For large bearings, a welded housing is less expensive than a cast housing. An example is the housing of the propeller-ship shaft bearing shown in Fig. 13-17. In this example, the speed is 105 RPM and the shaft diameter is 560 mm. Contact seals protect the bearing from the corrosive seawater. The oil can be fed by circulation lubrication, and the pressure in the housing is kept above ambient pressure to prevent penetration of seawater. In this arrangement, the ﬂuid level is relatively high, and it can be applied only when the bearing speed is low. In order to minimize the viscous resistance at high speed, the oil level must be lower. For low speeds, the oil level should not be above the center of the lowest rolling element; but this level is too high for highspeed bearings. A drain is always provided for oil replacement. The oil level is preferably checked when the machine is at rest, when all the oil is drained into the reservoir. There are always oil losses, and a sight-glass gauge is usually provided for checking oil level; oil is added as soon as the oil level is low. This method requires much individual attention to each bearing, and it can be expensive in manufacturing industries where a large number of bearings are maintained.

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F IG. 13-17 Bearing housing of a ship shaft (from FAG, 1998, with permission of FAG and Handel AG).

13.16.2

Lubrication with Wick Arrangement

A better design for feeding a very low ﬂow rate of oil into the bearing is the wick feed arrangement. A design for a vertical shaft is shown in Fig. 13-18. The wick siphons oil from a reservoir into the bearing. An important advantage is that the wick acts like a ﬁlter and supplies only clean oil to the bearing (solid particles are not siphoned). Viscous friction is minimized by this arrangement. The wick continues to deliver oil even when the machine is not operating. An improved design where oil is fed only during bearing operation is shown in Fig. 13-19. A wick provides lubricant by capillary attraction to a rotating bearing. The bearing is above the ﬂuid level, and the wick must be in contact with the collar for proper function of this arrangement. The oil is thrown off by centrifugal force, and the oil is continually siphoned. This system delivers oil only when required, i.e., when the bearing is rotating. The oil is drained back into the reservoir without losses. Wick feed has an important advantage where the bearing operates at high speeds, because it can supply a continuous low ﬂow rate of ﬁltered oil to the bearing. With this wick feed system, there is no resistance to the motion of the rolling elements through the oil reservoir. For effective operation, the wicks should be properly maintained; they have to be replaced occasionally. During servicing, the wick should be dried and thoroughly saturated with oil before reinstallation. This prevents absorption of moisture, which would impair the oilsiphon action.

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F IG. 13-18 permission).

Bearing housing with a wick for oil feeding (from SKF, 1992, with

13.16.3

Oil Circulating Systems

There are several beneﬁts in using oil circulation systems for rolling bearings, where a monitoring pump supplies a low ﬂow rate of oil to each bearing. In certain applications, particularly in hot environments, the oil circulation plays an important role in assisting to transfer heat from the bearing. In addition, a circulating system simpliﬁes maintenance, particularly for large industrial machines with many bearings. For oil circulation, a special design of the housing is used for controlling the oil level. An example of a bearing housing for oil circulation is shown in Fig. 13-20. The level of the oil in the housing is controlled by the height of the outlet. For a

F IG. 13-19 Bearing housing with a wick and centrifugal oil feeding (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

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F IG. 13-20 Oil circulation for pulp and paper dryers (from SKF, 1992, with permission from SKF, USA).

wet sump, the oil level at a standstill should not be higher than the center of the lowest ball or roller. A sight-glass gauge is usually provided for easy monitoring. As mentioned earlier, high-speed bearings require a dry sump, where the oil drains completely after passing through the bearing. In addition, a dry sump is used for bearings operating at high temperature because the lubricant must not be exposed for long to the high temperature (to minimize oxidation). For a dry sump, two outlets are located at the lowest points on both sides of the housing, as shown on the left side of Fig. 13-20. For applications where bearing failure must be avoided at any cost, oil circulation systems require an automatic monitoring to indicate when oil ﬂow is blocked through any bearing. Safety measures include electrical interlocking of the oil pump motor with the motor that is driving the machine.

13.16.4

Oil Mist Systems

This arrangement entails lubrication by a mixture of air and atomized oil. An atomizer device forms the oil mist. In order to have the required quantity of oil and appropriate viscosity at the bearings’ rolling contacts, oil mist system manufacturers provide recommendations for system designs, capacities, and operating temperatures and pressures. The bearing operating temperature is reduced by this method of lubrication, by means of air cooling. A thin oil layer is formed on the bearing surfaces due to

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F IG. 13-21 Nozzle assembly of oil mist system. (Reprinted with permission from Lubriquip Inc.)

the air ﬂow, which prevents accumulation of excess oil. The air is supplied under pressure, and it prevents moisture from the environment from penetrating into the bearing. An additional advantage is that oil mist lubrication supplies clean, fresh oil into the bearings (the oil is not recycled). These advantages increase the life expectancy of the bearing. Although the oil in the mist is lost after passing through the bearing, very little lubricant is used, so oil consumption is relatively low. The connection of the nozzle assembly in the bearing housing is shown in Fig. 13-21. In Fig. 13-22, a mist lubrication system is shown that is widely used for grinding spindles. The air, charged with a mist of oil, is introduced in the housing

F IG. 13-22 Oil mist system for machine tool spindles (from SKF, 1992, with permission of SKF).

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F IG. 13-23 Control of advanced oil mist system with ﬂow dividers (reprinted with permission of Lubriquip).

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between the bearings in order to ensure that the air passes through the bearings before escaping from the housing. Air from the supply line passes through a ﬁlter, B, then through a pressure reduction valve, D, and then through an atomizer, E, where the oil mist is generated. The air must be sufﬁciently dry before it is ﬁltered, and a dehumidiﬁer, A, is often used. Advanced oil mist systems with precise control of the ﬂow rate are often used in machining spindles. The systems include a series of ﬂow dividers and an electronic controller. A schematic layout of a controlled system is shown in Fig. 13-23.

13.16.5

Lubrication of High-Speed Bearings

In bearings operating at very high speeds (high DN value) a considerable amount of heat is generated, and jet lubrication proved to be effective in transferring the heat away from the bearing, see a survey by Zaretzky (1997). Jet lubrication is used for high-speed bearings aircraft engines. Several nozzles are placed around the bearing, and the jet is directed to the rolling elements near the contact with the inner race. The centrifugal forces move the oil through the bearing for cooling and lubrication. Experiments have shown that in small bearings jet lubrication can be used successfully at very high speeds of 3 million DN, and speeds to 2.5 million DN for larger bearing of 120 mm bore diameter. A more effective method of lubrication for very high-speed bearings is by means of under-race lubrication, see Zaretzky (1997). The lubricant is fed through several holes in the inner race. In addition, the lubricant is used for cooling in clearances (annular passages) between the inner and outer rings and their seats.

13.16.6

Oil Replacement in Circulation Systems

The time period between oil replacements depends on the operating conditions, particularly oil temperature, and the amount of contamination that is penetrating into the oil as well as the quantity of oil in circulation. In most cases, the reason for frequent oil replacements is the oxidation of the oil due to elevated temperatures or the penetration of dust particles into the oil. If the bearing temperature is below 50 C (120 F) and the bearing is properly sealed from any signiﬁcant contamination, the life of the oil is long and intervals of one year are adequate. At elevated temperatures, however the oil life is much shorter. For similar operating conditions, if the oil temperature is doubled and reaches 100 C (220 F), the oil life is reduced to only 3 months (a quarter of the time for 50 C (120 F). In central lubrication systems, the oil is fed from an oil sump through a ﬁlter and than passes through the bearing and returns to the oil sump. In order to

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reduce the oil temperature, the system can include a cooler. There are many variable operating conditions that determine the oil temperature, including the rate of ﬂow of the circulation and the presence of a cooling system, which reduces the oil temperature. Since there are many operating parameters, it is difﬁcult to set rigid rules for the lubrication intervals. It is recommended to test the oil frequently for determining the optimum time period for oil replacement. The tests include measurement of the oxidation level of the oil, the amount of antioxidation additives left in the oil, and the level of contamination by dust particles.

13.17

HIGH-TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

In cases where heat is transferred into the bearings from outside sources, cooling of the oil in circulation is necessary to avoid excessive bearing temperatures and premature oxidation of the lubricant. Examples are combustion processes (such as car engines) and steam dryers. In addition, high temperatures reduce the viscosity and effectiveness of the oil. Various methods for controlling the oil temperature are used. In Fig. 13-24, a cooling disc is shown that is mounted on the shaft between the bearing and the heat source. The disc increases the convection area of heat transferred from the shaft (SKF, 1992). An improved cooling system is shown in Fig. 13-25. It is a design of a pillow block with water-cooling coils. Water-cooled copper coils transfer the heat away from the oil reservoir in the pillow block. It is important to shut off the cooling water whenever the machine is stationary in order to prevent condensation, which generates rust. Air is also used for cooling bearings. A direct stream of fresh air is usually created through the use of fans, blowers, or air ducts around the bearing that can

F IG. 13-24

Cooling disc mounted on the shaft (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-25

479

Pillow block with water cooling (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

help in dissipating the heat. An additional method that is widely used is to cool the oil outside the bearing, via a heat exchanger. The circulating oil can pass through a radiator for cooling, such as in car engine oil circulation.

13.17.1

Moisture in Rolling Bearings

Lubricants do not completely protect the bearing against corrosion caused by moisture that penetrates into the bearing. In particular, the combined effect of acids (products of oxidation) and moisture are harmful to the bearing surfaces. The design of bearing arrangement and lubrication systems must ensure that the bearing is sealed from moisture. Certain lubricants can reduce moisture effects, such as compound oils, which are more water repellent than regular mineral oils. Lithium-based greases are good water repellents and also provide an effective labyrinth seal. In all cases, the lubricant should completely cover the bearing surface to protect it. Nonoperating machines should be set in motion periodically in order to spread the lubricant over the complete bearing surfaces for corrosion protection.

13.18

SPEED LIMIT OF STANDARD BEARINGS

The standard bearing has a much lower speed limit than special steels. Bearing manufacturers recommend a speed limit to their standard bearings. The DN value is widely used for limiting the speed of various rolling bearings. This is deﬁned as the product of bearing bore in mm and shaft speed in RPM. The friction power loss in a rolling bearing is proportional to the rolling velocity, which is proportional to the bearing temperature rise above ambient temperature. The centrifugal force of the rolling elements is also a function of the DN value. Special steels have been developed for aircraft turbine engines that can operate at very high speeds of 2 million DN. There is continuous search for better

FIG. 13-26

Speed limit of standard bearings (from SKF, 1992, with permission).

480 Chapter 13

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481

materials, such as the introduction of silicon nitride rolling elements, and unique designs (see Chapter 18) to allow a breakthrough past the limit of 2 million DN. However, for standard bearings, made of SAE 52100 steel, the maximum DN value is quite low, of the order of magnitude of 0.1 million. The reason for limiting the DN value of industrial bearings is in order to limit the temperature rise and, thus, to extend the fatigue life of the bearings. Bearing manufacturers recommend low limits of the DN values. The speed limits for various bearing types can be obtained from Fig. 13-26. These limits are based on a temperature limit of 82 C (180 F) as measured on the outside bearing diameter. Standard steel at higher temperature starts to lose its hardness and fatigue resistance at that temperature. Standard bearing steel, SAE 52100, can operate at higher temperatures, up to 177 C (350 F). However, the bearing life (as well as lubricant life) is lower. Figure 13-26 shows that the speed limit of standard bearings is quite low. In Sec. 13.19, special steels are discussed that are used for much higher speeds.

13.19

MATERIALS FOR ROLLING BEARINGS

In the United States, the standard steel for ball bearings is SAE 52100 (0.98% C, 1.3% Cr, 0.25% Mn, 0.15% Si). It is widely used for the rings and rolling elements of standard ball bearings as well as certain roller bearings. SAE 52100 is of the through-hardening type of steel. This steel can be hardened thoroughly to Rockwell C 65. In general, steels with carbon content above 0.8%, combined with less than 5% of other alloys, are of the hypereutectoid type, where the cross section of the rings can be hardened thoroughly. However, large bearings with a large cross-sectional area of the rings are made of case-hardening (carburizing) steels. An example of a widely used casehardening steel is SAE 4118 (0.18% C, 0.4% Cr, 0.4% Mn, 0.15% Si, 0.08% Mo). Case-hardening steels contain less than 0.8% carbon and are of the hypoeutectoid type. This means that they must be diffused with additional carbon in order to be hardened by heat treatment. The advantage of a casehardening steel is that it is less brittle, because only the surface is hardened while the inside cross section remains relatively soft. In comparison, the throughhardening steels have high hardness over the complete cross section. Rolling bearings made of these two types of steel can be used only at low temperature (below 350 F or 177 C). Above this temperature, these steels lose their hardness. For applications at higher temperatures, high-alloyed steels have been developed that maintain the required hardness at high temperature. Examples of special steels that provide better fatigue resistance at high temperatures appear in Sec. 13.19.2.

482

13.19.1

Chapter 13

Stainless Steel AISI 440C

AISI 440C (1.1% C, 17% Cr, 0.75% Mn, 1% Si, 0.75% Mo) is a high-carbon stainless steel for rolling bearings. AISI 440C does not contain nickel and can be heat-treated and hardened to Rockwell C 60. In the United States, it became a standard stainless steel bearing material that is widely used in corrosive environments, particularly in instruments. A major disadvantage of this steel, in comparison to SAE 52100, is its shorter fatigue life. Therefore, for heavy loads, it is used only where there is no other way to protect the bearing from corrosion. AISI 440C is widely used in instrument ball bearings that must be rust free and where corrosion resistance is much more important than the load capacity. For certain applications, it is possible to combine the characteristics of corrosion resistance and high fatigue resistance by using chrome-coated bearings made of the standard SAE 52100 steel.

13.19.2

Special Steels for Aerospace Applications

For most applications, the preceding two types of steels provide adequate performance. For aerospace applications, however, there is a requirement for fatigue resistance for high-speed bearings operating at elevated temperatures in turbine engines. Special high-alloy-content steels were developed as well as higher purity by using better manufacturing processes such as vacuum induction melting (VIM) and vacuum arc remelting (VAR). The piston engine bearings of early aircraft used tool steels such as M1 and M2 . During the 1950s, the turbine engine aircraft has been developed, and there was a requirement for better rollingelement bearings that can resist the high speed and high temperature in the aircraft turbine engine. For this purpose, the vacuum melting process was developed and used with high-alloy-content steel AISI M-50 and much later, the recently introduced casehardened steel M50NiL. These bearings are also used for other applications of high speed and elevated temperatures. An interesting survey by Zaretszky (1997b) shows the major breakthroughs, which resulted in bearing fatigue-life improvement of approximately 200 times, between 1948 and 1988. The most important developments are high purity steel processing, composition of special steels, ultrasonic inspection techniques, improvement of bearing design, and better lubrication. After World War II, the requirement for reliable operation of jet engines and helicopter rotors was the major drive for research and development, which resulted in impressive improvements in the performance of rolling-element bearings for aerospace applications.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13.19.2.1

483

M50 Bearing Material for Aerospace Applications

AISI M-50 (0.8% C, 4% Cr, 0.1%Ni, 0.25% Mn, 0.25% Si, 4.25% Mo) was developed in the 1950, and it is used for rolling bearings in aerospace applications. In addition, it has industrial applications for rolling bearings operating at elevated temperatures up to 315 C (600 F). AISI M-50 is through-hardening steel, because it has relatively high carbon content. This material demonstrated signiﬁcant improvement in fatigue life, in comparison to the earlier steels. However, the high demand in aircraft engines, with fatigue combined with high temperature and high centrifugal forces, can result in the initiation of cracks and even complete fracture of rings made of through-hardening steels such as M-50. For that reason, the speed of aircraft engines has been limited to 2.4 million DN. In order to break through this limit, a lot of research has been conducted to improve bearing materials. The recent development (during the 1980s) of highalloyed casehardened steel M50NiL signiﬁcantly improved the fatigue resistance of jet engine bearings. 13.19.2.2

M-50NiL Bearing Steel for Aerospace Applications

During the 1980s, M50NiL has been developed and introduced into high-speed aerospace applications. M50NiL is casehardened steel, which has a softer core, and it is less brittle than the through-hardened steel AISI M-50. In turn, M50NiL has improved fracture toughness, better fatigue resistance, better impact resistance in high-speed bearings (and gears), and can operate at high temperatures similar to AISI M-50. Therefore, M50NiL gradually replaces AISI M-50 as the material of choice for jet engine bearings in aircraft. M50NiL (0.15% C, 4% Cr, 3.5% Ni, 0.15% Mn, 1% V, 4.0% Mo) differs from AISI M-50 by its lower carbon content. M50NiL requires carburizing for getting hard surfaces. The low carbon content makes it casehardened steel with softer and less brittle material inside the cross section. M50NiL has less carbon and more nickel and vanadium in comparison to AISI M-50. These alloys increase hot hardness and form hard carbides that reduce wear. M50NiL has uniformly distributed carbides, which is less likely to initiate fatigue cracks. The most important advantage of M50NiL is that it is casehardened steel with optimum fatigue properties under rolling contact. In rolling contact fatigue tests, M50NiL demonstrated approximately twice the fatigue life, L10 , of standard AISI M-50 (Bamberger, 1983). The two materials were processed by the same VIM-VAR process, and tested under identical conditions of load and speed. An important characteristic in aircraft engines is that M50NiL allows sufﬁcient time for the detection of spalling damage in the bearing before any

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catastrophic failure, because the tough core minimizes undesired crack propagation. In addition, M50NiL can operate at higher speeds, is more wear resistant, has higher tensile stress, higher fracture toughness, and lower boundary lubrication friction than AISI M-50. 13.19.2.3

DD400

For instrument ball bearings, corrosion resistance is very important. A stainless steel DD400 has been developed for precision miniature rolling bearings and small instrument rolling bearings. Corrosion resistance, combined with adequate hardness, has been achieved by increasing the quantity of dissolved chromium in the material. However, corrosion-resistant stainless steels have reduced fatigue resistance, and they are applied only for light-duty bearings. The composition of DD400 is 0.7% C, 13% Cr and it is martensitic stainless steel. DD400 replaced AISI 440C (1% C, 17% Cr), which was used for similar applications. DD400 demonstrated better performance in comparison to AISI 440C in small bearings. The most important advantages are: better surface ﬁnish of the races and rolling elements, better damping of vibrations, and improved fatigue life. These advantages are explained by the absence of large carbides in the heat-treated material.

13.20

PROCESSES FOR MANUFACTURING HIGH-PURITY STEEL

In addition to the chemical composition, the manufacturing process is very important for improving fatigue resistance, particularly at high temperatures. For critical applications, such as aircraft engines, there is a requirement for fatigueresistant materials with a high degree of purity. It was realized that there are signiﬁcant amount of impurities in the bearing rings and rolling elements, in the form of nonmetal particles as well as microscopic bubbles from gas released into the metal during solidiﬁcation. In fact, these impurities have an adverse effect equivalent to small cracks in the material. These microscopic cracks propagate and cause early fatigue failure. Therefore, a lot of effort has been directed at developing ultrahigh-purity steels for rolling bearings. An advanced method for high purity steel is the vacuum induction method (VIM). The melting furnace is inside a large vacuum chamber. The process uses steel of high purity, and the required alloys are added from hoppers into the vacuum chamber. A second method is the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) where a consumable electrode is melted by an electrical arc in a vacuum chamber. The two methods were combined and referred to as VIM-VAR. In the combined method, the steel from the vacuum induction method is melted again by the vacuum arc method. Successive vacuum arc remelting improves the bearing fatigue life.

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Zaretzky (1997c) presented a detailed survey of the processing methods and testing of bearing materials for aerospace applications.

13.21

CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR ROLLING BEARINGS

There is an ever-increasing demand for better materials for rolling-element bearings in order to increase the speed and service life of machinery. In addition, machines are often exposed to corrosive environments and high temperatures that cause steel bearings to fail. In a corrosive environment, the life of regular rolling bearings made of steel is short. It would offer a huge economic beneﬁt if an alternate material could be developed that would increase the life of rolling bearings. For the last several decades, engineers have been searching for alternative materials for the roller bearing. Although there are signiﬁcant improvements in the manufacturing processes and composition of steel bearings, scientists and engineers have been continually investigating ceramics as the most promising alternative materials. In aviation, there is an ever-present need for the reduction of weight. It is possible to reduce the size and weight of engines by operating at higher speeds. In addition, weight reduction can be achieved if the engine efﬁciency can be improved by operating at higher temperatures. Let us recall that according to the basic principles of thermodynamics, the efﬁciency of the Carnot cycle is proportional to the process temperature. Therefore, there is a need for materials that can operate at high temperatures. It has been recognized that the bearings are one bottleneck that limits the speed and temperature of jet engines. A lot of research has been conducted in developing and testing ceramic materials that can endure higher temperatures in comparison to steel. In addition, ceramics have a low density, which is important in reducing the centrifugal force of the rolling elements, a limiting factor of speed. Initially, tests were conducted with rolling elements made of aluminum oxide and silicon carbide. However, these tests indicated unacceptable early catastrophic failure, particularly at high speeds and under heavy loads. Better results were obtained later with silicon nitride, Si3 N4 . The early manufacturing process for silicon nitride involved hot pressing. The parts did not have a uniform structure and had many surface defects. The parts required expensive ﬁnishing by diamond-coated tools. Moreover, the ﬁnished parts did not have the required characteristics for using them in rolling-element bearings. Later, the development of a hot isostatically pressed (HIP) manufacturing process signiﬁcantly improved the structure of silicon nitride. The most important

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properties of silicon nitride that make it suitable for rolling bearings is fatigue resistance under rolling contact and relatively high fracture toughness. Silicon nitride rolling elements showed a fatigue-failure mode by spalling, similar to steel. In addition, silicon nitride proved to be wear resistant under the high contact pressure of heavily loaded bearings. Most of the applications use silicon nitride ceramic rolling elements in steel rings, referred to as hybrid ceramic bearings.

13.21.1

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) Process

The introduction of the HIP process offered many advantages over the previous hot-pressing process. The HIP process is done by applying a high pressure of inert gases—argon, nitrogen, helium—or air at elevated temperatures to all grain surfaces under a uniform temperature. Temperatures up to 2000 C (3630 F) and pressures up to 207 MPa (30,000 psi) are used. The temperature and pressure are accurately controlled. The term isostatic means that the static pressure of gas is equal in all directions throughout the part. This process is already widely used for shaping parts of ceramic powders as well as other mixtures of metals and nonmetal powders. This process minimizes surface defects and internal voids in the parts. The most important feature of this process is that it results in strong bonds between the powder boundaries of similar or dissimilar materials, which improve the characteristics of the parts for many engineering applications. In addition, the process reduces the cost of manufacturing because it forms net or near-net shapes (close to ﬁnal shape) from various powders, such as metal, ceramic, and graphite. The cost is reduced because the parts are near the ﬁnal shape and less expensive machining is needed. There are also important downsides to ceramics in rolling bearings. The cost of manufacturing of ceramic parts is several times that of similar steel parts. In rolling bearings, a major problem is that the higher elastic modulus and lower Poisson ratios of silicon nitride result in higher contact stresses than for steel bearings (see Hertz equations in Chapter 12). It is obvious that silicon nitride’s higher elastic modulus and hardness result in a small contact area between the balls and races. In turn, the maximum compression stress must be higher for ceramic on steel and even more in ceramic on ceramic. The high contact stresses can become critical and can cause failure of the ceramic rolling elements. This is particularly critical in all-ceramic bearings, because ceramic-on-ceramic contact results in higher stresses than ceramic balls on steel races.

13.21.2

Silicon Nitride Bearings

The most widely used type is the hybrid bearing. It combines silicon nitride balls with steel races. The second type is the all-ceramic bearing, often referred to as a

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487

full-complement ceramic bearing. The two types beneﬁt from the properties of silicon nitride, which include low density, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and electrical resistance.

13.21.3

Hybrid Bearings

The surfaces of steel races and ceramic rolling elements are compatible, in the sense that they have relatively low adhesive wear. Ceramics sliding or rolling on metals do not generate high adhesion force or microwelds at the asperity contacts. The ceramic rolling elements have high electrical resistance, which is important in electric motors and generators because they eliminate the problem of arcing in steel bearings. However, the most important advantage of silicon nitride rolling elements is their low density. The speciﬁc density of silicon nitride is 3.2, in comparison to 7.8 for steel (about 40% of steel). The centrifugal forces are proportional to the density of the rolling elements, and they become critical at high speeds. Since pressed silicon nitride rolling elements are lighter, the centrifugal forces are reduced. Many experiments conﬁrmed that hybrid bearings have a longer fatigue life than do M-50 steel rolling elements. At very high speeds, the relative improvement in the fatigue life of silicon nitride hybrid bearings is even higher, due to the lower density, which reduces the centrifugal forces. The silicon nitride is very hard and has exceptionally high compressive strength, but the tensile strength is low. Low tensile strength is a major problem for mounting the rings on steel shafts; but hybrid bearings have steel rings, so this problem is eliminated. Although research in hybrid bearings was conducted two decades earlier, it is only since 1990 that they have been in a wide use for precision applications, including machine tools. The high rigidity of silicon nitride balls was recognized for its potential for improvement in precision and reduction of vibrations. This property can be an advantage in high-speed rotors. 13.21.3.1

Fatigue Life of Hybrid Bearings

There is already evidence that hybrid bearings made of silicone nitride balls and steel rings have much longer fatigue life than do steel bearings of similar geometry. Examples of research work are by Hosang (1987) and Chiu (1995). The major disadvantage of hybrid bearings is their high cost. However, the advantages of the hybrid bearing are expected to outweigh the high cost. Longer life at higher speeds and higher temperatures may end up saving money over the life cycle of the machine by reducing the need for maintenance and replacement parts. In addition, longer bearing life will result in reduced machine downtime, which results in the expensive loss of production. We

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have to keep in mind that the cost of bearing replacement is often much higher than the cost of the bearing itself. 13.21.3.2

Applications of Hybrid Bearings

Hybrid ceramic bearings have already been applied in high-speed machine tools, instrument bearings, and turbo machinery. Other useful applications of silicon nitride balls include small dental air turbines, food processing, semiconductors, aerospace, electric motors, and robotics. In hybrid bearings, the ceramic balls prevent galling and adhesive wear even when no liquid lubricant is used. Nonlubricated hybrid bearings wear less than dry all-steel bearings. Operation of steel bearings without lubrication results in the formation of wear debris, which accelerates the wear process. Ceramic balls have a higher modulus of elasticity than steel, which makes the bearing stiffer, useful in reducing vibration and for precision applications. Hybrid ceramic bearings demonstrated very good results in applications without any conventional grease or oil lubrication, but only a thin solid lubricant layer transferred from the cage material. Example of a successful application is in the propellant turbopump of the Space Shuttle, where grease or oil lubrication must be avoided due to the volatility of the propellants, see Gibson (2001). For propulsion into orbit, the NASA Space shuttle has three engines. Each engine is fed propellants by four turbopumps, which were equipped with hybrid ceramic bearings with silicon nitride ceramic balls and a self-lubricating cage made of sintered PTFE and bronze powders. The PTFE is transferred as a third body of a thin ﬁlm solid lubrication on the balls and races. The hybrid ceramic bearing in this severe application did not show any signiﬁcant wear of the raceways. Tests indicated that various cage material combinations affected the life of the self-lubricated bearing in different ways. The best results were obtained by using silicon nitride ceramic balls and sintered PTFE and bronze cage. This combination was implemented successfully in all NASA Space shuttles. The hybrid bearing is currently passing extensive tests for ultimate use in jet aircraft engines. However, at this time, it has not reached the stage of being actually used in aircraft engines. For safety reasons, the hybrid bearing must pass many strict tests before it can be approved for use in actual aircraft.

13.21.4

All-Ceramic Bearings

The most important advantage of all-ceramic bearings is that they resist corrosion, even in severe chemical and industrial environments where stainless steel bearings lack sufﬁcient corrosion resistance. Zaretzky (1989) published a survey of the research and development work in ceramic bearings during the previous three decades. He pointed out that since the elastic modulus of silicon nitride is higher than that of steel, the Hertz stresses

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

489

are higher than for all-steel bearings. Zaretzky concluded that the dynamic capacity of the all-silicon-nitride bearing is only 5–12% of that of an all-steel bearing of similar geometry. In addition, there are problems mounting the ceramic ring on a steel shaft. The difference in thermal expansion results in high tensile stresses. Silicon nitride has exceptionally high compressive strength, but the tensile strength is low. Therefore, a ceramic ring requires a special design for mounting it on a steel shaft. The most important advantage of all-silicon-nitride bearings is that they can operate at high temperature above the limits of steel bearings. However, at temperatures above 578 K (300 C), the available liquid lubricants cannot be used. Early tests indicated that all-ceramic bearings can operate with minimal or no lubrication. However, when tests were conducted at higher speeds, similar to those in gas turbine engines, catastrophic bearing failure resulted after a short time. In the future, solid lubricants may be developed to overcome this problem. Another problem in the way of extending the operating temperature of allceramic bearings is that high-temperature cage materials were not available. Tests indicated that the best results could be achieved with graphite cages; see Mutoh et al. (1994). An important advantage of the all-ceramic bearing remains that it can resist corrosion in very corrosive environments where steel bearings would be damaged. Moreover, regular bearings often fail because an industrial corrosive environment breaks down the lubricant. In such cases, the all-ceramic bearing can be a solution to these problems. It also can operate with minimal or no lubrication. In addition, it has high rigidity, important in precision machines. The all-ceramic bearings are used in the etching process for silicon wafers, where sulfuric acid and other corrosives are used. Only ceramic bearings can resistant this corrosive environment. Another application is ultraclean vacuum systems. Liquid lubricants evaporate in a vacuum, and ceramic bearings are an alternative for this purpose. All-ceramic bearings can also be used in applications where nonmagnetic bearings are required. Hybrid bearings with stainless steel rings are also used for this purpose. Sealed pumps driven by magnetic induction are widely used for pumping various corrosive chemicals. Most sealed pumps operate with hydrodynamic journal bearing with silicon carbide sleeve. The ceramic sleeves are used because of their corrosive resistance and for their nonmagnetic properties. However, the viscosity of the process ﬂuids is usually low, and the hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm is generated only at high speeds. For pumps that operate with frequent start-ups, there is high wear and the bearings do not last for a long time. All-ceramic rolling bearings made of silicon nitride proved to be a better selection for sealed pumps. The silicone nitride rolling bearings are not sensitive to frequent start-ups and have good chemical corrosion resistance as well as the desired nonmagnetic properties for this application.

490

Chapter 13

13.21.5

Cage Materials for Hybrid Bearings

Different cage materials have been tested in ceramic hybrid bearings. Appropriate cage material is a critical problem in applications where solid lubrication or operation without lubricant is required. In such cases, the cage material provides the solid lubricant. A graphite cage offered a low wear rate in high-temperature applications. Self-lubricating (soft) cage materials resulted in a longer bearing life with lower wear rate and lower friction in comparison to hard cage material. However, at high temperatures, self-lubricating cage materials resulted in excessive degradation of the cage material by high-temperature oxidation.

13.22

ROLLING BEARING CAGES

The rolling bearing cage, often referred to as a separator or a retainer, is mounted in the bearing in order to equally space the rolling elements (balls or rollers) and prevent contact friction between them. The cage rotates with the rolling elements, which are freely rotating in the conﬁnement of the cage. In addition, the cage retains the grease to provide for effective lubrication. Cages made of porous materials, such as phenolic, absorb liquid lubricants and assist in providing a very thin layer of oil for a long time. Examples of rolling bearing cage designs are shown in Fig. 13-27 (FAG, 1998). Cages are made of the following materials. Cages made of brass are commonly used in medium and large roller bearings. Cages made of nylon strengthened by two round strips of steel are commonly used in small ball bearings. Cages made of steel are used in miniature ball bearings. Cages made of phenolic are used in ultrahigh-precision bearings.

13.23

BEARING SEALS

Seals act as a barrier that prevents the loss of the lubricant from the bearing housing. In addition, seals restrict the entry of any foreign particles or undesired process liquids into the bearings. Reliable operation of the seals is very important. In the case of lubricant loss, it can result in bearing failure. Any penetration of foreign particles into the bearing will result in reduction of its service life. Thus seals are essential for the proper functioning of the bearing. Seals are generally classiﬁed into two types, contact seals and noncontact seals.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

491

F IG. 13-27 Examples of rolling bearing cages. Pressed cages of steel: Lug cage (a) and rivet cage (b) for deep-groove ball bearings, window-type cage (c) for spherical roller bearings. Machined brass cages: Riveted machined cage (d) for deep-groove ball bearings, brass window-type cage (e) for angular contact ball bearings and machined brass cage with integral crosspiece rivets (f) for cylindrical roller bearings. Molded cages made of glassﬁbre reinforced polyamide: window-type cage (g) for single-row angular contact ball bearings and window-type cage (h) for cylindrical roller bearings. (From FAG, 1998, with permission.)

492

Chapter 13

13.23.1

Contact Seals

These seals remain in contact with the sliding surface, and thus they wear after a certain period of operation and need replacement. They are also referred to as rubbing seals. In order to make these seals effective; a certain amount of contact pressure should always be present between the seal and shaft. The wear of contact seals increases by the following factors: Friction coefﬁcient Bearing temperature Sliding velocity Surface roughness Contact pressure Under favorable conditions, there is a very thin layer of lubricant that separates the seal and the shaft surfaces (similar to ﬂuid ﬁlm but much thinner). The ﬁlm thickness can reach the magnitude of 500 nm, at shaft surface speed of 0.4 m=s (Lou Liming, 2001). A few examples of widely used contact seals are presented in Figs. 13-28a–f. 13.23.1.1

Felt Ring Seals

These seals (Fig. 13.28a) are widely used for grease lubrication. Felt ring seals are soaked in a bath of oil before installation, for reduction of friction. Felt seals provide excellent sealing without much contact pressure and are effective against penetration of dust. Therefore, they do not cause much friction power loss. The number of felt rings depends on the environment of the machine. The dimensions of felt seals are standardized.

F IG. 13-28a

Felt ring seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-28b

Radial shaft seals (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

13.23.1.2

Radial Shaft Sealing Rings

493

These are the most widely used contact lip seals for liquid lubricant (Fig. 13-28b). The basic construction incorporates the lip of the seal pressed on the sliding surface of a shaft with the help of a spring. 13.23.1.3

Double-Lip Radial Seals

These seals (Fig. 13-28c) consist of two lips. The outer lip restricts any entry of foreign particle, and the inner lip retains the lubricant inside the bearing housing. When grease is applied between the two lips, the bearing life increases. 13.23.1.4

Axially Acting Lip Seals

The major advantage of this seal (Fig. 13-28d) is that it is not sensitive to radial misalignment. The seal is installed by pushing it on the surface of the shaft until its lip comes in contact with the housing wall. These seals are often used as extra

F IG. 13-28c

Double-lip radial seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

494

F IG. 13-28d

Chapter 13

Axially acting lip seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

seals in a contaminated environment. At very high speeds, these seals are not effective due to the centrifugal forces. 13.23.1.5

Spring Seals

These seals (Fig. 13.28e) are effective only for grease lubrication. A thin round sheet metal is clamped to the inner or outer ring, and provides a light contact pressure with the second ring. 13.23.1.6

Sealed Bearing

This seal (Fig. 13.28f) is manufactured with the bearing, and widely used for sealed for life bearings. The seal is made of oil resistant rubber, which is connected to the outer ring, and lightly pressed on the inner ring.

F IG. 13-28e

Spring seals (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-28f

13.23.2

495

Sealed bearing (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

Noncontact Seals

Noncontact seals are also known as nonrubbing seals. These seals are widely used for grease lubrication. In these seals there is only viscous friction, and thus they perform well for a longer time. In noncontact seals there is a small radial clearance between the housing and the shaft (0.1–0.3 mm). These seals are not so sensitive to radial misalignment of the shaft. Most important, since there is no contact, not much heat is generated by friction, which make it ideal for highspeed applications. A number of grooves are designed into the housing, which contain grease. The grease ﬁlled grooves form effective sealing. If the environment is contaminated, the grease should be replaced frequently. If oil is used for lubrication, the grooves are bored spirally in the direction opposite to that of the rotation of the shaft. Such seals are also known as shaft-threaded seals. Some examples of noncontact seals are shown in Fig. 13-29.

F IG. 13-29a

Grooved labyrinth seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

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Chapter 13

F IG. 13-29b

Axial webbed noncontact seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

F IG. 13-29c

Radial webbed noncontact seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

F IG. 13-29d

Noncontact seal with lamellar rings (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

F IG. 13-29e

Bafﬂe plates seal (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

F IG. 13-29f

Bearing with shields (from FAG, 1998, with permission).

F IG. 13-30

Mechanical seal.

497

498

Chapter 13

13.24

MECHANICAL SEALS

This seal is widely used in pumps. The sealing surfaces are normal to the shaft, as shown in Fig. 13-30. The concept is that of two rubbing surfaces, one stationary and one rotating with the shaft. The surfaces are lubricated and cooled by the process ﬂuid. The normal force between the rubbing surfaces is from the spring force and the ﬂuid pressure. The materials of the rubbing rings are a combination of very hard and very soft materials, such as silicon carbide and graphite. The lubrication ﬁlm is very thin, and the leak is negligible.

Problems 13-1

A single-row, standard deep-groove ball bearing operates in a machine tool. It is supporting a shaft of 30-mm diameter. The bearing is designed for 90% reliability. The radial load on the bearing is 3000 N (no axial load). The shaft speed is 7200 RPM. The lubricant is SAE 20 oil, and the maximum expected surrounding (ambient) temperature is 30 C. Assume the oil operating temperature is 10 C above ambient temperature. a. Find the life adjustment factor a3. b. Find the adjusted fatigue life L10 of a deep-groove ball bearing. c. Find the maximum static radial equivalent load. The deep groove bearing data, as speciﬁed in a bearing catalogue, is as follows: Designation bearing: No. 6006 Bore diameter: d ¼ 30 mm Outside diameter: D ¼ 55 mm Dynamic load rating: C ¼ 2200 lb Static load rating: C0 ¼ 1460 lb

13-2

In a gearbox, two identical standard deep-groove ball bearings support a shaft of 35-mm diameter. There is locating=ﬂoating arrangement where the ﬂoating bearing supports a radial load of 10,000N and the locating bearing supports a radial load of 4000N and a thrust load of 5000N. The shaft speed is 3600 RPM. The lubricant is SAE 30 oil, and the maximum expected surrounding (ambient) temperature is 30 C. Assume that the oil operating temperature is 5 C above ambient temperature. The two deepgroove bearings are identical. The data, as speciﬁed in a bearing catalogue, is as follows:

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

Designation bearing: Bore diameter: Outside diameter: Dynamic load rating: Static load rating:

499

No. 6207 d ¼ 35 mm D ¼ 72 mm C ¼ 4400 lb C0 ¼ 3100 lb

a.

Find the life adjustment factor a3 for the locating and ﬂoating bearings. b. Find the adjusted fatigue life L10 of a deep-groove ball bearing for the locating and ﬂoating bearings. c. Find the static radial equivalent load. d. Find the radial static equivalent load for the locating and ﬂoating bearing.

13-3

Find the operating clearance (or interference) for a standard deepgroove ball bearing No. 6312 that is ﬁtted on a shaft and inside housing as shown in Fig. 13-6. During operation, inner ring as well as shaft temperature is 8 C higher than the temperature of outer ring and housing. The bearing is of C3 class of radial clearance (radial clearance of 23–43 mm from Table 13-2). The dimensions and tolerances of inner ring and shaft are Bore diameter: d ¼ 60 mm (15=þ0) mm Shaft diameter: ds ¼ 60 mm (þ21=þ2) mm k6 OD of inner ring: d1 ¼ 81.3 mm The dimensions and tolerances of outer ring and housing seat are OD of outer ring: D ¼ 130 mm (þ0=–18) mm ID of outer ring: D1 ¼ 108.4 mm ID of housing seat: DH ¼ 130 mm (–21=þ4) mm K6

13-4

Neglect the surface smoothing effect, and assume that the housing and shaft seats were measured, and the actual dimension is at 1=3 of the tolerance zone, measured from the tolerance boundary close to the surface where the machining started, e.g., the shaft diameter is 60 mm þ [21–(21–3)=3] mm ¼ 60.015 mm. Consider elastic deformation and thermal expansion for the calculation of the two boundaries of the operating radial clearance tolerance zone. Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of steel is a ¼ 0.000011 [1=C] A standard deep-groove ball bearing No. 6312 that is mounted on a shaft and into a housing as shown in Fig. 13-6. The bearing width is B ¼ 31 mm. The shaft and ring are made of steel E ¼ 2 1011 Pa.

500

Chapter 13

The dimensions and tolerances of inner ring and shaft are Bore diameter: d ¼ 60 mm (15=þ0) mm Shaft diameter: ds ¼ 60 mm (þ24=þ11) mm, m5 OD of inner ring: d1 ¼ 81.3 mm The dimensions and tolerances of outer ring and housing seat are OD of outer ring: ID of outer ring: ID of housing seat:

D ¼ 130 mm (þ0=–18) mm D1 ¼ 108.4 mm DH ¼ 130 mm (–21=þ4) mm, K6

Neglect the surface smoothing effect, and assume a rectangular cross section of the bearing rings for all calculations. 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

13-5

Find the maximum and minimum pressure between the shaft and bore surfaces. Find the minimum and maximum tensile stress in the inner ring after it is tightly ﬁtted on the shaft. If the friction coefﬁcient is f ¼ 0:5, ﬁnd the maximum axial force (for the tightest tolerance), which is needed for sliding the inner ring on the shaft. Find the minimum inertial torque (N–m), which can result in undesired rotation sliding of the shaft inside the inner ring during the start-up ð f ¼ 0:5Þ. The bearing is heated for mounting it on the shaft without any axial force. Find the temperature rise of the bearing (relative to the shaft), for all bearings and shaft within the speciﬁed tolerances. Coefﬁcient of thermal expansion of steel is a ¼ 0.000011 [1=C].

Modify the design of the bearing arrangement of the NC–lathe main spindle in Fig. 13-10b. The modiﬁed design will be used for rougher machining at lower speeds. Adjustable bearing arrangement with two tapered roller bearings will replace the current bearing arrangement. For a rigid support, an adjustable bearing arrangement was selected with the apex points between the two bearings. a.

Design and sketch the cross-section view of the modiﬁed lathe main spindle. b. Show the centerlines of the tapered rolling elements and the apex points, if the bearings preload must not be affected by temperature rise during operation. c. Specify the tolerances for the seats of the two bearings.

Selection and Design of Rolling Bearings

13-6

501

Modify the design of the bearing arrangement of the NC–lathe main spindle in Fig. 13-10b to a locating=ﬂoating bearing arrangement. On the right hand (the locating side), the modiﬁed design entails three adjacent angular ball bearings, two in an adjustable arrangement, and the third in tandem arrangement to machining thrust force. On the left hand, two adjacent cylindrical roller bearings are the ﬂoating bearings that support only radial force. a.

Design and sketch the cross-section view of the modiﬁed design. b. Specify tolerances for all the bearing seats.

14 Testing of Friction and Wear

14.1

INTRODUCTION

There is an increasing requirement for testing the performance of bearing materials, lubricants, lubricant additives, and solid lubricants. For bearings running on ideal full oil ﬁlms, the viscosity is the only important lubricant property that affects the friction. However, in practice most machines are subjected to variable conditions, vibrations and disturbances and occasional oil starvation. For these reasons, even bearings designed to operate with a full ﬂuid ﬁlm will have occasional contact, resulting in a rubbing of surfaces under boundary lubrication conditions and, under certain circumstances, even under dry friction conditions. Many types of oil additives, greases, and solid lubricants have been developed to reduce friction and wear under boundary friction. Users require effective tests to compare the effectiveness of boundary lubricants as well as of bearing materials for their speciﬁc purpose. It is already known that the best test is one conducted on the actual machine at normal operating conditions. However, a ﬁeld test can take a very long time, particularly for testing and comparing bearing life for various lubricants or bearing materials. An additional problem in ﬁeld testing is that the operation conditions of the machines vary over time, and there are always doubts as to whether a comparison is being made under identical operating conditions. For example, manufacturers of engine oils compare various lubricants by the average miles the car travels between engine overhauls (for expediting the ﬁeld test, taxi 502

Testing of Friction and Wear

503

service cars are used). It is obvious that the cars are driven by various drivers; and most probably, the cars are not driven under identical conditions. Field tests can be expensive if the bearings are periodically inspected for wear or any other damage. Concerning the measurement of friction-energy losses, in most cases it is impossible to test friction losses on an actual machine. Friction losses in a car engine can be estimated only by changes in the total fuel consumption. Obviously, this is a rough estimate because friction-energy loss is only a portion of the total energy consumption of the machine. For all these reasons, various testing machines with accelerated tests have been developed and are used in laboratory simulations that are as close as possible to the actual conditions. The common commercial testing machines are intended for measuring friction and wear for various lubricants under boundary lubrication conditions or for comparing various solid lubricants under dry friction conditions. Most commercial testing machines operate under steady conditions of sliding speed and load.

14.2

TESTING MACHINES FOR DRY AND BOUNDARY LUBRICATION

Most commercial testing machines are for measuring friction and wear under high-pressure-contact conditions of point or line contact (nonconformal sliding contacts) (Fig. 14-1). These tests are primarily for rolling bearings and gear lubricants. In addition, there are many testing machines for journal bearings and thrust bearings (conformal contacts). For nonconformal contacts, a widely used test is the four-ball apparatus, where one ball rotates against three stationary balls at constant speed and under steady load. The operating parameters of wear, friction, and life to failure by seizure (when the balls weld together) are compared for various materials and lubricants. The friction torque is measured and the friction coefﬁcient is calculated. In addition to friction, the time or number of revolutions to seizure can be measured as a function of load. Wear can also be compared by intermediate measurements of weight loss or changes in ball diameters, for various ball materials and lubricants. The following are examples of friction and wear tests of various nonconformal contacts that have been introduced by various companies. Four-ball machine (introduced by Shell Co.) Pin on a disk (point contact because the edge of the pin is spherical) Block on rotating ring (introduced by Timken Co.) Reciprocating pad on a rotating ring Shaft rotating between two V-shaped surfaces (introduced by Falex Co.) SAE test of two rotating rings in line contact

504

F IG. 14-1

Chapter 14

Friction and wear tests of nonconformal contacts.

Although these testing machines are useful for evaluating the performance of solid lubricants and comparing bearing materials for dry friction, there are serious reservations concerning the testing accuracy of liquid lubricants for boundary friction or comparing various boundary friction lubricant additives. These reservations concern the basic assumption of boundary lubrication tests: that there is only one boundary lubrication friction coefﬁcient, independent of sliding speed, that can be compared for different lubricants. However, measurements indicated that, in many cases, the friction coefﬁcient is very sensitive to the viscosity or sliding speed. For example, certain additives can increase the viscosity, which will result in higher hydrodynamic load capacity and, in turn, reduction of the boundary friction. The friction force has a hydrodynamic component in addition to the contact friction (adhesion friction). Therefore, it is impossible to completely separate the magnitude of the two friction components. Certain boundary additives to mineral oils may reduce the friction coefﬁcient, only because they slightly increase the viscosity. Even for line or point contact, there is an EHD effect that increases with velocity and sliding speed. The hydrodynamic effect would reduce the boundary friction because it generates a thin ﬁlm that separates the surfaces. This argument has practical consequences on the testing of boundary layer lubricants. These

Testing of Friction and Wear

505

tests are intended to measure only the adhesion friction of boundary lubrication; however, there is an additional viscous component. Currently, boundary lubricants are evaluated by measuring the friction at an arbitrary constant sliding speed (e.g., four-ball tester operating at constant speed). The current testing methods of liquid boundary lubricants should be reevaluated. Apparently, better tests would be obtained by measuring the complete friction versus velocity, f-U, curve. In Sections 14.6 and 14.7, dynamic testing machines are described that are better able to evaluate separately the contact friction at the start-up and the mixed and hydrodynamic friction. The friction is a function of speed, which can be measured by dynamic tests.

14.3

FRICTION TESTING UNDER HIGHFREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS

It has already been mentioned that in real machines the contact stresses of mating parts in relative motion are not completely constant. There are always vibrations and time-variable conditions. Even when the load is constant, there are frictioninduced vibrations, resulting in small high-frequency oscillations in the tangential direction (parallel to the surface). For these reasons, it was realized that testing machines with high-frequency oscillations would offer a better simulation of the actual conditions in machinery. It is well known that rolling-element bearings operate under high-frequency oscillations, and there has been a need for testing machines that simulate these dynamic conditions. Tests under high-frequency oscillations have been adopted as standard tests, such as ASTM D 5706 EP and ASTM D 5707 EP for greases and oils for rolling bearings. In the testing machine shown in Fig. 14-2, there is friction between the upper specimen and the lower disk. The upper specimen can be a ball or a cylinder, for point or line contact, or a ring, for area contact. The material and size can be adapted to the user’s requirement (equivalent to the material used in the actual machine). During the friction test, the upper specimen has horizontal oscillations (parallel to the disk area). Force is applied mechanically to the upper specimen in a vertical direction (normal to the disk area). The friction force is measured by a piezoelectric sensor that is placed under the lower specimen holder. The friction coefﬁcient is calculated and recorded on-line on a chart during the test. The environment in the test chamber (temperature and humidity) can be controlled. This test has been adopted by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) for testing greases or liquid lubricants operating under high contact pressure, such as point or line contact in rolling bearings and gears. The

506

Chapter 14

F IG. 14-2 Testing apparatus for friction and wear under high-frequency oscillations (from SRV Catalogue, with permission from Optimal Instruments).

manufacturers of the dynamic testing apparatus claim that actual comparisons with the performance of the same greases in the ﬁeld indicated that dynamic tests are more reliable than static tests for comparing the performance of various greases. During the ASTM D 5706 EP standard friction test, the upper part has horizontal oscillations of 1-mm amplitude and a frequency of 50 Hz. The test is run with a very small amount of grease, 0.1–0.2 g grease. After 30 seconds breakin under a load of 50 N, the load is raised by increments of 100 N at 2-minute intervals until failure occurs. Failure is determined by seizure or by a signiﬁcant sudden rise in the friction force. The tests are run at elevated temperature to simulate the actual operating conditions of rolling-element bearings. A similar standard test is ASTM D 5707 EP. In this test, however, the friction coefﬁcient, as well as wear, versus time is recorded on a chart. The test is run with a very small amount of grease, 0.1–0.2 g grease; the frequency of horizontal oscillations is 50 Hz and 1-mm amplitude. After 30 seconds break-in under a load of 50 N, the load is raised to 200 N for 2 hours. The lowest and highest values of friction on the chart are reported. In addition, after the test, the average wear scar diameter on the test ball is measured with the aid of a microscope and on the lower specimen with a proﬁlometer. These readings are reported as wear test results. The test can be applied for comparing various liquid lubricants. The wear can be measured on-line during the test by measuring the depth of the wear scar, as shown in Fig. 14-3. Larger-amplitude vibrations can be applied to better simulate the conditions in an actual machine.

FIG. 14-3 Wear scars after a standard vibratory friction and wear test (from SRV Catalogue, with permission from Optimal Instruments).

Testing of Friction and Wear 507

F IG. 14-4

Friction coefﬁcient versus time (from SRV Catalogue, with permission from Optimal Instruments).

508 Chapter 14

Testing of Friction and Wear

509

In Fig. 14-4, a test result is shown for a steel ball on a steel plate lubricated by synthetic oil. The result is a curve of friction coefﬁcient versus time. The test time is 2 hours and the specimens are 10-mm steel balls on a lapped steel disk at a temperature of 200 C. The frequency of horizontal oscillations is 50 Hz and 1.5-mm amplitude. The reported friction coefﬁcients are fmin ¼ 0.1 and fmax ¼ 0.14. The maximum wear measured during the test is 21 mm. The wear scars after the test on the disk and ball are shown in Fig. 14-3. The reservations that have been raised for the steady tests are still valid for this vibratory test. Although these dynamic tests are effective in simulating the overall performance of real machines, a problem with the high-frequency test is that it does not test the pure effect of lubricant additives, such as antifriction and antiwear additives. The friction and wear are the combined effect of the viscosity of the lubricant as well as of the additives. In other words, there is no way to distinguish between the hydrodynamic and adhesion friction effects. Therefore, this would not be a good method to compare the effectiveness of various boundary lubrication additives. In Sec. 14.4, a testing machine is described for testing the complete Stribeck curve. It offers a better distinction of the contact and viscous friction and the friction at each region. Therefore, the Stribeck curve can be a more useful test in developing and selecting lubricants. Nevertheless, the foregoing highfrequency test is very useful in testing solid lubricants and greases. For liquid lubricants, the test is useful for evaluating the combined effect under identical conditions of a speciﬁc application in the ﬁeld.

14.4

MEASUREMENT OF JOURNAL BEARING FRICTION

The purpose of friction-testing machines is to measure the friction torque of a journal test-bearing friction or rolling-element test-bearing friction in isolation from any other source of friction in the system. There are several methods by which to measure the friction in bearings. The ﬁrst method is based on the concept of the hydrostatic pad. It is designed for measuring the friction torque on the bearing housing by a load cell, while the bearing load is transferred to the bearing housing through a hydrostatic pad. Friction-testing machines with a hydrostatic pad can be designed for the measurement of static or dynamic friction. Dynamic friction is under time-variable conditions, such as oscillating velocity and time-variable load. Dynamic friction measurements require continuous recording or on-line data acquisition by a computer. All friction-testing machines for dynamic friction are universal, in the sense that they can be used under steady conditions as well as dynamic conditions. In most cases, however, machines for testing steady friction cannot be adapted for dynamic friction.

510

Chapter 14

A relatively simple friction-testing machine is the pendulum tester. It can be applied for testing the friction coefﬁcient of a journal bearing under steady conditions only. The concept of this pendulum friction tester is to apply a load on the bearing by means of weight. The weights are placed on a rod connected to the bearing. During a steady operation under constant speed, the pendulum is tilted to an angle equal to the friction coefﬁcient. An example of a pendulum tester is shown in Fig. 14-5. The angle is small, and the angle is measured by a dial gauge as shown. This is a simple and low-cost tester. However, it has relatively low measurement precision in comparison to other machines. There are always small vibrations of the pendulum that make it difﬁcult to get an average reading. This can be improved by damping the vibrations via a viscous damper. A second drawback that reduces the precision is that there is always some friction and it is

F IG. 14-5

Pendulum-type friction tester for a journal bearing.

Testing of Friction and Wear

511

impossible to adjust the zero position of the pendulum. A solution to this problem is to test in the two directions; namely, for each measurement the shaft is rotating in two directions. The pendulum-swing angle is measured for each direction and the average calculated. This is a relatively time-consuming test. This tester is limited to friction measurements under steady speed. A variable-speed motor is used for measuring the f–U (friction versus velocity) curve. However, each point in this curve is measured under steady-state conditions. Since this tester is not for high-precision measurement, it is not suitable for comparing lubricants where the difference in friction is expected to be within a few percentage points.

14.5

TESTING OF DYNAMIC FRICTION

Most of the commercially available friction-testing machines have been designed for measurements under steady conditions. For the measurement of dynamic friction, under time-variable conditions, a unique design of the testing equipment, with strict requirements, is called for. In addition to a rigid design, on-line recording of the data and its processing is essential for time-variable conditions. The most important principles in dynamic friction measurement are as follows. 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The machine as well as the support for the test bearing must be very rigid. In addition, the load cell for measuring the friction force must be as rigid as possible. Relative sliding is obtained by means of a stationary part and a moving part. The load cell for the friction measurement must always be connected to the stationary side. If the load cell were to be connected to the moving part, it would not read the correct friction force because it would read inertial forces as friction force, and the result would be a combined reading of friction and inertial forces. The design must provide for a clear method of separating the measured friction in the test bearing from any other sources of friction in the system. The testing system must provide the means for accurate measurement of the velocity and displacement of the sliding part relative to the stationary part. The system must provide the means for on-line recording of the friction versus time and versus sliding velocity. This is currently done by a computer with a data-acquisition system. In addition, there is a requirement to measure friction versus a small displacement during the start-up.

512

Chapter 14

6.

The system must include the means to control the desired timedependent sliding motion and load. This can be achieved by using a computer with direct current output and an ampliﬁer that controls a servomotor for the required motions. The controller in the computer includes the algorithm for the control of motion and velocity. The motion and velocity are measured on-line to provide feedback to the computer controller for precision motion.

If the support of the steady part is not sufﬁciently rigid (including the load cell), there are several types of errors that are encountered in the measurements. Under dynamic operation, the stationary part will have a small variable displacement due to the elasticity in the system. This would result in reading errors in the load cell because small inertial forces would be added to the friction reading. This means that due to a variable elastic displacement there is a small acceleration, and the load cell will read inertial forces as friction force. Moreover, if the system were not rigid, there would be friction-induced vibrations (stick-slip friction, see Sec. 16.1) at low velocity. In conclusion, the dynamics of the system can affect the friction measurement, and we are interested in a clean experiment where the bearing friction is measured in isolation from any other effect. The examples in the following sections are of several universal testing machines for measuring rolling-element bearing friction or journal bearing friction under dynamic conditions. Although other designs of friction-testing machines are often used, all are based on similar concepts. The ﬁrst two frictiontesting machines can be applied for a journal bearing or a rolling-element bearing; the third machine is for friction in linear sliding motion.

14.6

FRICTION-TESTING MACHINE WITH A HYDROSTATIC PAD

A friction-testing machine with hydrostatic pad is shown in Fig. 14-6. It has a main shaft supported by two conical rolling bearings. The two bearings form an adjustable arrangement to eliminate undesirable clearance in these bearings. The shaft is driven by a variable-speed motor. In Fig. 14-6, the test bearing is a rollingelement bearing on the right side of the shaft, but it can be a journal bearing as well. The test bearing is housed in a cylindrical casing containing lubricant at a constant level. The main shaft ends with a cone, on which a conical bore sleeve is mounted. The conical sleeve can by tightened by a nut, and in this way the outside diameter of the sleeve is slightly varied by elastic deformation. The test bearing, a journal bearing or rolling bearing, is mounted on this sleeve, and the clearance

Testing of Friction and Wear

F IG. 14-6

513

Friction-testing machine with a hydrostatic pad. (From Harnoy, 1966).

(for a journal bearing) or the tight ﬁt (for a rolling bearing) can be adjusted by tightening the nut on the conical sleeve. The load is applied by means of a jack (1) and measured by a load cell (2). The bearing cylindrical casing is mounted on a hydrostatic pad (3). In this way, the load is transmitted through the hydrostatic ﬂuid ﬁlm. When the cylindrical casing is not turning, there are no shear stresses in the ﬂuid ﬁlm, and there is no additional viscous friction on the casing. There are two symmetrical radial arms that are attached to the casing, on each side, and connected to load cells. The friction torque is measured by two calibrated load cells, which are connected to two symmetrical radial arms, thus preventing the casing from turning. Since there is no friction torque due to the hydrostatic pad, the torque on the casing that is read by the two load cells is equal to the friction torque of the test bearing.

514

Chapter 14

This apparatus measures only the friction in the test bearing and not any other source of friction, such as the two conical bearings that support the shaft. This friction-testing machine is suitable for dynamic friction measurements as well as friction under steady conditions. For more details of this testing machine, see Lowey, Harnoy, and Bar-Neﬁ (1972). The operation of this friction-testing machine under dynamic conditions requires a servomotor controlled by a computer and data-acquisition system, as described in Sections 14.7 and 14.8.

14.7

FOUR-BEARINGS MEASUREMENT APPARATUS

An apparatus for dynamic friction measurement has been designed, developed, and constructed in the bearing and lubrication laboratory of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. This apparatus can continuously measure the average dynamic friction of four equally loaded sleeve bearings in isolation from any other source of friction in the system, and the errors caused by inertial forces can be reduced to a negligible magnitude. In Fig. 14-7 a cross section of the apparatus is shown, and a photograph is shown in Fig. 14-8. The design concept is to apply an internal load, action and reaction, between the inner housing (N) and the outer housing (K) by tightening the nut (P) on the bolt (R) to apply preload by deformation of the elastic steel ring (E). There are four equal test sleeve bearings (H), two bearings inside each housing. In this way, all four test bearings have approximately equal radial load, but in the opposite direction for each two of the four bearings, due to the preload in the elastic ring. The load on the bearings is measured by a calibrated, full strain gauge bridge bonded to the elastic ring. The total friction torque of all four bearings is measured by a calibrated rigid piezoelectric load cell, which prevents the rotation of the outer bearing housing (K). The load is transferred to the load cell by a radial arm attached to the external housing, as shown in the apparatus photograph in Fig. 14-8. Thus, the measured friction torque of the four bearings is isolated from any other sources of friction, such as friction in the ball bearings supporting the shaft. The time-variable friction measured by the load cell is stored in a computer with a data-acquisition system. A lubricating oil reservoir is mounted above the mechanical apparatus in order to supply oil by gravity into the four bearings through four segments of ﬂexible tubing. The oil is drained from the bearings through a hole in the external housing into a collecting vessel. The shaft (C) is supported by two ball bearings (A) attached to the main support frame (B), and is driven by a computer-controlled DC servomotor. The

Testing of Friction and Wear

515

F IG. 14-7 Cross-sectional view of friction measurement apparatus. (From Bearing and Lubrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology.)

F IG. 14-8 Photograph of friction-testing apparatus. (From Bearing and Lubrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology.)

516

Chapter 14

drive consists of a DC servomotor connected to the shaft through a timing belt and two pulleys (D). The rotational speed of the shaft is measured by an encoder, and this on-line measurement is fed into the computer, where the data is stored and analyzed. This arrangement forms a closed-loop control of the rotation of the shaft. In fact, the control algorithm includes a friction-compensation algorithm to generate the precise sinusoidal velocity or any other desired periodic velocity. It is interesting to note that the measurement principle of four bearings was used by Mckee and Mckee as early as 1929. However, the early friction-testing apparatus used sliding weights for measuring the friction torque; and of course, this apparatus has been limited to bearings under steady conditions. An improved version of the four-bearings friction-testing machine for bearings that require self-aligning is shown in Fig. 14-9. The self-aligning property is achieved by means of four self-aligning ball bearings. The selfaligning bearings are held from rotating by thin metal strips. At the same time, elastic bending of the strips allows a small angular rotation for self-aligning. In addition, this design can easily be adapted for measurement of steady and dynamic friction in rolling-element bearings.

F IG. 14-9

Friction-testing machine with self-alignment arrangement.

Testing of Friction and Wear

14.7.1

517

Measurement Error Under Dynamic Conditions

It has already been mentioned that under dynamic conditions, there will always be a small, unsteady angular rotation of the bearing housing and sleeve due to the elasticity of its support (including elasticity of the load cell). This is the case in all the testing machines, because there is always a certain elasticity in the system. However, it is possible to minimize this elastic rotation of the bearing sleeve by a rigid design of the frame of the machine and by using a rigid load cell. As a result of this small angular elastic rotation of the housing, there will be a small angular acceleration, and the load cell, which keeps the bearing housing from rotating, has a small error because it reads inertial forces (or torque) as friction force. For friction measurement under dynamic conditions, the magnitude of measurement error due to inertial forces has been evaluated by Harnoy et al. (1994). The condition for a negligible error is o2

kh Ih

ð14-1Þ

Here, kh is the angular stiffness of the bearing housing support, o is the freqency of oscillations under dynamic conditions, such as periodic load, and Ih is the moment of inertia of the bearing housing together with the bearing sleeve. Piezoelectric load cells are much more rigid than strain gage, beam-type load-cells. However, for low-frequency tests, the piezoelectric cells have the disadvantage of an output drift. At the same time, at low frequency, our error analysis indicated that the elasticity of the load cell does not cause any signiﬁcant measurement error. This discussion indicates that best results can be achieved by using a piezoelectric load cell for high-frequency tests and strain gage beam-type load cells for low-frequency oscillations.

14.8

APPARATUS FOR MEASURING FRICTION IN LINEAR MOTION

A cross-sectional view of the linear-motion friction measurement apparatus is shown in Fig. 14-10. The apparatus comprises of a linear motion sliding table, driven by a servomotor and a ball screw drive. A closed-loop control system is provided via personal computer. Also, the computer system can store the experimental data for analysis. For regular precision, the sliding motion is measured by an encoder, which measures the rotation of the screw that drives the table. For high-precision measurement of the linear motion, an LVDT motion sensor can be used. The design concept of the apparatus is a ball screw driven linear-positioning table (1), where the backlash can be eliminated, by preloading the screw drive.

518

Chapter 14

F IG. 14-10 Cross-sectional view of linear-motion friction measurement apparatus (from Bearing and Lubrication Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology).

F IG. 14-11

Enlargement of cross-section contact area.

FIG. 14-12

Isometric of a linear-motion friction-measurement apparatus.

Testing of Friction and Wear 519

520

Chapter 14

This apparatus is designed for measuring friction at very low sliding speeds. This is achieved by a speed reduction of considerable ratio by the screw drive. In addition, the speed of the motor is reduced by a set of pulleys and a timing belt (3-5). Closed-loop controlled motion is generated by a computer-controlled DC servomotor (2). Precise measurements of the motion is fed into a computer, which is equipped with a data-acquisition board. In this linear apparatus, the contact geometry between the sliding surfaces can be replaced. Enlargement of the sensing area is shown in Fig. 14-11. It can test a sliding plane, a line or a point contact. The drawing shows a line contact between a nonrotating cylindrical shaft and a ﬂat plate. The contact can be made of various material combinations. The line contact is created between a short, ﬁnely ground cylindrical shaft (K) and the ﬂat friction surface (N). The shaft (K) is clamped in a housing assembly (I, J and H) designed to hold various shaft diameters. The normal load is centered above the line contact, and is supplied by a rod (P), which has weights attached (weights not shown). When the friction test surface moves, the friction force is transmitted through the housing assembly to a piezoelectric load cell. The load cell generates a voltage signal proportional to the friction force magnitude, which is fed to a data-acquisition system in a computer. The design is shown in the isometric view in Fig. 14-12. The friction surface base (N) is attached to a moving platform (O) that is driven by the ball screw drive. The friction contact area can be dipped in lubricant, since the base has an attached railing (L and M), which serves to contain the lubricant. For precise dynamic measurements, particularly with high-frequency oscillations, the load cell must be rigid as well as the support of the load cell. This is essential to prevent undesirable small linear displacement of the stationary cylinder (due to elastic deformation of the load-cell system and the support under the friction force). In the case of elastic displacement, the friction reading may include a small error of inertial force, acting on the load-cell (this is the major reason why most commercial friction testing devices are not suitable for dynamic tests). Results of dynamic friction measurements performed by the last two testing machines are included in Chapter 17. The tests were conducted for oscillating motion at various frequencies, and the results are in the form of dynamic f–U curves.

15 Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions

15.1

INTRODUCTION

Hydrodynamic journal bearings under steady conditions were discussed in the previous chapters. The equations for pressure wave and load capacity were limited to a constant, steady load and constant speed. Under steady conditions of constant load and speed, the journal center is at a stationary point deﬁned by a constant eccentricity and attitude angle. Under dynamic conditions, however, such as oscillating load or variable speed, the journal center moves relative to the bearing. Under harmonic oscillations such as sinusoidal load, the journal center moves in a trajectory that repeats itself during each cycle. This type of trajectory is referred to as journal center locus. In practice, bearings in machines are always subjected to some dynamic conditions. In rotating machinery, there are always vibrations due to the shaft imbalance. The machine is a dynamic system that has a spectrum of vibration frequencies. Vibrations in a machine result in small oscillating forces (inertial forces) on the bearings at various frequencies, which are superimposed on the main, steady load. If the magnitude of the dynamic forces is very small in comparison to the main, steady force, the dynamic forces are disregarded. However, there are many important cases where the dynamic bearing performance is important and must be analyzed. For example, the effects of 521

522

Chapter 15

bearing whirl near the critical speeds of the shaft can result in bearing failure. Dynamic analysis must always be performed in critical applications where bearing failure is expensive, such as the high cost of loss of production in generators or steam turbines or where there are safety considerations. In these cases, it is important for the design engineer to perform a dynamic analysis in order to predict undesired dynamic effects and prevent them by appropriate design. In many machines the load is not steady. For example, the bearings in car engines are subjected to a cycle of a variable force that results from the combustion and inertial forces in the engine. There are many variable-speed machines that involve unsteady bearing performance, and even machines that operate at steady conditions are subjected to dynamic conditions during start-up and stopping. In fact, most bearing failures result from an unexpected dynamic effect, such as a large vibration or severe disturbances. Engineers can improve the resistance of hydrodynamic bearings to unexpected dynamic effects by comparing the dynamic response of various bearing designs to scenarios of possible disturbances. An example of a unique design that improves the dynamic response is included in Chapter 18.

15.2

ANALYSIS OF SHORT BEARINGS UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS

The following is a dynamic analysis of a short bearing. Short bearings are widely used in many applications under dynamic conditions, including car engines. The dynamic analysis of a short bearing is relatively simple because the bearing load can be expressed by a closed-form equation, as shown in Chapter 7. This analysis can be extended to a ﬁnite-length bearing, but the computations are more complex because the load capacity at each step must be determined by a numerical procedure. The objective of a dynamic analysis is to solve for the trajectory of the journal center. The analysis involves the derivation of a set of differential equations and their solution by a ﬁnite-difference method with the aid of a computer program. Dubois and Ocvirk (1953) solved the pressure distribution and load capacity of a short journal bearing under a steady load (see Chapter 7). This analysis is extended here to include unsteady conditions where the journal center, O1 , has an arbitrary velocity. It is shown in Fig. 15-1 that the journal center velocity is described by two components, de=dt ¼ Cðde=dtÞ and e ðdf=dtÞ, in the radial and tangential directions, respectively. The two assumptions of Dubois and Ocvirk for a steady short bearing are maintained here for dynamic conditions.

Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions

F IG. 15-1

523

Velocity components of the journal center under dynamic conditions.

First, pressure gradients in the x direction (around the bearing) are negligible in comparison to pressure gradients in the z (axial) direction: see Fig. 7-1. Second, only the pressure in the converging clearance region ð0 < y < pÞ is considered for the force calculations, where the pressure is above atmospheric pressure. In addition, the assumptions of classical hydrodynamic theory are maintained: The viscosity is assumed to be constant (at an equivalent average temperature). Effects of the ﬂuid mass (inertial forces) are neglected, as is ﬂuid curvature. However, the journal mass is signiﬁcant and must be considered for dynamic analysis. The starting point of the analysis of a short journal bearing under dynamic conditions is the general Reynolds equation. Let us recall that the Reynolds equation for incompressible Newtonian ﬂuid is

@ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x

ð15-1Þ

524

Chapter 15

The velocities on the right-hand side of this equation are in Fig. 5-2. If the bearing is stationary and the shaft rotates, the ﬂuid ﬁlm boundary conditions on the bearing surface are U1 ¼ 0;

V1 ¼ 0

ð15-2Þ

Under dynamic conditions, the velocity on the journal surface is a vector summation of the velocity of the journal center, O1 , and the journal surface velocity relative to that center. The journal center has radial and tangential velocity components, as shown in Fig. 15-1. The components are de=dt ¼ Cðde=dtÞ in the radial direction and eðdf=dtÞ in the tangential direction. Summation of the velocity components of O1 with that of the journal surface relative to O1 results in the following components, U2 and V2 (see Fig. 5-2 for the direction of the components): de df sin y e cos y dt dt dh de df V2 ¼ oR þ cos y þ e sin y dx dt dt

U2 ¼ oR þ

ð15-3Þ ð15-4Þ

Here, h is the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness around a journal bearing, given by the equation h ¼ C ð1 þ e cos yÞ

ð15-5Þ

After substitution of U2 and V2 as well as U1 and V1 in the right-hand side of the Reynolds equation, Eq. (15-1), the pressure distribution can be derived in a similar way to that of a steady short bearing. The load components are obtained by integrating the pressure in the converging clearance only ð0 < y < pÞ as follows: ð p ð L=2 Wx ¼ 2R

p cos y dy dz 0

ð15-6Þ

ð p ð L=2 Wy ¼ 2R

p sin y dy dz 0

ð15-7Þ

Converting into dimensionless terms, the equations for the two load capacity components (in the X and Y directions as shown in Fig. 15-1) become W x ¼ 0:5e J12 jU j þ ef_ J12 þ e_ J22

ð15-8Þ

W y ¼ þ0:5e J11 U ef_ J11 e_ J12

ð15-9Þ

Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions

525

Here, the dimensionless load capacity and velocity are W ¼

C2 W mU0 L3

U¼

and

U U0

ð15-10Þ

where U ¼ oR is the time-variable velocity of the journal surface and U0 is a reference constant velocity used for normalizing the velocity. The integrals Jij and their solutions are given in Eq. (7-13). Under steady conditions, the external force, F, is equal to the bearing load capacity, W . However, under dynamic conditions, the resultant vector of the two forces accelerates the journal mass according to Newton’s second law: ~ ¼ m~a F~ W

ð15-11Þ

Here, m is the mass of the journal, a~ is the acceleration vector of the journal ~ is the hydrodynamic load capacity. Under center, F~ is the external load, and W ~ are not necessarily in the same direction, general dynamic conditions, F~ and W and both can be a function of time. In order to convert Eq. (15-11) to dimensionless terms, the following dimensionless variables are deﬁned: m¼

C 3 U0 m; mL3 R2

F¼

C2 F mU0 L3

ð15-12Þ

Dividing Eq. (15-11) into two components in the directions of F x and F y (along X and Y but in opposite directions) and substituting the acceleration components in the radial and tangential directions in polar coordinates, the following two equations are obtained: F x W x ¼ m€e mef_ 2

ð15-13Þ

F y W y ¼ mef€ 2m_ef_

ð15-14Þ

The minus signs in Eq. 15-14 are minus because F y is in the opposite direction to the acceleration. Here, the dimensionless time is deﬁned as t ¼ ot, and the dimensionless time derivatives are e_ ¼

1 de ; o dt

1 d f_ f_ ¼ o dt

ð15-15Þ

Substituting the values of the components of the load capacity, Wx and Wy , from Eqs. (15-8) and (15-9) into Eqs. (15-13) and (15-14), the following two differential equations for the journal center motion are obtained: FðtÞ cosðf pÞ ¼ 0:5e J12 jU j þ J12 ef_ þ J22 e_ þ m€e mef_ 2

ð15-16Þ

FðtÞ sinðf pÞ ¼ 0:5e J11 U J11 ef_ J12 e_ mef€ 2m_ef_

ð15-17Þ

526

Chapter 15

Here, FðtÞ is a time-dependent dimensionless force acting on the bearing. The force (magnitude and direction) is a function of time. In the two equations, e is the eccentricity ratio, f is the attitude angle, and m is dimensionless mass, deﬁned by Eq. (15-12). The deﬁnition of the integrals Jij and their solution are in Chapter 7. Equations (15-16) and (15-17) are two differential equations required for the solutions of the two time-dependent functions e and f. The variables e and f represent the motion of the shaft center, O1 , with time, in polar coordinates. The solution of the two equations as a function of time is ﬁnally presented as a plot of the trajectory of the journal center. If there are steady-state oscillations, such as sinusoidal force, after the initial transient, the trajectory becomes a closed locus that repeats itself each load cycle. A repeated trajectory is referred to as a journal center locus.

15.3

JOURNAL CENTER TRAJECTORY

The integration of Eqs. (15-16) and (15-17) is performed by ﬁnite differences with the aid of a computer program. Later, a computer graphics program is used to plot the journal center motion. The plot of the time variables e and f, in polar coordinates, represents the trajectory of the journal center motion relative to the bearing. The eccentricity ratio e is a radial coordinate and f is an angular coordinate. Under harmonic conditions, such as sinusoidal load, the trajectory is a closed loop, referred to as a locus. Under harmonic oscillations of the load, there is initially a transient trajectory; and after a short time, a steady state is reached where the locus repeats itself during each cycle. In heavily loaded bearings, the locus can approach the circle e ¼ 1, where there is a contact between the journal surface and the sleeve. The results allow comparison of various bearing designs. The design that results in a locus with a lower value of maximum eccentricity ratio e is preferable, because it would resist more effectively any unexpected dynamic disturbances.

15.4

SOLUTION OF JOURNAL MOTION BY FINITE-DIFFERENCE METHOD

Equations (15-16) and (15-17) are the two differential equations that are solved for the function of e versus f. The two equations contain ﬁrst- and second-order time derivatives and can be solved by a ﬁnite-difference procedure. The equations are not linear because the acceleration terms contain second-power time derivatives. Similar equations are widely used in dynamics and control, and commercial

Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions

527

software is available for numerical solution. However, the reader will ﬁnd it beneﬁcial to solve the equations by himself or herself, using a computer and any programming language that he or she prefers. The following is a demonstration of a solution by a simple ﬁnite-difference method. The principle of the ﬁnite-difference solution method is the replacement of the time derivatives by the following ﬁnite-difference equations (for simplifying and t are renamed F, m and t): the ﬁnite difference procedure, F , m f fn1 f_ n ¼ nþ1 ; 2 Dt

e_ n ¼

enþ1 en1 2 Dt

ð15-18Þ

and the second time derivatives are f 2fn þ fn1 f€ n ¼ nþ1 ; Dt 2

e€ n ¼

enþ1 2en þ en1 Dt 2

ð15-19Þ

For the nonlinear terms (the last term in the two equations), the equation can be linearized by using the following backward difference equations: f fn1 f_ n ¼ n Dt

ð15-20Þ

By substituting the foregoing ﬁnite-element terms for the time-derivative terms, the two unknowns enþ1 and fnþ1 can be solved as two unknowns in two regular linear equations. After substitution, the differential equations become e 1 fnþ1 fn1 en1 Fx þ en J12 ¼ en J12 þ J22 nþ1 2 2 Dt 2 Dt 2 e 2en þ en1 fn fn1 me ð15-21Þ þ m nþ1 n Dt 2 Dt e 1 f fn1 en1 Fy en J11 ¼ en J11 nþ1 J12 nþ1 2 2 Dt 2 Dt e f 2fn þ fn1 nþ1 en1 men nþ1 2m Dt 2 2Dt fn fn1 ð15-22Þ Dt

528

Chapter 15

Here, Fx and Fy are the external load components in the X and Y directions, respectively. Under dynamic conditions, the load components vary with time: F x ¼ FðtÞðcos f pÞ

ð15-23Þ

F y ¼ FðtÞðsin f pÞ

ð15-24Þ

Equations (15-21) and (15-22) can be rearranged as two linear equations in terms of enþ1 and fnþ1 as follows: Rearranging Eq. (15-21):

A ¼ Benþ1 þ Cfnþ1

ð15-25Þ

Rearranging Eq. (15-22):

P ¼ Renþ1 þ Qfnþ1

ð15-26Þ

In the following equations, F and m are dimensionless terms (the bar is omitted for simpliﬁcation). The values of the coefﬁcients of the unknown variables [in Eqs. (15-25) and (15-26)] are en J12 en J12 fn1 J22 en1 2men men1 þ þ þ 2 2 Dt 2 Dt Dt 2 Dt 2 2 f fn1 þ men n Dt

A ¼ FX þ

J22 m þ 2 2 Dt Dt eJ C ¼ n 12 2 Dt B¼

P ¼ Fy

ð15-27Þ ð15-28Þ ð15-29Þ

en J11 en J11 fn1 J12 en1 2men fn men fn1 þ 2 2 Dt 2 Dt Dt 2 Dt 2

men1 fn men1 fn1 þ Dt 2 Dt 2 eJ me Q ¼ n 11 2n 2 Dt Dt

ð15-30Þ

J12 m mfn1 f þ 2 Dt Dt 2 n Dt 2

ð15-32Þ

R¼

ð15-31Þ

The numerical solution of the two equations for the two unknowns becomes enþ1 ¼

AQ PC BQ RC

ð15-33Þ

fnþ1 ¼

AR PB CR QB

ð15-34Þ

Hydrodynamic Bearings Under Dynamic Conditions

529

The last two equations make it possible to march from the initial conditions and ﬁnd enþ1 and fnþ1 from any previous values, in dimensionless time intervals of Dt ¼ oDt. For a steady-state solution such as periodic load, the ﬁrst two initial values of e and f can be selected arbitrarily. The integration of the equations must be conducted over sufﬁcient cycles until the initial transient solution decays and a periodic steady-state solution is reached, i.e., when the periodic e and f will repeat at each cycle. The following example is a solution for the locus of a short hydrodynamic bearing loaded by a sinusoidal force that is superimposed on a constant vertical load. The example compares the locus of a Newtonian and a viscoelastic ﬂuid. The load is according to the equation

FðtÞ ¼ 800 þ 800 sin 2ot

ð15-35Þ

In this equation, o is the journal angular speed. This means that the frequency of the oscillating load is twice that of the journal rotation. The direction of the load is constant, but its magnitude is a sinusoidal function. The dimensionless load is according to the deﬁnition in Eq. (15-12). The dimensionless mass is m ¼ 100 and the journal velocity is constant. The resulting steady-state locus is shown in Fig. 15-2 by the full line for a Newtonian ﬂuid. The dotted line is for a viscoelastic lubricant under identical

F IG. 15-2 Locus of the journal center for the load Ft ¼ 800 þ 800 sin 2ot and journal mass m ¼ 100.

530

Chapter 15

conditions (see Chapt. 19). The viscoelastic lubricant is according to the Maxwell model in Chapter 2 [Eq. (2-9)]. The dimensionless viscoelastic parameter G is G ¼ lo

ð15-36Þ

where l is the relaxation time of the ﬂuid and o is the constant angular speed of the shaft. In this case, the result is dependent on the ratio of the load oscillation frequency, o1 , and the shaft angular speed, o1 =o.

16 Friction Characteristics

16.1

INTRODUCTION

The ﬁrst friction model was the Coulomb model, which states that the friction coefﬁcient is constant. Recall that the friction coefﬁcient is the ratio f ¼

Ff F

ð16-1Þ

where Ff is the friction force in the direction tangential to the sliding contact plane and F is the load in the direction normal to the contact plane. Discussion of the friction coefﬁcient for various material combinations is found in Chapter 11. For many decades, engineers have realized that the simpliﬁed Coulomb model of constant friction coefﬁcient is an oversimpliﬁcation. For example, static friction is usually higher than kinetic friction. This means that for two surfaces under normal load F, the tangential force Ff required for the initial breakaway from the rest is higher than that for later maintaining the sliding motion. The static friction force increases after a rest period of contact between the surfaces under load; it is referred to as stiction force (see an example in Sec. 16.3). Subsequent attempts were made to model the friction as two coefﬁcients of static and kinetic friction. Since better friction models have not been available, recent analytical studies still use the model of static and kinetic friction coefﬁcients to analyze friction-induced vibrations and stick-slip friction effects in dynamic 531

532

Chapter 16

systems. However, recent experimental studies have indicated that this model of static and kinetic friction coefﬁcients is not accurate. In fact, a better description of the friction characteristics is that of a continuous function of friction coefﬁcient versus sliding velocity. The friction coefﬁcient of a particular material combination is a function of many factors, including velocity, load, surface ﬁnish, and temperature. Nevertheless, useful tables of constant static and kinetic friction coefﬁcients for various material combinations are currently included in engineering handbooks. Although it is well known that these values are not completely constant, the tables are still useful to design engineers. Friction coefﬁcient tables are often used to get an idea of the approximate average values of friction coefﬁcients under normal conditions. Stick-slip friction: This friction motion is combined of short consecutive periods of stick and slip motions. This phenomenon can take place whenever there is a low stiffness of the elastic system that supports the stationary or sliding body, combined with a negative slope of friction coefﬁcient, f, versus sliding velocity, U, at low speed. For example, in the linear-motion friction apparatus (Fig. 14-10), the elastic belt of the drive reduces the stiffness of the support of the moving part. In the stick period, the motion is due to elastic displacement of the support (without any relative sliding). This is followed by a short period of relative sliding (slip). These consecutive periods are continually repeated. At the stick period, the motion requires less tangential force for a small elastic displacement than for breakaway of the stiction force. The elastic force increases linearly with the displacement (like a spring), and there is a transition from stick to slip when the elastic force exceeds the stiction force, and vice versa. The system always selects the stick or slip mode of minimum resistance force. In the past, the explanation was based on static friction greater than the kinetic friction. It has been realized, however, that the friction is a function of the velocity, and the current explanation is based on the negative f U slope, see a simulation by Harnoy (1994).

16.2

FRICTION IN HYDRODYNAMIC AND MIXED LUBRICATION

Hydrodynamic lubrication theory was discussed in Chapters 4–9. In journal and sliding bearings, the theory indicates that the lubrication ﬁlm thickness increases with the sliding speed. Full hydrodynamic lubrication occurs when the sliding velocity is above a minimum critical velocity required to generate a full lubrication ﬁlm having a thickness greater than the size of the surface asperities. In full hydrodynamic lubrication, there is no direct contact between the sliding

Friction Characteristics

533

surfaces, only viscous friction, which is much lower than direct contact friction. In full ﬂuid ﬁlm lubrication, the viscous friction increases with the sliding speed, because the shear rates and shear stresses of the ﬂuid increase with that speed. Below a certain critical sliding velocity, there is mixed lubrication, where the thickness of the lubrication ﬁlm is less than the size of the surface asperities. Under load, there is a direct contact between the surfaces, resulting in elastic as well as plastic deformation of the asperities. In the mixed lubrication region, the external load is carried partly by the pressure of the hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm and partly by the mechanical elastic reaction of the deformed asperities. The ﬁlm thickness increases with sliding velocity; therefore as the velocity increases, a larger portion of the load is carried by the ﬂuid ﬁlm. The result is that the friction decreases with velocity in the mixed region, because the ﬂuid viscous friction is lower than the mechanical friction at the contact between the asperities. The early measurements of friction characteristics have been described by f –U curves of friction coefﬁcient versus sliding velocity by Stribeck (1902) and by McKee and McKee (1929). These f –U curves were measured under steady conditions and are referred to as Stribeck curves. Each point of these curves was measured under steady-state conditions of speed and load. The early experimental f –U curves of lubricated sliding bearings show a nearly constant friction at very low sliding speed (boundary lubrication region). However, for metal bearing materials, our recent experiments in the Bearing and Bearing Lubrication Laboratory at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, as well as experiments by others, indicated a continuous steep downward slope of friction from zero sliding velocity without any distinct friction characteristic for the boundary lubrication region. The recent experiments include friction force measurement by load cell and on-line computer data acquisition. Therefore, better precision is expected than with the early experiments, where each point was measured by a balance scale. An example of an f –U curve is shown in Fig. 16-1. This curve was produced in our laboratory for a short journal bearing with continuous lubrication. The experiment was performed under ‘‘quasi-static’’ conditions; namely, it was conducted for a sinusoidal sliding velocity at very low frequency, so it is equivalent to steady conditions. The curve demonstrates high friction at zero velocity (stiction, or static friction force), a steep negative friction slope at low velocity (boundary and mixed friction region), and a positive slope at higher velocity (hydrodynamic region). There are a few empirical equations to describe this curve at steady conditions. The negative slope of the f –U curve at low velocity is used in the explanation of several friction phenomena. Under certain conditions, the negative slope can cause instability, in the form of stick-slip friction and friction-induced vibrations (Harnoy 1995, 1996). In the boundary and mixed lubrication regions, the viscosity and boundary friction additives in the oil signiﬁcantly affect the friction characteristics. In

534

Chapter 16

F IG. 16-1 f –U curve for sinusoidal velocity: oscillation frequency ¼ 0.0055 rad=s, load ¼ 104 N, 25-mm journal, L=D ¼ 0.75, lubricant SAE 10W-40, steel on brass.

addition, the breakaway and boundary friction coefﬁcients are higher with a reduced bearing load. For example, Fig. 16-2 is f –U curve for a low-viscosity lubricant without any additives for boundary friction reduction and lower bearing load. The curve indicates a higher breakaway friction coefﬁcient than that in Fig. 16-1 lubricated with engine oil SAE 10W-40. The breakaway friction in Fig. 16-2 is about that of dry friction. However, for the two oils, the friction at the transition from mixed to full ﬁlm lubrication is very low. The steep negative slope in the mixed region has practical consequences on the accuracy of friction measurements that are widely used to determine the effectiveness of boundary layer lubricants. Currently such lubricants are evaluated by measuring the friction at an arbitrary constant sliding speed (e.g., a four-ball tester operating at constant speed). However, the f –U curve in Fig. 16-1 indicates that this measurement is very sensitive to the test speed. Apparently, a better evaluation should be obtained by testing the complete f –U curve. Similar to the journal bearing, the four-ball tester has a hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm; in turn, the

Friction Characteristics

535

F IG. 16-2 f –U curve for sinusoidal velocity: oscillation frequency ¼ 0.05 rad=s, load ¼ 37 N, 25-mm journal, L=D ¼ 0.75, low-viscosity oil, m ¼ 0.001 N-s=m2, no additives, steel on brass.

friction torque is a function of the sliding speed (or viscosity). The current testing methods for boundary lubricants should be reevaluated, because they rely on the assumption that there is one boundary-lubrication friction coefﬁcient, independent of sliding speed. For journal bearings in the hydrodynamic friction region, the friction coefﬁcient f is a function not only of the sliding speed but of the Sommerfeld number. Analytical curves of ðR=CÞ f versus Sommerfeld number are presented in the charts of Raimondi and Boyd; see Fig. 8-3. These charts are for partial journal bearings of various arc angles b. These charts are only for the full hydrodynamic region and do not include the boundary, or mixed, lubrication region. For a journal bearing of given geometry, the ratio C=R is constant. Therefore, empirical charts of friction coefﬁcient f versus the dimensionless ratio mn=P, are widely used to describe the characteristic of a speciﬁc bearing. In the early literature, the notation for viscosity is z, and charts of f versus the variable zN =P were widely used (Hershey number—see Sec. 8.7.1).

16.2.1

Friction in Rolling-Element Bearings

Stribeck measured similar f –U curves (friction coefﬁcient versus rolling speed) for lubricated ball bearings and published these curves for the ﬁrst time as early as

536

Chapter 16

1902. Rolling-element bearings operating with oil lubrication have a similar curve: an initial negative slope and a subsequent rise of the friction coefﬁcient versus speed (due to increasing viscous friction). Although there is a similarity in the shapes of the curves, the breakaway friction coefﬁcient of rolling bearings is much lower than that of sliding bearings, such as journal bearings. This is obvious because rolling friction is lower than sliding friction. The load and the bearing type affect the friction coefﬁcient. For example, cylindrical and tapered rolling elements have a signiﬁcantly higher friction coefﬁcient than ball bearings.

16.2.2

Dry Friction Characteristics

Dry friction characteristics are not the same as for lubricated surfaces. The f –U curve for dry friction is not similar to that of lubricated friction, even for the same material combination. For dry surfaces after the breakaway, the friction coefﬁcient can increase or decrease with sliding speed, depending on the material combination. For most metals, the friction coefﬁcient has negative slope after the breakaway. An example is shown in Fig. 16-3 for dry friction of a journal bearing made of a steel shaft on a brass sleeve. This curve indicates a considerably higher friction coefﬁcient at the breakaway from zero velocity (about 0.42 in comparison to 0.26 for a lubricated journal bearing—half of the breakaway friction). In addition, a dry bearing has a signiﬁcantly greater gradual reduction of friction with velocity (steeper slope).

F IG. 16-3 f –U curve for sinusoidal velocity: oscillation frequency ¼ 0.05 rad=s, load ¼ 53 N, dry surfaces, steel on brass, 25-mm journal, L=D ¼ 0.75.

Friction Characteristics

16.2.3

537

E¡ects of Surface Roughness on Dry Friction

As already discussed, smooth surfaces are desirable for hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication. However, for dry friction of metals with very smooth surfaces there is adhesion on a larger contact area, in comparison to rougher surfaces. In turn, ultrasmooth surfaces adhere to each other, resulting in a higher dry friction coefﬁcient. For very smooth surfaces, surface roughness below 0.5 mm, the friction coefﬁcient f reduces with increasing roughness. At higher roughness, in the range of about 0.5–10 mm (20–40 microinches), the friction coefﬁcient is nearly constant. At a higher range of roughness, above 10 mm, the friction coefﬁcient f increases with the roughness because there is increasing interaction between the surface asperities (Rabinovitz, 1965).

16.3

FRICTION OF PLASTIC AGAINST METAL

There is a fundamental difference between dry friction of metals (Fig. 16-3) where the friction goes down with velocity, and dry friction of a metal on soft plastics (Fig. 16-4a) where the friction coefﬁcient increases with the sliding velocity. Figure 16-4a is for sinusoidal velocity of a steel shaft on a bearing made of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). This curve indicates that there is a considerable viscous friction that involves in the rubbing of soft plastics. In fact, soft plastics are viscoelastic materials. In contrast, for lubricated surfaces, the friction reduces with velocity (Fig. 16-4b) due to the formation of a ﬂuid ﬁlm. In Fig. 16-4b, the dots of higher friction coefﬁcient are for the ﬁrst cycle where there is an example of relatively higher stiction force, after a rest period of contact between the surfaces under load.

16.4

DYNAMIC FRICTION

Most of the early research in tribology was limited to steady friction. The early f –U curves were tested under steady conditions of speed and load. For example, the f –U curves measured by Stribeck (1902) and by McKee and McKee (1929) do not describe ‘‘dynamic characteristics’’ but ‘‘steady characteristics’’, because each point was measured under steady-state conditions of speed and load. There are many applications involving friction under unsteady conditions, such as in the hip joint during walking. Variable friction under unsteady conditions is referred to as dynamic friction. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in dynamic friction measurements. Dynamic tests, such as oscillating sliding motion, require on-line recording of friction. Experiments with an oscillating sliding plane by Bell and Burdekin

538

Chapter 16

F IG. 16-4 f –U curve for sinusoidal velocity: frequency ¼ 0.25 rad=s, load ¼ 215 N, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) on steel, journal diameter 25 mm, L=D ¼ 0.75 for rigid bearing at low frequency. (a) Dry surfaces. (b) Lubrication with SAE 5W oil.

(1969) and more recent investigations of line contact by Hess and Soom (1990), as well as recent measurements in journal bearings (Harnoy et al. 1994) revealed that the phenomenon of dynamic friction is quite complex. The f –U curves have a considerable amount of hysteresis that cannot be accounted for by any steady-

Friction Characteristics

539

friction model. The amount of hysteresis increases with the frequency of oscillations. At very low frequency, the curves are practically identical to curves produced by measurements under steady conditions. For sinusoidal velocity, the friction is higher during acceleration than during deceleration, particularly in the mixed friction region. In the recent literature, the hysteresis effect is often referred to as multivalued friction, because the friction is higher during acceleration than during deceleration. For example, the friction coefﬁcient is higher during the start-up of a machine than the friction during stopping. This means that the friction is not only a function of the instantaneous sliding velocity, but also a function of velocity history. Examples of f U curves under dynamic conditions are included in Chap. 17.

17 Modeling Dynamic Friction

17.1

INTRODUCTION

Early research was focused on bearings that operate under steady conditions, such as constant load and velocity. Since the traditional objectives of tribology were prevention of wear and minimizing friction-energy losses in steady-speed machinery, it is understandable that only a limited amount of research effort was directed to time-variable velocity. However, steady friction is only one aspect in a wider discipline of friction under time-variable conditions. Variable friction under unsteady conditions is referred to as dynamic friction. There are many applications involving dynamic friction, such as friction between the piston and sleeve in engines where the sliding speed and load periodically vary with time. In the last decade, there was an increasing interest in dynamic friction as well as its modeling. This interest is motivated by the requirement to simulate dynamic effects such as friction-induced vibrations and stick-slip friction. In addition, there is a relatively new application for dynamic friction models— improving the precision of motion in control systems. It is commonly recognized that friction limits the precision of motion. For example, if one tries to drag a heavy table on a rough ﬂoor, it would be impossible to obtain a high-precision displacement of a few micrometers. In fact, the minimum motion of the table will be a few millimeters. The reason for a lowprecision motion is the negative slope of friction versus velocity. In comparison, 540

Modeling Dynamic Friction

541

one can move an object on well-lubricated, slippery surfaces and obtain much better precision of motion. In a similar way, friction limits the precision of motion in open-loop and closed-loop control systems. This is because the friction has nonlinear characteristics of negative slope of friction versus velocity and discontinuity at velocity reversals. Friction causes errors of displacement from the desired target (hangoff) and instability, such as a stick-slip friction at low velocity. There is an increasing requirement for ultrahigh-precision motion in applications such as manufacturing, precise measurement, and even surgery. Hydrostatic or magnetic bearings can minimize friction; also, vibrations are used to reduce friction (dither). These methods are expensive and may not be always feasible in machines or control systems. An alternate approach that is still in development is model-based friction compensation. The concept is to include a friction model in the control algorithm. The control is designed to generate continuous on-line timely torque by the servomotor, in the opposite direction to the actual friction in the mechanical system. In this way, it is possible to approximately cancel the adverse effects of friction. Increasing computer capabilities make this method more and more attractive. This method requires a dynamic friction model for predicting the friction under dynamic conditions. There is already experimental veriﬁcation that displacement and velocity errors caused by friction can be substantially reduced by friction compensation. This effect has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments; see Amin et al. (1997). Friction compensation has been already applied successfully in actual machines. For example, Tafazoli (1995) describes a simple friction compensation method that improves the precision of motion in an industrial machine. Another application of dynamic friction models is the simulation of friction-induced vibration (stick-slip friction). The simulation is required for design purposes to prevent these vibrations. Stick-slip friction is considered a major limitation for high-precision manufacturing. In addition to machine tools, stick-slip friction is a major problem in measurement devices and other precision machines. A lot of research has been done to eliminate the stick-slip friction, particularly in machine tools. Some solutions involve hardware modiﬁcations that have already been discussed. These are expensive solutions that are not feasible in all cases. Attempts were made to reduce the stick-slip friction by using high-viscosity lubricant that improves the damping, but this would increase the viscous friction losses. Moreover, high-viscosity oil results in a thicker hydrodynamic ﬁlm that reduces the precision of the machine tool. This undesirable effect is referred to as excessive ﬂoat.

542

Chapter 17

Various methods have been tried by several investigators to improve the stability of motion in the presence of friction. However, a model-based approach has the potential to offer a relatively low-cost solution to this important problem. Armstrong-He´louvry (1991) summarized the early work in friction modeling of the Stribeck curve by empirical equations. Also, Dahl (1968) introduced a model to describe the presliding displacement during stiction. However, these models are ‘‘static,’’ in the sense that the friction is represented by an instantaneous function of sliding velocity and load. In recent years, several empirical equations were suggested to describe the phase lag and hysteresis in dynamic friction. Hess and Soom (1990) and Dupont and Dunlap (1993) developed such models.

17.2

DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL FOR JOURNAL BEARINGS*

Harnoy and Friedland (1994) suggested a different modeling approach for lubricated surfaces, based on the physical principles of hydrodynamics. In the following section, this model is compared to friction measurements. This approach is based on the following two assumptions: 1.

2.

The load capacity, in the boundary and mixed lubrication regions, is the sum of a contact force (elastic reaction between the surface asperities) and hydrodynamic load capacity. The friction has two components: a solid component due to adhesion in the asperity contacts and a viscous shear component.

This modeling approach was extended to line-contact friction by Rachoor and Harnoy (1996). Polycarpou and Soom (1995, 1996) and Zhai et al. (1997) extended this approach and derived a more accurate analysis for the complex elastohydrodynamic lubrication of line contact. Under steady-state conditions of constant sliding velocity, the friction coefﬁcient of lubricated surfaces is a function of the velocity. However, under dynamic conditions, when the relative velocity varies with time, such as oscillatory motion or motion of constant acceleration, the instantaneous friction depends not only on the velocity at that instant but is also a function of the velocity history. The existence of dynamic effects in friction was recognized by several investigators. Hess and Soom (1995, 1996) observed a hysteresis effect in oscillatory friction of lubricated surfaces. They offered a model based on the steady f –U curve with a correction accounting for the phase lag between friction and velocity oscillations. The magnitude of the phase lag was determined empirically. A time lag between oscillating friction and velocity in lubricated *This and subsequent sections in this chapter are for advanced studies.

Modeling Dynamic Friction

543

surfaces was observed and measured earlier. It is interesting to note that Rabinowicz (1951) observed a friction lag even in dry contacts. The following analysis offers a theoretical model, based on the physical phenomena of lubricated surfaces, that can capture the primary effect and simulate the dynamic friction. The result of the analysis is a dynamic model, expressed by a set of differential equations, that relates the force of friction to the time-variable velocity of the sliding surfaces. A model that can predict dynamic friction is very useful as an enhancement of the technology of precise motion control in machinery. For control purposes, we want to ﬁnd the friction at oscillating low velocities near zero velocity. Under classical hydrodynamic lubrication theory, (see Chapters 4–7) the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness increases with velocity. The region of a full hydrodynamic lubrication in the f –U curve (Fig. 16-1) occurs when the sliding velocity is above the transition velocity, Utr required to generate a lubrication ﬁlm thicker than the size of the surface asperities. In Fig. 16-1, Utr is the velocity corresponding to the minimum friction. In the full hydrodynamic region, there is only viscous friction that increases with velocity, because the shear rates and shear stresses are proportional to the sliding velocity. Below the transition velocity, Utr , the Stribeck curve shows the mixed lubrication region where the thickness of the lubrication ﬁlm is less than the maximum size of the surface asperities. Under load, there is a contact between the surfaces, resulting in elastic as well as plastic deformation of the asperities. In the mixed region, the external load is carried partly by the pressure of the hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm and partly by the mechanical elastic reaction of the deformed asperities. The ﬁlm thickness increases with velocity; therefore, as the velocity increases, a larger part of the external load is carried by the ﬂuid ﬁlm. The result is that the friction decreases with velocity in the mixed region, because the ﬂuid viscous friction is lower than the mechanical friction at the contact between the asperities. This discussion shows that the friction force is dependent primarily on the lubrication ﬁlm thickness, which in turn is an increasing function of the steady velocity. However, for time-variable velocity, the relation between ﬁlm thickness and velocity is much more complex. The following analysis of unsteady velocity attempts to capture the physical phenomena when the lubrication ﬁlm undergoes changes owing to a variable sliding velocity. As a result of the damping in the system and the mass of the sliding body, there is a time delay to reach the ﬁlm thickness that would otherwise be generated under steady velocity.

17.3

DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL

Consider a hydrodynamic journal bearing under steady conditions, when all the variables, such as external load and speed, are constant with time. Under these

544

Chapter 17

steady conditions, the journal center O1 does not move relative to the bearing sleeve, and the friction force remains constant. In practice, these steady conditions will come about after a transient interval for damping of any initial motion of the journal center. When there is a motion of the journal center O1, however, the oil ﬁlm thickness and the friction force are not constant, which explains the dynamic effects of unsteady friction. Before proceeding with the development of the dynamic model, the model for steady friction in the mixed lubrication region is presented. Dubois and Ocvirk (1953) derived the equations for full hydrodynamic lubrication of a short bearing. The following is an extension of this analysis to the mixed lubrication region. In the mixed region there is direct contact between the surface asperities combined with hydrodynamic load capacity. The theory is for a short journal bearing, because it is widely used in machinery, and because the steady performance of a short bearing in the full hydrodynamic region is already well understood and can be described by closed-form equations. The mixed lubrication region is where the hydrodynamic minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn , is below a certain small transition magnitude, htr . Under load, the asperities are subject to elastic as well as plastic deformation due to the highpressure contact at the tip of the asperities. Although the load is distributed unevenly between the asperities, the average elastic part of the deformation is described by the elastic recoverable displacement, d, of the surfaces toward each other, in the direction normal to the contact area. The reaction force between the asperities of the two surfaces is an increasing function of the elastic, recoverable part of the deformation, d. The normal reaction force of the asperities as a function of d is similar to that of a spring; however, this springlike behavior is not linear. In a journal bearing in the mixed lubrication region, the average normal elastic deformation, d of the asperities is proportional to the difference between the transition minimum ﬁlm thickness, htr , and the actual lower minimum ﬁlm thickness, hn : d ¼ htr hn

ð17-1Þ

The elastic reaction force, We , of the asperities is similar to that of a nonlinear spring: We ¼ kn ðdÞ d

ð17-2Þ

where kn ðdÞ is the stiffness function of the asperities to elastic deformation in the direction normal to the surface. The contact areas between the asperities increase with the load and deformation d. Therefore, kn ðdÞ is an increasing function of d.

Modeling Dynamic Friction

545

If the elastic reaction force, We , between the asperities is approximated by a contact between two spheres, Hertz theory indicates that the reaction force, We , is proportional to d3=2 : We / d3=2

ð17-3Þ

and Eq. (17-2) becomes We ¼ kn d ) kn ¼ k0 d1=2

ð17-4Þ

Here, k0 is a constant which depends on the geometry and the elastic modulus of the two materials in contact. In fact, an average asperity contact is not identical to that between two spheres, and a better modeling precision can be obtained by determining empirically the two constants, k0 and n, in the following expression for the normal stiffness: k n ¼ k 0 dn

ð17-5Þ

The two constants are selected for each material combination to give the best ﬁt to the steady Stribeck curve in the mixed lubrication region. For a journal bearing, the average elastic reaction of surface asperities in the mixed region, We in Eq. (17-2), can be expressed in terms of the eccentricity ratio, e ¼ e=C. In addition, a transition eccentricity ratio, etr , is deﬁned as the eccentricity ratio at the point of steady transition from mixed to hydrodynamic lubrication (in tests under steady conditions). This transition point is where the friction is minimal in the steady Stribeck curve. The elastic deformation, d (average normal asperity deformation), in Eq. (17-1) at the mixed lubrication region can be expressed in terms of the difference between e and etr : d ¼ Cðe etr Þ

ð17-6Þ

and the expression for the average elastic reaction of the asperities in terms of the eccentricity ratio is We ¼ kn ðeÞðe etr ÞD

ð17-7Þ

The elastic reaction force, We , is only in the mixed region, where the difference between e and etr is positive. For this purpose, the notation D is deﬁned as 1 if ðe etr Þ > 0 ð17-8Þ D¼ 0 if ðe etr Þ 0 In a similar way to Eq. (17-5), kn ðeÞ is a normal stiffness function, but it is a function of the difference of e and etr, kn ðeÞ ¼ k0 ðe etr Þn

ð17-9Þ

546

Chapter 17

In the case of a spherical asperity, n ¼ 0:5 and k0 is a constant. In actual contacts, the magnitude of the two constants n and k0 is determined for the best ﬁt to the steady (Stribeck) f –U curve. In Eq. (17-7), D ¼ 0 in the full hydrodynamic region, and the elastic reaction force We , is also zero. But in the mixed region, D ¼ 1, and the elastic reaction force We is an increasing function of the eccentricity ratio e. ~ of the bearing is a In the mixed region, the total load capacity vector W ~ e and the hydrovector summation of the elastic reaction of the asperities, W ~ h: dynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm force, W ~h ~ ¼W ~eþW W

ð17-10Þ

The bearing friction force, Ff , in the tangential direction is the sum of contact and viscous friction forces. The contact friction force is assumed to follow Coulomb’s law; hence, it is proportional to the normal contact load, We , while the hydrodynamic, viscous friction force follows the short bearing equation; see Eq. (7-27). Also, it is assumed that the asperities, in the mixed region, do not have an appreciable effect on the hydrodynamic performance. Under these assumptions, the equation for the total friction force between the journal and sleeve of a short journal bearing over the complete range of boundary, mixed, and hydrodynamic regions is

Ff ¼ fm kn ðeÞ Cðe etr ÞD sgnðU Þ þ

LRm 2p U C 2 ð1 e2 Þ0:5

ð17-11Þ

Here, fm is the static friction coefﬁcient, L and R are the length and radius of the bearing, respectively, C is the radial clearance, and m is the lubricant viscosity. The friction coefﬁcient of the bearing, f , is a ratio of the friction force and the external load, f ¼ Ff =F. The symbol sgnðU Þ means that the contact friction is in the direction of the velocity U.

17.4

MODELING FRICTION AT STEADY VELOCITY

The load capacity is the sum of the hydrodynamic force and the elastic reaction force. The equations for the hydrodynamic load capacity components of a short journal bearing [Eq. (7–16)] were derived by Dubois and Ocvirk, 1953. The

Modeling Dynamic Friction

547

following equations extend this solution to include the hydrodynamic components and the elastic reaction force: F cosðf pÞ ¼ kn ðeÞ C ðe etr ÞD þ

F sinðf pÞ ¼

e2 mL3 jU j ð1 e2 Þ2 C 2

pe2 mL3 U 2 ð1 e2 Þ C 2

ð17-12Þ

ð17-13Þ

The coordinates f and e (Fig. 15-1) describe the location of the journal center in polar coordinates. The direction of the elastic reaction We is in the direction of X. In Eq. (17-12), the external load component Fx is equal to the sum of the hydrodynamic force component due to the ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure and the elastic reaction We , at the point of minimum ﬁlm thickness. In Eq. (17-13), the load component Fy is equal only to the hydrodynamic reaction, because there is no contact force in the direction of Y. For any steady velocity U in the mixed region, ðe > etr Þ and for speciﬁed C; L; F; m and kn ðeÞ, Eqs. (17-12 and 17-13) can be solved for the two unknowns, f and e. Once the relative eccentricity, e, is known, the friction force Ff can be calculated from Eq. (17-11), and the bearing friction coefﬁcient, f , can be obtained for speciﬁed R and fm . By this procedure, the Stribeck curve can be plotted for the mixed and hydrodynamic regions. For numerical solution, there is an advantage in having Eqs. (17-12) and (17-13) in a dimensionless form. These equations can be converted to dimensionless form by introducing the following dimensionless variables: U¼

U ; U tr

F¼

C2 F; mUtr L3

k¼

C3 k mUtr L3 n

ð17-14Þ

Here k is a dimensionless normal stiffness to deformation at the asperity contact. The deformation is in the direction normal to the contact area. The velocity Utr is at the transition from mixed to hydrodynamic lubrication (at the point of minimum friction in the f –U chart). The dimensionless form of Eqs. (17-12) and (17-13) is F cosðf pÞ ¼ kðeÞðe etr ÞD 0:5J12 e j U j

ð17-15Þ

F sinðf pÞ ¼ 0:5J11 e U

ð17-16Þ

The integrals J11 and J12 are deﬁned in Eqs. (7-13). Equations (17-15) and (1716) apply to the mixed as well as the hydrodynamic lubrication regions in the Stribeck curve.

548

Chapter 17

17.5

MODELING DYNAMIC FRICTION

For the purpose of developing the dynamic friction model, the existing hydrodynamic short bearing theory of Dubois and Ocvirk is extended to include the mixed region and dynamic conditions. The assumptions of hydrodynamic theory of steady short bearings are extended to dynamic conditions. The pressure gradients in the x direction (around the bearing) are neglected, because they are very small in comparison with the gradients in the z (axial) direction (for directions, see Fig. 7-1). Similar to the analysis of a steady short bearing (see Chapter 7), only the pressure wave in the region 0 < y < p is considered for the ﬂuid ﬁlm force calculations. In this region, the ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. In addition, the conventional assumptions of Reynolds’ classical hydrodynamic theory are maintained. The viscosity, m, is assumed to be constant (at an equivalent average temperature). The effects of ﬂuid inertia are neglected, but the journal mass is considered, for it is of higher order of magnitude than the ﬂuid mass. Recall that under dynamic conditions the equations of motion are (see Chapter 15) ~ ¼ m~a F~ W

ð17-17Þ

Writing Eq. (17-17) in components in the direction of Wx and Wy (i.e., the radial and tangential directions in Fig. 15-1), the following two equations are obtained in dimensionless terms: 2 F x W x ¼ m€e mef_

ð17-18Þ

F y W y ¼ mef€ 2m_ef_ ;

ð17-19Þ

where the dimensionless mass and force are deﬁned, respectively, as m¼

C3 m; mL3 R2

F¼

C2 F mUtr L3

ð17-20Þ

Under dynamic conditions, the equations for the hydrodynamic load capacity components of a short journal bearing are as derived in Chapter 15. These equations are used here; in this case, however, the velocity is normalized by the transition velocity, Utr . In a similar way to steady velocity, the load capacity components are due to the hydrodynamic pressure and elastic reaction force W x ¼ kðeÞðe etr ÞD 0:5J12 e j U j þ J12 ef_ þ J22 e_

ð17-21Þ

W y ¼ 0:5eJ11 U J11 ef_ J12 e_

ð17-22Þ

Modeling Dynamic Friction

549

Substituting these hydrodynamic and reaction force in Eqs. (17-18) and (17-19) yields FðtÞ cosðf pÞ ¼ kðe etr ÞD 0:5eJ12 jU j þ J12 ef_ þ J22 e_ þ m€e mf_

2

ð17-23Þ FðtÞ sinðf pÞ ¼ 0:5eJ11 U J11 ef_ J12 e_ mef€ 2m_ef_

ð17-24Þ

Here FðtÞ is a time-dependent dimensionless force acting on the bearing. The magnitude of this external force, as well as its direction is a function of time. In the two equations, e is the eccentricity ratio, f is deﬁned in Fig. 15-1, and m is dimensionless mass, deﬁned by Eq. (17-20). The deﬁnition of the integrals Jij and their solutions are in Eqs. (7-13). Equations (17-23) and (17-24) are two differential equations, which are required for the solution of the two time-dependent functions e and f. The solution of the two equations for e and f as a function of time allows the plotting of the trajectory of the journal center O1 in polar coordinates. These two differential equations yield the time-variable eðtÞ, which in turn can be substituted into Eq. (17-11) for the computation of the friction force. For numerical computations, it is convenient to use the following dimensionless equation for the friction force obtained from Eq. (17-11): F f ¼ fm kðeÞ C ðe etr Þ D sgnðU Þ þ

RC 2p U L2 ð1 e2 Þ0:5

ð17-25Þ

The dimensionless friction force and velocity are deﬁned in Eq. (17-14). The friction coefﬁcient of the bearing is the ratio of the dimensionless friction force and external load: f ¼

Ff F

ð17-26Þ

The set of three equations (17-23), (17-24) and (17-25) represents the dynamic friction model. For any time-variable shaft velocity U ðtÞ and time-variable load, the friction coefﬁcient can be solved as a function of time or velocity. This model can be extended to different sliding surface contacts, including EHD line and point contacts as well as rolling-element bearings. This can be done by replacing the equations for the hydrodynamic force of a short journal bearing with that of a point contact or rolling contact. These equations are already known from elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory; see Chapter 12.

550

Chapter 17

17.6

COMPARISON OF MODEL SIMULATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS

Dynamic friction measurements were performed with the four-bearing measurement apparatus, which was described in Sec. 14.7. A computer with on-line dataacquisition system was used for plotting the results and analysis. The model coefﬁcients are required for comparing model simulations and experimental f –U curves under dynamic conditions. The modeling approach is to determine the model coefﬁcients from the steady Stribeck curve. Later, the model coefﬁcients are used to determine the characteristics under dynamic conditions. In order to simplify the comparison, Eq. (17-25) has been modiﬁed and the coefﬁcient g introduced to replace a combination of several constants: F f ¼ fm kðeÞ C ðe etr Þ D sgnðU Þ þ g

2p U ð1 e2 Þ0:5

ð17-27Þ

Here, fm is the stiction friction coefﬁcient and g is a bearing geometrical coefﬁcient. The friction force has two components: The ﬁrst term is the contact component due to asperity interaction, and the second term is the viscous shear component. The normal stiffness constant, k0 , is selected by iterations to result in the best ﬁt with the Stribeck curve in the mixed region. A few examples are presented of measured curves of a test bearing (Table 17-1) as compared to theoretical simulations. The experiments were conducted under constant load and oscillating sliding velocity. Friction measurements for bidirectional sinusoidal velocity were conducted under loads of 104 N and 84 N for each of the four test sleeve bearings. The analytical model was simulated for the following periodic velocity oscillations: U ¼ 0:127 sinðotÞ

ð17-28Þ

Here, o is the frequency (rad=s) of sliding velocity oscillations and U is the sliding velocity of the journal surface. The four-bearing apparatus was used to measure the dynamic friction between the shaft and the four sleeve bearings. Multigrade oil was applied, because the viscosity is less sensitive to variations of temperature, but it still varied initially by dissipation of friction energy during the TABLE 17-1

Data from Friction Measurement Apparatus

Diameter of bearing ðD ¼ 2RÞ Length of bearing Radial clearance in bearing Mass of journal Bearing material Oil

D ¼ 0.0254 m L ¼ 0.019 m C ¼ 0.05 mm m ¼ 2.27 kg Brass SAE 10W-40

Modeling Dynamic Friction

551

TABLE 17-2

Model Parameters for a Load of 84 N

fm ¼ 0.26 Utr ¼ 0.06 m=s etr ¼ 0.9727

k0 ¼ 7.5 105 F ¼ 104 N m ¼ 2.27 kg

m ¼ 0.02 N-s=m2 C ¼ 5:08e5 m g ¼ 0:0011

test. After several cycles, however, a steady state was reached in which repeatability of the experiments was sustained. For each bearing load, the Stribeck curve was initially produced by our four-bearing testing apparatus and used to determine the optimal coefﬁcients required for the dynamic model in Eqs. (17-23), (17-24), and (17-27). The stiction friction coefﬁcient, fm and velocity at the transition, Utr , were taken directly from the experimental steady Stribeck curve. The geometrical coefﬁcient, g, was determined from the slope in the hydrodynamic region, while the coefﬁcient k0 was determined to obtain an optimal ﬁt to the experimental Stribeck curve in the mixed region. All other coefﬁcients in Table 17-2, such as viscosity and bearing dimensions, are known. These constant coefﬁcients, determined from the steady f –U curve, were used later for the simulation of the following f –U curves under dynamic conditions.

17.6.1

Bearing Load of 104 N (Table 17-2, Figs. 17-1, 17-2, 17-3)

17.6.2

Bearing Under Load of 84 N (Table 17-3,

F IG. 17-1 Comparison of measured and theoretical f –U curves for sinusoidal sliding velocity: load ¼ 104 N, U ¼ 0:127 sinð0:045tÞ m=s, oscillation frequency ¼ 0.045 rad=s (measurement . . . , simulation —).

552

Chapter 17

F IG. 17-2 Comparison of measured and theoretical f –U curves for sinusoidal sliding velocity: load ¼ 104 N, U ¼ 0:127 sinð0:25tÞ m=s, oscillation frequency ¼ 0.25 rad=s (measurement . . . , simulation —).

F IG. 17-3 Comparison of measured and theoretical f –U curves for sinusoidal sliding velocity: load ¼ 104 N, U ¼ 0:127 sinðtÞ m=s, oscillation frequency ¼ 1 rad=s (measurement . . . , simulation —).

Modeling Dynamic Friction

553

TABLE 17-3

Model Parameters for a Load of 84 N

fm ¼ 0.26 Utr ¼ 0.05 m=s etr ¼ 0.9718

k0 ¼ 6.25 105 F ¼ 84 N m ¼ 2.27 kg

m ¼ 0.02 N-s=m2 C ¼ 5:08e5 m g ¼ 0.0011

Figs. 17-4, 17-5, 17-6)

F IG. 17-4 Comparison of measured and theoretical f –U curves for sinusoidal sliding velocity: load ¼ 84 N, U ¼ 0:127 sinð0:1tÞ m=s, oscillation frequency ¼ 0.1 rad=s (measurement . . . , simulation —).

F IG. 17-5 Comparison of measured and theoretical f –U curves for sinusoidal sliding velocity: load ¼ 84 N, U ¼ 0:127 sinð0:25tÞ m=s, oscillation frequency ¼ 0.25 rad=s (measurement . . . , simulation —).

554

Chapter 17

F IG. 17-6 Comparison of measured and theoretical f –U curves for sinusoidal sliding velocity: load ¼ 84 N, U ¼ 0:127 sinð0:5tÞ m=s, oscillation frequency ¼ 0.5 rad=s (measurement . . . , simulation —).

17.6.3

Conclusions

In conclusion, the f –U curves indicate reasonable agreement between experiments and simulation. At low frequency of velocity oscillations, the curves reduce to the steady Stribeck curve and do not demonstrate any signiﬁcant hysteresis. At higher frequency, both analytical and experimental curves display similar hysteresis characteristics, which increase with the frequency. This phenomenon was detected earlier in experiments of unidirectional velocity oscillations. In addition to the hysteresis, the experiments, as well as the simulation, detected several new dynamic friction characteristics that are unique to bidirectional oscillations with velocity reversals. 1. 2. 3.

The magnitude of the friction discontinuity (and stiction friction) at zero velocity reduces when the oscillation frequency increases. The stiction friction reduces to zero above a certain frequency of velocity oscillations. The discontinuity at velocity reversals in the experimental curves is in the form of a vertical line. This means that the Dahl effect (presliding displacement) in journal bearings is relatively small, because the discontinuity is an inclined line wherever presliding displacement is of higher value.

Modeling Dynamic Friction

555

The explanation for the reduction in the magnitude of the stiction force at higher frequencies is as follows: At high frequency there is insufﬁcient time for the ﬂuid ﬁlm to be squeezed out. As the frequency increases, the ﬂuid ﬁlm is thicker, resulting in lower stiction force at velocity reversals.

18 Case Study Composite BearingJRolling Elements and Fluid Film in Series

18.1

INTRODUCTION

A composite bearing of rolling and hydrodynamic components in series is a unique design that was proposed initially to overcome two major disadvantages of hydrodynamic journal bearings: Severe wear during start-up and stopping, and risk of catastrophic failure during any interruption of lubricant supply.

18.1.1

Start-Up and Stopping

Hydrodynamic bearings are subjected to severe wear during the starting and stopping of journal rotation. In addition, in variable-speed machines, when a bearing operates at low-speed, there is no full ﬂuid ﬁlm, resulting in wear. In these cases, there is also a risk of bearing failure due to overheating, which is a major drawback of hydrodynamic journal bearings. In theory, there is a very thin ﬂuid ﬁlm even at low journal speeds. But in practice, due to surface roughness, vibrations, and disturbances, a critical minimum speed is required to generate adequate ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness for complete separation of the sliding surfaces. During start-up, wear is more severe than during stopping, because the bearing accelerates from zero velocity, where there is relatively high static friction. In certain cases, there is stick-slip friction during 556

Case Study: Composite Bearing

557

bearing start-up (see Harnoy 1966). During start-up, as speed increases, the ﬂuid ﬁlm builds up and friction reduces gradually.

18.1.2

Interruption of Oil Supply

A hydrodynamic bearing has a high risk of catastrophic failure whenever the lubricant supply is interrupted, even for a short time. The operation of a hydrodynamic journal bearing is completely dependent on a continuous supply of lubricant, particularly at high speed. If the oil supply is interrupted, this can cause overheating and catastrophic (sudden) bearing failure. At high speed, heat is generated at a fast rate by friction. Without lubricant, the bearing can undergo failure in the form of melting of the bearing lining. The lining is often made of a white metal of low melting temperature. Under certain conditions, interruption of the oil supply can result in bearing seizure (the journal and bearing weld together). Interruption of the oil supply can occur for several reasons, such as a failure of the oil pump or its motor. In addition, the lubricant can be lost due to a leak in the oil system. This risk of failure prevents the use of hydrodynamic bearings in critical applications where safety is a major concern, such as in aircraft engines. Replacing the hydrodynamic journal bearing with an externally pressurized hydrostatic journal bearing can eliminate the severe wear during starting and stopping. But a hydrostatic journal bearing is uneconomical for many applications because it needs a hydraulic system that includes a pump and an electric motor. For many machines, the use of hydrostatic bearings is not feasible. In addition, an externally pressurized hydrostatic bearing does not eliminate the risk of catastrophic failure in the case of oil supply interruption.

18.1.3

Limitations of Rolling Bearings

Rolling bearings are less sensitive than hydrodynamic bearings to starting and stopping. However, rolling bearing fatigue life is limited, due to alternating rolling contact stresses, particularly at very high speed. This problem is expected to become more important in the future because there is a continuous trend to increase the speed of machines. Manufacturers continually attempt to increase machinery speed in order to reduce the size of machines without reducing power. It was shown in Chapter 12 that at very high speeds, the centrifugal forces of the rolling elements increase the contact stresses. At high speeds, the temperature of a rolling bearing rises and the fatigue resistance of the material deteriorates. The centrifugal forces and temperature exacerbate the problem and limit the speed of reliable operation. Thus the objective of long rolling bearing life and that of high operating speeds are in conﬂict. In conclusion, the optimum operation of the rolling bearing occurs at relatively low and medium speeds, while

558

Chapter 18

the best performance of the hydrodynamic bearing happens at relatively high speeds. Over the years, there has been considerable improvement in rolling bearing materials. By using bearings made of high-purity specialty steels, fatigue life has been extended. High-quality rolling bearings made of specialty steels involve higher cost. These bearings are used in aircraft engines and other unique applications where the high cost is justiﬁed. However, since there is a continual requirement for faster speeds, the fatigue life of rolling bearings will continue to be a bottleneck in the future for the development of faster machines. It would offer considerable advantage if the bearing could operate in a rolling mode at low speed and at higher speed would convert to hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm operation. In fact, this is the purpose of the composite bearing that utilizes the desirable features of both the hydrodynamic and the rolling bearing by combining them in series. In addition, if the oil supply is interrupted, the bearing will work in the rolling mode only and thus eliminate the high risk of failure of the common ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing. In the following discussion, it is shown that it is possible to mitigate the drawbacks of the hydrodynamic journal bearing by using a composite bearing, which is a unique design of hydrodynamic and rolling bearings in series. In previous publications, this design was also referred to as the series hybrid bearing, the angular-compliant bearing and hydro-roll.

18.2

COMPOSITE-BEARING DESIGNS

The combination was tested initially (Harnoy 1966; Lowey, Harnoy, and Bar-Neﬁ 1972) by inserting the journal directly in the rolling-element inner ring bore; see Fig. 18-1. They used a radial clearance commonly accepted in hydrodynamic journal bearings of the order of magnitude C 103 R. Later, this combination was improved (see Harnoy 1966), by inserting a sleeve at a tight ﬁt into the bore of the rolling bearing; see Fig. 18-2. The journal runs on a ﬂuid ﬁlm in a free-ﬁt clearance inside the bore of this sleeve. In this way, the desired sleeve material and surface ﬁnish can be selected as well as the ratio of the length and diameter, L=D, of the sleeve. In many applications, a self-aligning rolling element is desirable to ensure parallelism of the ﬂuid ﬁlm surfaces. The lubrication is an oil bath arrangement. The oil is fed in the axial direction of the clearance to form a ﬂuid ﬁlm between the journal and the sleeve; see Fig. 18-2. Anderson* (1973) suggested a practical combination for use in gas turbines; see Fig. 18-3. This is a combination of a conical hydrodynamic bearing * It is interesting that the work by the NASA group headed by Anderson and that of Lowey, Harnoy and Bar-Neﬁ in the Technion–Israel Institute of Technology were performed independently, without any knowledge of each other’s work.

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559

F IG. 18-1 Composite bearing arrangement of hydrodynamic and rolling bearings in series. (From Harnoy, 1966.)

F IG. 18-2

Composite-bearing design with inner sleeve. (From Harnoy, 1966.)

560

F IG. 18-3 1973.)

Chapter 18

Anderson composite bearing for radial and thrust loads. (From Anderson,

and a rolling bearing in series, to provide for thrust and radial loads in gas turbine engines. In the foregoing combinations of hydrodynamic and rolling bearings in series, the rolling-element bearing operates in rolling mode at low speed, including starting and stopping, while a sliding mode of the hydrodynamic ﬂuid ﬁlm is initiated at higher speed. The beneﬁts of this combination are reduction of friction and wear and longer bearing life due to reduction of rolling speed. It was mentioned earlier that the risk of catastrophic failure is the reason that hydrodynamic bearings are not applied in critical applications where safety is involved, such as aircraft engines. In fact, the composite bearing can overcome this problem, because, in the case of oil supply interruption, the composite bearing would continue to operate in the rolling mode, which requires only a very small amount of lubricant. It is interesting to note that there are also considerable advantages in a hybrid bearing in which the rolling and hydrodynamic bearings are combined in parallel. Wilcock and Winn (1973) suggested the parallel combination.

18.2.1

Friction Characteristics of the Composite Bearing

In Fig. 18-4, f –U curves (friction coefﬁcient versus velocity) are shown of a rolling bearing and of a ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing. These are the well-known Stribeck curves. Discussion of the various regions of the ﬂuid ﬁlm friction curve is included

Case Study: Composite Bearing

F IG. 18-4 1996.)

561

Friction coefﬁcient as a function of speed. (From Harnoy and Khonsari,

in Chapter 8; measurement methods are covered in Chapter 14. The following discussion shows that the composite bearing, in fact, improves the friction characteristics by eliminating the high start-up friction of a ﬂuid-ﬁlm bearing. The sleeve bearing friction curve in Fig. 18-4 has high friction in the boundary and mixed lubrication regions because the sliding surface asperities are in direct contact at low speed. In the hydrodynamic lubrication region, the sliding surfaces are separated by a ﬂuid ﬁlm and viscous friction is increasing almost linearly with speed. The curve for rolling bearing friction is similar, but start-up friction and high-speed friction are much lower than that of the common sleeve bearing. The purpose of the composite bearing is to avoid the high friction in the boundary lubrication region and most of the mixed region of a sleeve bearing. In Fig. 18-4, the dotted line shows the expected friction characteristic of a properly designed composite bearing. During start-up, the composite bearing operates as a rolling bearing and the starting friction is as low as in a rolling bearing. The friction coefﬁcient at the high rated speed is expected to be somewhat lower than for a regular journal bearing. This is because the viscous friction is proportional to the sliding speed only and the total speed of a composite bearing is divided into rolling and sliding parts.

18.2.2

Composite-Bearing Start-Up

During start-up, the sliding friction of a hydrodynamic bearing is higher than that of a rolling bearing. Therefore, sliding between the journal and the sleeve is

562

Chapter 18

replaced by a rolling action (similar to that in an internal gear mechanism). Thus the surface velocity of the shaft, Roj , is equal to the velocity of the sleeve bore surface, R1 ob . The velocities are shown in Fig. 18-1. The difference between the journal and bore surface radii is small and negligible, so we can assume R1 ¼ R. An important aspect in the operation of a composite bearing is that the friction during the transition from rolling to sliding is signiﬁcantly lower than for a regular start-up of a regular hydrodynamic journal bearing. The friction is lower because the initial rolling generates a ﬂuid ﬁlm between the rolling surfaces of the journal and the sleeve bore. This effect is explained next according to hydrodynamic theory.

18.2.3

Analysis of Start-up

For bearings under steady conditions, if the bearing sleeve and the journal are rotating at different speeds, the Reynolds equation for incompressible and isothermal conditions reduces to the following form [see Eq. (6-21b)]: @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6Rðoj þ ob Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x

ð18-1Þ

The surface velocities of bearing and journal, Roj and R1 ob, respectively, are shown in Fig. 18-1. In Eq. (18-1), p is the pressure and h is the ﬂuid ﬁlm thickness. For a regular journal bearing, there is only journal rotation, i.e., one surface has velocity Roj while the sleeve is stationary. After integration of Eq. (18-1), the pressure distribution in the ﬂuid ﬁlm and the load capacity are directly proportional to the sum Rðoj þ ob Þ. During start-up, there is only the rolling mode, and the boundary conditions of the ﬂuid ﬁlm are Roj ¼ R1 ob

ð18-2Þ

In comparison, in a regular journal bearing of a stationary sleeve, ob ¼ 0. Therefore, in the case of pure rolling, the sum of the velocities is double that of pure sliding in a common journal bearing. This means that during start-up, the ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure of a composite bearing is double that in a common hydrodynamic journal bearing, where ob ¼ 0. In the rolling mode, only half of the journal speed is required to generate the ﬁlm thickness of a regular bearing with a stationary sleeve. This ﬁlm of the rolling mode prevents wear and high friction at the transition from rolling to sliding. The physical explanation is that the ﬂuid is squeezed faster by the rolling action than by sliding. Doubling the pressure via rolling action is well known for those involved in the analysis of EHD lubrication of rolling elements.

Case Study: Composite Bearing

18.3

563

PREVIOUS RESEARCH IN COMPOSITE BEARINGS

Experiments by Harnoy (1966) demonstrated that the composite bearing operates as a rolling element during starting and stopping, while hydrodynamic sliding is initiated at higher speeds. At the high rated speed, the rolling element rotates at a reduced speed because the speed is divided between rolling and sliding modes according to a certain ratio. The reduction of the rolling-element speed offers the important advantage of extending rolling bearing life. The composite bearing has a longer life than either a rolling bearing or ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing on its own. In addition, if the oil supply is interrupted, the composite bearing converts to rolling bearing mode, and the risk of a catastrophic failure is eliminated. Developments in aircraft turbines generated a continual need for bearings that can operate at very high speeds. As discussed earlier, only rolling bearings are used in aircraft engines, because of the risk of oil supply interruptions in ﬂuid ﬁlm bearings. The centrifugal forces of the rolling elements is a major bottleneck limiting the speed of aircraft gas turbines. The centrifugal forces dramatically increase with the DN value (the product of rolling bearing bore in millimeters and shaft speed in revolutions per minute). The centrifugal force of the rolling elements is a reason for limiting aircraft turbine engines to 2 million DN. This was NASA’s motivation for initiating a research program to ﬁnd a better bearing design for high-speed applications. Several ideas were tested to break through the limit of 2 million DN. Ball bearings with hollow balls were tested to reduce the mass of the rolling elements. Later, the introduction of silicone nitride rolling elements proved to be more effective in this direction (see Chapter 13). In the early 1970s, a research team at the NASA Lewis Research Center did a lot of research and development work on the performance of the composite bearing (for example, Anderson, Fleming, and Parker 1972, and Scribbe, Winn, and Eusepi 1976). The NASA team refers to the composite bearing as a series hybrid bearing. The objective was to reach a speed of 3 million DN. The idea was to reduce the rolling-element speed by introducing a ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing in series that would participate in a portion of the total speed of the shaft. In fact, this work was successful, and operation at 3 million DN was demonstrated. This work proved that the composite bearing is a feasible alternative to conventional rolling bearings in aircraft turbines. Ratios of rolling-element speed to shaft speed ðob =oj Þ of a series hybrid bearing were tested by Anderson, Fleming, and Parker (1972). The results, a function of the shaft speed, are shown for two thrust loads in Fig. 18-5. However, the composite bearing never reached the stage of actual application in aircraft engines, because better rolling-element bearings were developed that satisﬁed the maximum-speed requirement. In addition, the actual speed of aircraft engines did not reach the high DN values that had been expected earlier.

564

Chapter 18

F IG. 18-5 Ratio of inner race speed to shaft speed vs. shaft speed for the composite bearing. (From Anderson, Fleming, and Parker, 1972.)

However, the requirement for higher speeds is increasing all the time. In the future, should the speed requirement increase above the limits of conventional rolling bearings, the composite bearing can offer a ready solution. Moreover, the composite bearing can signiﬁcantly reduce the high cost of aircraft maintenance that involves frequent-replacement of rolling bearings.* Although the composite bearing has not yet been used in actual aircraft, it can be expected that this lowcost design will ﬁnd many other applications in the future. The advantages of the composite bearing justify its use in a variety of applications as a viable low-cost alternative to the hydrostatic bearing.

18.4

COMPOSITE BEARING WITH CENTRIFUGAL MECHANISM

The composite arrangement always reduced the rolling element’s speed. However, the results are not always completely satisfactory, because the rolling speed is not low enough. Experiments have indicated that in many cases the rolling speed in the composite bearing in Fig. 18-2 is too high for a signiﬁcant improvement in * The U.S. Air Force spends over $20 million annually on replacing rolling-element bearings (Valenti, 1995).

Case Study: Composite Bearing

565

fatigue life. Whenever the friction of the rolling-element bearing is much lower than that of the hydrodynamic journal bearing, the rolling element rotates at relatively high speed. To improve this combination, a few ideas were suggested to control the composite bearing and to restrict the rotation of the rolling elements to a desired speed. In Fig. 18-6a, a design is shown where the sleeve is connected to a mechanism similar to a centrifugal clutch; see Harnoy and Rachoor (1993). A design based on a similar principle was suggested by Silver (1972). A disc with radial holes is tightly ﬁtted on the sleeve and pins slide along radial holes. Due to the action of centrifugal force, a friction torque is generated between the pins and the housing that increases with sleeve speed. This friction torque restricts the rolling speed and determines the speed of transition from rolling to sliding. The centrifugal design allows the sleeve to rotate continuously at low speed. This offers additional advantages, such as enhanced heat transfer from the lubrication ﬁlm, (Harnoy and Khonsari, 1996) and improved performance under dynamic conditions, (Harnoy and Rachoor, 1993). Long life of the rolling element is maintained because the rolling speed is low. This design has considerable advantages, in particular for high-speed machinery that involves frequent startups. Figure 18-6b is a design of a composite bearing for radial and thrust loads with adjustable arrangement. It is possible to increase the speeds ðob þ oj Þ during the transition from rolling to sliding, resulting in a thicker ﬂuid ﬁlm at that instant. This can be achieved by means of a unique design of a delayed centrifugal mechanism where the motion of the pins is damped as shown in Fig. 18-7. The purpose of this mechanism is to delay the transition from rolling to sliding during start-up, resulting in higher speeds ðob þ oj Þ at the instant of transition. The delayed action is advantageous only during the start-up, when the wear is more severe than that during the stopping period, since a certain time is required to form a lubricant ﬁlm or to squeeze it out.

18.4.1

Design for the Desired Rolling Speed

The following derivation is required for the design of a centrifugal mechanism with the desired rolling speed, ob . The derivation is for a short journal bearing and a typical ball bearing. The steady rolling speed ob can be solved from the friction torque balance, acting on the sleeve system—a combination of the sleeve and the centrifugal mechanism. The hydrodynamic torque, Mh , of a short bearing is: Mh ¼

LmR3 2p ðoj ob Þ C ð1 e2 Þ0:5

Here, Rðoj ob Þ replaces U in Eq. (7-29).

ð18-3Þ

566

Chapter 18

F IG. 18-6 (a) Centrifugal mechanism to control rolling speeds. (b) Composite bearing with centrifugal restraint for radial and thrust loads.

The mechanical friction torque on the sleeve is due to the centrifugal force of the pins, Fc , and the friction coefﬁcient, fc , between the pins and the housing at radius Rh ; see Fig. 18-7: Mf ¼ Fc Rh fc

ð18-4Þ

Case Study: Composite Bearing

F IG. 18-7

567

Composite bearing with delayed centrifugal constraint.

The centrifugal contact force, Fc , between the small pins of total mass mc and the housing is Fc ¼ mc Rm o2b

ð18-5Þ

Here, mc is the total mass of the centrifugal pins and Rm is the radius of the circle of the center of the pins when they are in contact with the housing. After substitution of this Fc in Eq. (18-4), the equation of the friction torque becomes Mf ¼ mc Rm Rh o2b fc

ð18-6Þ

The contact area between the pins and the housing is small, so boundary lubrication can be expected at all speeds. Thus, the friction coefﬁcient fc is effectively constant. The friction torque due to centrifugal action of the pins, Mf , acts in the direction opposite to the hydrodynamic torque. If the composite bearing operates under steady conditions, there is no inertial torque and the equilibrium equation is 2pLmR3 oj ob ¼ fc mc Rm Rh o2b þ Mr C ð1 e2 Þ0:5

ð18-7Þ

The friction torque Mr of a ball bearing at low speeds is generally much lower than the hydrodynamic friction torque at high speeds, so Mr can be neglected in

568

Chapter 18

Eq. (18-7); see Fig. 18-4. However, in certain cases, such as in a tightly ﬁtted conical bearing, the rolling friction is signiﬁcant and should be considered. Equation (18-7) yields the following solution for the rolling speed ob : ob ¼

ðn2 þ mqÞ0:5 n m

ð18-8Þ

where m ¼ fc mc Rm Rh

ð18-9Þ

n ¼ pLmR3 Cð1 e2 Þ0:5

ð18-10Þ

q ¼ 2noj

ð18-11Þ

The speed ob can be determined by selecting the mass of the pins mc .

18.5

PERFORMANCE UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS

The advantages of the composite bearing are quite obvious under steady constant load. However, the composite bearing did not gain wide acceptance, because there were concerns about possible adverse effects under unsteady or oscillating loads (dynamic loads). In rotating machinery, there are always vibrations and the average load is superimposed by oscillating forces at various frequencies. Harnoy and Rachoor (1993) analyzed the response of a composite bearing with a centrifugal mechanism, as shown in Fig. 18-6a and b, under dynamic conditions of a steady load superimposed with an oscillating load. The analysis involves angular oscillations of the sleeve, time-variable eccentricity, and unsteady ﬂuid ﬁlm pressure. This analysis is essential for predicting any possible adverse effects of the composite arrangement on the bearing stability. Most probably, the unstable region is not identical to that of the common ﬂuid ﬁlm bearing. Nevertheless, there are reasons to expect improved performance within the stable region. The following is an explanation of the criteria for improved bearing performance under dynamic loads and why composite bearings are expected to contribute to such an improvement. Unlike operation under steady conditions, where the journal center is stationary, under dynamic conditions, such as sinusoidal force, the journal center, O1 is in continuous motion (trajectory) relative to the sleeve center O, and the eccentricity e varies with time. For a periodic load, such as in engines, the journal center O1 reaches a steady-state trajectory referred to as journal locus that repeats in each time period. If the maximum eccentricity em of this locus (the maximum distance O–O1 in Fig. 181) were to be reduced by the composite arrangement in comparison to the

Case Study: Composite Bearing

569

common journal bearing, it would mean that there is an important improvement in bearing performance. When the eccentricity ratio e ¼ e=C approaches 1, there is contact and wear of the journal and sleeve surfaces. As discussed in previous chapters, due to surface roughness, dust, and disturbances, em must be kept low (relative to 1) to prevent bearing wear. Of course, one can reduce the maximum eccentricity of the locus by simply increasing the oil viscosity, m; however, this is undesirable because it will increase the viscous friction. If it can be shown that a composite bearing can reduce the maximum eccentricity em , for the same viscosity and dynamic loads, then there is a potential for energy savings. In that case, it would be possible to reduce the viscosity and viscous losses without increasing the wear. There is a simple physical explanation for expecting a signiﬁcant improvement in the performance of a composite bearing under dynamic conditions, namely, the relative reduction of em under oscillating loads. Let us consider a bearing under sinusoidal load. During the cycle period, the critical time is when the load approaches its peak value. At that instant, the journal center, O1 is moving in the radial direction (away from the bearing center O) and the eccentricity e approaches its maximum value em . At that instant, the ﬂuid ﬁlm is squeezed to its minimum thickness. Under dynamic load, a signiﬁcant part of the load capacity of the ﬂuid ﬁlm is proportional to the sum of the journal and sleeve rotations ðob þ oj Þ [see Eq. (18-1)]. As the external force increases, the ﬂuid ﬁlm is squeezed and the hydrodynamic friction torque, Mh , increases as well, causing the sleeve to rotate faster (ob increases). At that critical instant, the ﬂuid ﬁlm load capacity increases, due to a rise in ðob þ oj Þ, in the direction directly opposing the journal motion toward the sleeve surface, resulting in reduced em . The sleeve oscillates periodically as a pendulum due to the external harmonic load. However, it will be shown that the complete dynamic behavior is more complex. The inertia and damping of the sleeve motion cause a phase lag between the sleeve and the force oscillations. In certain cases, depending on the design parameters, one can expect adverse effects. If the phase lag becomes excessive, it would result in unsynchronized sleeve rotation, opposite to the desired direction. This discussion emphasizes the signiﬁcance of a full analysis, not only to predict behavior but also to provide the tools for proper design.

18.5.1

Equations of Motion

The following analysis is for a composite bearing operating at the rated constant journal speed, with the centrifugal restraint (Fig. 18-6). The length L of the internal bore of most rolling bearings is short relative to the diameter D. For this reason, the following is for a short journal bearing, which assumes L D. The analysis can be extended to a ﬁnite-length journal bearing; however, it is adequate

570

Chapter 18

for our purpose—to compare the dynamic behavior of a composite bearing to that of a regular one. The ﬁrst step is a derivation of the dynamic equation that describes the rotation of the composite bearing sleeve unit, consisting of the sleeve, the inner ring of the rolling bearing, and the centrifugal disc system. The three parts are tightly ﬁtted and are rotating together at an angular speed ob, as shown in Fig. 18-8. This sleeve unit has an equivalent moment of inertia Ieq . The degree of freedom of sleeve rotation, which is involved with Ieq , includes the rolling elements that rotate at a reduced speed. It is similar to an equivalent moment of inertia of meshed gears. A periodic load results in a variable hydrodynamic friction torque, and in turn there are angular oscillations of the sleeve unit (the angular velocity ob varies periodically). The sleeve unit oscillations are superimposed on a constant

F IG. 18-8

Dynamically loaded composite bearing.

Case Study: Composite Bearing

571

speed of rotation. At the same time, the mechanical friction between the pins and the housing damps these oscillations. The difference between the hydrodynamic (viscous) friction torque Mh and the mechanical friction torque of the pins Mf is the resultant torque that accelerates the sleeve unit. The rolling friction torque Mr is small and negligible. The equation of the sleeve unit motion becomes Mh Mf ¼ Ieq

dob dt

ð18-12Þ

Substituting the values of the hydrodynamic torque and the mechanical friction torque from Eqs. (18-3) and (18-6) into Eq. (18-12) results in the following equation for the sleeve motion: LmR3 2p do ðoj ob Þ mc Rm Rh o2b fc ¼ Ieq b 0:5 2 C dt ð1 e Þ

ð18-13Þ

This equation is converted to dimensionless form by dividing all the terms by Ieq o2j . The ﬁnal dimensionless dynamic equation of the sleeve unit motion is ð1 xÞH1

2p x2 H2 ¼ x_ ð1 e2 Þ0:5

ð18-14Þ

Here, x is the ratio of the sleeve unit angular velocity to the journal angular velocity: o x¼ b ð18-15Þ oj The time derivative x_ ¼ dx=d t is with respect to the dimensionless time, t ¼ oj t, and the dimensionless parameters H1 and H2 are design parameters of the composite bearing deﬁned by H1 ¼

18.5.2

LmR3 ; CIeq oj

H2 ¼ mc Rm Rh fc

ð18-16Þ

Equation of Journal Motion

Chapter 7 presented the solution of Dubois and Ocvirk (1953) for the pressure distribution of a short journal bearing under steady conditions. This derivation was extended in Chapter 15 to a short bearing under dynamic conditions. In this chapter, this derivation is further extended to a composite bearing where the sleeve unit rotates at unsteady speed. It was shown in Chapter 15 that in a journal bearing under dynamic conditions, the journal center O1 has an arbitrary velocity described by its two

572

Chapter 18

components, de=dt and e df=dt, in the radial and tangential directions, respectively. The purpose of the following analysis is to solve for the journal center trajectory of a composite bearing. Let us recall that the Reynolds equation for the pressure distribution p in a thin incompressible ﬂuid ﬁlm is @ h3 @p @ h3 @p @h þ ¼ 6ðU1 U2 Þ þ 12ðV2 V1 Þ @x m @x @z m @z @x

ð18-17Þ

Similar to the derivation in Sec. 15.2, the journal surface velocity components, U2 and V2 are obtained by summing the velocity vector of the surface velocity, relative to the journal center O1 (velocity due to journal rotation), and the velocity vector of O1 relative to O (velocity due to the motion of the journal center O1 ). At the same time, the sleeve surface has only tangential velocity, Rob , in the x direction. In a composite bearing, the ﬂuid ﬁlm boundary conditions on the righthand side of Eq. (18-17) become

V1 ¼ oj R

dh de df þ cos y þ e sin y dt dt dt

ð18-18Þ

V2 ¼ 0

ð18-19Þ

U1 ¼ ob R

ð18-20Þ

U2 ¼ oj R þ

de df sin y e cos y dt dt

ð18-21Þ

According to our assumptions, @p=@x on the left-hand side of Eq. (18-17) is negligible. Considering only the axial pressure gradient and substituting Eqs. (18-18)–(18-21) into Eq. (18-17) yields @ @p @ de df h3 cos y þ e sin y ¼ 6m Rðoj þ ob Þ þ 6m @z @z @x dt dt

ð18-22Þ

Integrating Eq. (18-22) twice with the following boundary conditions solves the pressure wave:

p¼0

at

z¼

L 2

ð18-23Þ

Case Study: Composite Bearing

573

In the case of a short bearing, the pressure is a function of z and y. The following are the two equations for the integration of the load capacity components in the directions of Wx and Wy : ð p ð L=2 Wx ¼ 2R

p cos y dy dz 0

ð18-24Þ

ð p ð L=2 Wy ¼ 2R

ð18-25Þ

p sin y dy dz 0

The dimensionless load capacity W and the external dynamic load FðtÞ are deﬁned as follows: W ¼

C2 W; mRoj L3

FðtÞ ¼

C2 FðtÞ mRoj L3

ð18-26Þ

where the journal speed oj is constant. After integration and conversion to dimensionless form, the following ﬂuid ﬁlm load capacity components are obtained: 1 W x ¼ J12 eð1 þ xÞ þ ef_ J12 þ e_ J22 2 1 W y ¼ J11 eð1 þ xÞ ef_ J12 e_ J22 2

ð18-27Þ ð18-28Þ

The integrals Jij and their solutions are deﬁned according to Eq. (7-13). The resultant of the load and ﬂuid ﬁlm force vectors accelerates the journal according to Newton’s second law: ~ ¼ m~a F~ ðtÞ þ W

ð18-29Þ

Here, a~ is the acceleration vector of the journal center O1 and m is the journal mass. Dimensionless mass is deﬁned as m¼

C 3 oj R m L3 R2

ð18-30Þ

After substitution of the acceleration terms in the radial and tangential directions (directions X and Y in Fig. 18-8) the equations become F x ðtÞ W x ¼ m€e mef_ 2

ð18-31Þ

F y ðtÞ W y ¼ mef€ 2m_ef_

ð18-32Þ

574

Chapter 18

Substituting the load capacity components of Eqs. (18-27) and (18-28) into Eqs. (18-31) and (18-32) yields the ﬁnal two differential equations of the journal motion: FðtÞ cosðf pÞ ¼ 0:5J12 eð1 þ xÞ þ ef_ J12 þ e_ J22 þ m€e mef_ 2 ð18-33Þ FðtÞ sinðf pÞ ¼ 0:5J11 eð1 þ xÞ ef_ J11 e_ J12 mef€ 2m_ef_ ð18-34Þ Equations (18-33), (18-34), and (18-14) are the three differential equations required to solve for the three time-dependent functions e; f, and x. These three variables represent the motion of the shaft center O1 with time, in polar coordinates, as well as the rotation of the sleeve unit.

18.5.3

Comparison of Journal Locus under Dynamic Load

In machinery there are always vibrations and bearing under steady loads are usually subjected to dynamic oscillating loads. The following is a solution for a composite bearing under a vertical load consisting of a sinusoidal load super are imposed on a steady load according to the equation (in this section, F and m renamed F and m) FðtÞ ¼ Fs þ Fo sin aoj t

ð18-35Þ

Here, Fs is a steady load, Fo is the amplitude of a sinusoidal force, o is the load frequency, and a is the ratio of the load frequency to the journal speed: a¼

o oj

ð18-36Þ

Equations (18-33), (18-34), and (18-14) were solved by ﬁnite differences. By selecting backward differences, the nonlinear terms were linearized. In this way, the three differential equations were converted to three regular equations. The ﬁnite difference procedure is presented in Sec. 15.4. Examples of the loci of a composite bearing and a regular journal bearing are shown in Fig. 18-9 for a ¼ 2 and in Fig. 18-10 for a ¼ 2 and a ¼ 4. Any reduction in the maximum eccentricity ratio, em , represents a signiﬁcant improvement in lubrication performance. The curves indicate that the composite bearing (dotted-line locus) has a lower em than a regular journal bearing (solid-line locus). An important aspect is that the relative improvement increases whenever em increases (the journal approaches the sleeve surface); thus, the composite bearing plays an important role in wear reduction. For example, in the heavily loaded

Case Study: Composite Bearing

575

F IG. 18-9 Journal loci of a regular bearing and a composite bearing; FðtÞ ¼ 100 þ 100 sinð2oj tÞ and FðtÞ ¼ 20 þ 20 sinð2oj tÞ. The journal mass is m ¼ 50. The design parameters are H1 ¼ 0:1 and H2 ¼ 1:0.

F IG. 18-10 Journal loci of rigid and compliant sleeve bearings. The load FðtÞ ¼ 100 þ 100 sinðaoj tÞ, for a ¼ 2 and a ¼ 4. The journal mass m ¼ 50. H1 ¼ 0:1 and H2 ¼ 1:0.

576

Chapter 18

F IG. 18-11 Journal loci of rigid and compliant sleeve bearings under heavy load. FðtÞ ¼ 800 þ 800 sinð2oj tÞ. The journal mass is m ¼ 100, H1 ¼ 0:1 and H2 ¼ 100.

bearing in Fig 18-11, the composite bearing nearly doubles the minimum ﬁlm thickness em of a regular journal bearing. This can be observed by the distance between the two loci and the circle e ¼ 1. If there is a relatively large phase lag between the load and sleeve unit oscillations, the lubrication performance of the composite bearing can deteriorate. In order to beneﬁt from the advantages of a composite bearing, in view of the many design parameters, the designer must in each case conduct a similar computer simulation to determine the dynamic performance.

18.6

THERMAL EFFECTS

The peak temperature, in the ﬂuid ﬁlm and on the inner surface of the sleeve (near the minimum ﬁlm thickness) was discussed in Sec. 8.6. Excessive peak temperature Tmax can result in bearing failure, particularly in large bearings with white metal lining. Therefore, in these cases, it is necessary to limit Tmax during the design stage. With a properly designed composite bearing, a much more uniform temperature distribution is expected; since the sleeve unit rotates, the severity of the peak temperature is reduced. The heat transfer from the region of the minimum ﬁlm thickness to the atmosphere is affected by the rotation of the sleeve as well as many other parameters, such as bearing materials, lubrication, heat conduction at the contact between the rolling elements and races, the design of the bearing housing, and its connection to the body of the machine. In order to elucidate the effect of the rotation of the sleeve on heat transfer, Harnoy and Khonsari (1996) studied the effect of sleeve rotation in isolation from

Case Study: Composite Bearing

577

any other factor that can affect the rate of heat removal from the hydrodynamic oil ﬁlm. For this purpose, the heat transfer problem of a hydrodynamic bearing at steady-state conditions is studied and a comparison made between the temperature distributions in stationary and rotary sleeves while all other parameters, such as geometry and materials, are identical for the two cases. For comparison purposes, a model is presented where the sleeve loses heat to the surroundings at ambient temperature Tamb . It has been shown that such a model can yield practical conclusions concerning the thermal effect of the rotating sleeve in the composite bearing. An example of a typical hydrodynamic bearing is selected. The purpose of the analysis is to determine the temperature distributions inside the rotating and stationary sleeves. The geometrical parameters and operating conditions of the two hydrodynamic bearings are summarized in Table 18.1.

18.6.1

Thermal Solution for Stationary and Rotating Sleeves

The temperature distribution in the ﬂuid ﬁlm is solved by the Reynolds equation, together with the equation of viscosity variation versus temperature. The viscous friction losses are dissipated in the ﬂuid as heat, which is transferred by convection (ﬂuid ﬂow) and conduction through the sleeve. The shaft temperature TABLE 18-1

Bearing and Lubrication Speciﬁcations

Outer sleeve radius, Ro Shaft radius, Rj Shaft speed, oj Sleeve wall thickness, b Sleeve length, L Sleeve thermal diffusivity, ab Sleeve speed, ob Clearance, C Eccentricity ratio, e Length-to-diameter ratio, L=D Thermal conductivity of sleeve material, Kb Density of bush material, rb Speciﬁc heat of sleeve material, Cpb Thermal conductivity of oil, Ko Density of oil, ro Ambient temperature, Tamb Viscosity of the oil at the inlet temperature, m Viscosity–temperature coefﬁcient, b Oil thermal diffusivity, ao From Harnoy and Khonsari, 1996.

0.095 m 0.05 m 3500 RPM 0.01 m 0.1 m 1:5 105 m2 =s 200 RPM 0.00006 m 0.5 1 45 W=m-K 8666 kg=m3 0.343 kJ=kg-K 0.13 W=m-K 860 kg=m3 24.4 C 0.03 kg=m-s 0.0411= K 7.6 108 m2=s

578

Chapter 18

is assumed to be constant. The following equation, in a cylindrical coordinate system ðr; yÞ, was used for solving the temperature distribution in the sleeve (the coordinate system is ﬁxed to the solid sleeve and rotating with it): @2 T 1 @T 1 @2 T 1 dT þ þ ¼ @r2 r @r r2 @y2 a dt

ð18-37Þ

where a is the thermal diffusivity of the solid. For a rotating sleeve in stationary (Eulerian) coordinates (the sleeve rotates relative to the stationary coordinates) this equation can be expressed as @2 T 1 @T 1 @2 T ob @T 1 dT þ þ þ ¼ @r2 r @r r2 @y2 a @y a dt

ð18-38Þ

where ob is the angular speed of the sleeve. The following order of magnitude analysis intends to show that when the sleeve rotates above a certain speed, its maximum temperature difference in the circumferential direction, DTc , becomes negligible compared with the maximum temperature difference, DTr , in the radial direction. The order of magnitude of all terms in Eq. (18-38) are: @2 T DTr ¼O @r2 b2 1 @T DTr ¼O ð18-39aÞ r @r Rb b 1 @2 T DTc ¼ O r2 @y2 pR2b ob @T o R DTc ¼O b b a @y a Rb

ð18-39bÞ

Here, b represents the sleeve wall thickness, b ¼ Ro Ri . The radius R is taken as the average value of the outer and inner radii of the bushing, Rb ¼ ðRo þ Ri Þ=2. Substituting these orders in Eq. (18-38) and assuming b R, the order of the ratio of the temperature gradients is @T @r ¼ O ob Rb b 1 @T ab R @y

ð18-40Þ

The dimensionless parameter on the right-hand side of Eq. (18-40) is a modiﬁed Peclet number (Pe). Equation (18-40) indicates that when Pe 1, the radial temperature gradient is much higher than the temperature gradient in the circumferential direction, and the temperature distribution can be assumed to

Case Study: Composite Bearing

579

be uniform around the sleeve. In fact, in the circumferential direction, most of the heat is effectively transferred by the moving mass of the rotating sleeve and only a negligible amount of heat is transferred by conduction. In the example (Table 18-1), if the sleeve speed is 200 RPM, the Peclet number is Pe ¼

ob Rb b ¼ 692 ab

ð18-41Þ

This number indicates that the circumferential temperature gradient is relatively low, and only heat conduction in the radial direction needs to be considered in solving for the temperature distribution. It is interesting to note that there would be no signiﬁcant change in the composite bearing thermal characteristics even at much lower sleeve speeds. For example, for ob ¼ 30 RPM, the resulting Pe is above 100, and the assumption of negligible circumferential temperature gradients should still hold. It should be noted that a composite bearing design operating at a low sleeve speed might not be desirable. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in the rolling bearing requires a certain minimum speed below which

F IG. 18-12 Thermohydrodynamic solution showing the isotherm contours plot in a stationary sleeve of a journal bearing. L=D ¼ 1, e ¼ 0:5, Nshaft ¼ 3500 RPM. (From Harnoy and Khonsari, 1996.)

580

Chapter 18

the friction is somewhat higher, as the rolling bearing friction–velocity curve presented in Fig. 18-4 demonstrates. A full thermohydrodynamic analysis was performed with the bearing speciﬁcations listed in Table 18-1 assuming a stationary sleeve. The solution for the temperature proﬁle in the stationary sleeve is presented by isotherms in Fig. 18-12. Hydrodynamic lubrication theory indicates that the amount of heat dissipated in the oil ﬁlm is proportional to the average shear rate and, in turn, proportional to the difference between the journal and sleeve speeds ðoj ob Þ. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the heat ﬂux from the oil ﬁlm to the surroundings is also proportional to ðoj ob Þ. Therefore, the ratio of the radial heat ﬂuxes of rotating and stationary is Qrotating sleeve ¼ Qrigid sleeve

ðoj ob Þ oj

ð18-42Þ

F IG. 18-13 Isotherm contours plot of a rotating sleeve unit. (From Harnoy and Khonsari, 1996.)

Case Study: Composite Bearing

581

The surface temperatures Ti (inner wall) and To (outside wall) of the sleeve are solved by the following equations: lnðRo =Ri Þ 1 Ti ¼ Tamb þ Qrotating sleeve þ ð18-43Þ 2pkb L 2pRo Lh lnðRo =Ri Þ To ¼ Ti Qrotating sleeve ð18-44Þ 2pkb L Here, h is the correction coefﬁcient. The temperature distribution in the sleeve is obtained from T Ti lnðr=Ri Þ ¼ To Ti lnðRo =Ri Þ

ð18:45Þ

The results are circular isotherms, as shown in Fig. 18-13. The uniformity in the temperature proﬁle, together with a reduction in the maximum temperature (59.7 C for composite bearing versus 71 C for a conventional hydrodynamic bearing), is indicative of the superior thermal performance.

19 Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

19.1

INTRODUCTION

The previous chapters focused on Newtonian lubricants such as regular mineral oils. However, non-Newtonian multigrade lubricants, also referred to as VI (viscosity index) improved oils are in common use today, particularly in motor vehicle engines. The multigrade lubricants include additives of long-chain polymer molecules that modify the ﬂow characteristics of the base oils. In this chapter, the hydrodynamic analysis is extended for multigrade oils. The initial motivation behind the development of the multigrade lubricants was to reduce the dependence of lubricant viscosity on temperature (to improve the viscosity index). This property is important in motor vehicle engines, e.g., starting the engine on cold mornings. Later, experiments indicated that multigrade lubricants have complex non-Newtonian characteristics. The polymercontaining lubricants were found to have other rheological properties in addition to the viscosity. These lubricants are viscoelastic ﬂuids, in the sense that they have viscous as well as elastic properties. Polymer additives modify several ﬂow characteristics of the base oil. 1. 2.

582

The polymer additives increase the viscosity of the base oil. The polymer additives moderate the reduction of viscosity with temperature (improve the viscosity index).

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

3. 4.

5.

583

The viscosity becomes a decreasing function of shear rate (shearthinning property). Normal stresses are introduced. In simple shear ﬂow, u ¼ uðyÞ, there are normal stress differences sx sy (ﬁrst difference) and sy sz (second difference). The ﬁrst difference is much higher than the second difference. The polymer additives introduce stress-relaxation characteristics into the ﬂuid, exempliﬁed by a phase lag between the shear stress and a periodic shear rate. This property is what is meant by the term viscoelasticity; namely, the ﬂuid becomes elastic as well as viscous.

Although multi grade oils were developed to improve the viscosity index, later experiments revealed a signiﬁcant improvement in the lubrication performance of journal bearings that cannot be explained by changes of viscosity. Dubois et al. (1960) compared the performance of mineral oils and VI improved oils in journal bearings under static load. They used high journal speeds and measured load capacity, friction and eccentricity. The results indicated a superior performance of the multigrade oils with polymer additives. Additional conclusion of this investigation (important for comparison with analytical investigations) is that the relative improvement in load capacity of the VI improved oils becomes greater as the eccentricity increases. Okrent (1961) and Savage and Bowman (1961) found less friction and wear in the connecting-rod bearing in a car engine (dynamically loaded journal bearing). Analytical investigations showed that the improvements in the lubrication performance of VI improved oils are not due to changes in the viscosity. Horowitz and Steidler (1960) performed analytical investigation and showed that the improvement in the lubrication performance could not be accounted for by the different function of viscosity versus shear rate and temperature. In fact, they found that the non-Newtonian viscosity increases the friction coefﬁcient (opposite trend to the experiments of Dubois et al., 1960). A survey of the previous analytical investigation by Harnoy (1978) shows that the measured order of magnitude of the ﬁrst and second normal stresses is too low to explain any signiﬁcant improvement in the lubrication performance. This discussion indicates that the elasticity of the ﬂuid (stress-relaxation effect) is the most probable explanation of the improvement in performance of viscoelastic lubricants. The criterion for improvement of the lubrication performance is very important. For example, polymer additives increase the viscosity of mineral oils; in turn, the load capacity increases. However, our basis of comparison is the load capacity at equivalent viscosity and bearing geometry. Higher viscosity on its own is not considered as an improvement in the lubrication performance, because the friction losses as well as load capacity are both proportional to the

584

Chapter 19

viscosity. Moreover, it is possible to use higher viscosity oils without resorting to oil additives of long chain polymer molecules. An appropriate criterion for an improvement of the lubrication performance is the ratio between the friction force and the load capacity (bearing friction coefﬁcient).

19.2

VISCOELASTIC FLUID MODELS1

For the analysis of viscoelastic ﬂuids, various models have been developed. The models are in the form of rheological equations, also referred to as constitutive equations. An example is the Maxwell ﬂuid equation (Sec. 2.9). Multi-grade lubricants are predominantly viscous ﬂuids with a small elastic effect. Therefore, in hydrodynamic lubrication, the viscosity has a dominant role in generating the pressure wave, while the ﬂuid elasticity has only a small (second order) effect. In such cases, the ﬂow of non-Newtonian viscoelastic ﬂuids can be analyzed by using differential type constitutive equations. The main advantage of these equations is that the stress components are explicit functions of the strainrate components. In a similar way to Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations, viscoelastic differential-type equations can be directly applied for solving the ﬂow. Differential type equations were widely used in the theory of lubrication for bearings under steady and particularly unsteady conditions. Differential type constitutive equations are restricted to a class of ﬂow problems where the Deborah number is low, De 1. The ratio De is of the relaxation time of the ﬂuid, l; to a characteristic time of the ﬂow, Dt; De ¼ l=Dt. Here, Dt is the time for a signiﬁcant change in the ﬂow; e.g., in a sinusoidal ﬂow, Dt is the oscillation period. The early analytical work in hydrodynamics lubrication of viscoelastic ﬂuids is based on the second-order ﬂuid equation of Rivlin and Ericksen (1955) or on the equation of Oldroyd (1959). These early equations are referred to as conventional, differential-type rheological equations. Coleman and Noll (1960) showed that the Rivlin and Ericksen equation represents the ﬁrst perturbation from Newtonian ﬂuid for slow ﬂows, but its use has been extended later to high shear rates of lubrication. An analysis based on the conventional second order equation (Harnoy and Hanin, 1975) indicated signiﬁcant improvements of the viscoelastic lubrication performance in journal bearings under steady and dynamic loads. Moreover, the improvements increase with the eccentricity (in agreement with the trends observed in the experiments of Dubois et al., 1960).

1

This section and the following viscoelastic analysis are for advanced studies.

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

585

An important feature of these conventional equations for viscoelastic ﬂuids is that they describe the unsteady stress-relaxation effect and the ﬁrst normalstress difference ðsx sy Þ in a steady shear ﬂow by the same parameter. In many cases, the relaxation time that describes dynamic (unsteady) ﬂow effects was determined by normal-stress measurements in steady shear ﬂow between rotating plate and cone (Weissenberg rheometer). In conventional rheological equations, the normal stresses are proportional to the second power of the shear-rate. Hydrodynamic lubrication involves very high shear-rates, and the conventional equations predict unrealistically high ﬁrstnormal-stress differences. Moreover, when the actual measured magnitude of the normal stresses was considered in lubrication, its effect is negligibly small in comparison to the stress-relaxation effect. It was realized that for high shear-rate ﬂows, the two effects of the ﬁrst normal stress difference and stress relaxation must be described by means of two parameters capable of separate experimental determination. For high shear rate ﬂows of lubrication, the forgoing arguments indicated that there is a requirement for a different viscoelastic model that can separate the unsteady relaxation effects from the normal stresses.

19.2.1

Viscoelastic Model for High Shear-Rate Flows

A rheological equation that separates the normal stresses from the relaxation effect was developed and used for hydrodynamic lubrication by Harnoy (1976). For this purpose, a unique convective time derivative, d=dt, is deﬁned in a coordinate system that is attached to the three principal directions of the derived tensor. This rheological equation can be derived from the Maxwell model (analogy of a spring and dashpot in series). The Maxwell model in terms of the deviatoric stresses, t0 , is t0 ij þ l

d 0 t ¼ meij dt ij

Here, l is the relaxation time and the strain-rate components, eij , are ! 1 @vi @vj þ eij ¼ 2 @xj @xi

ð19-1Þ

ð19-2Þ

where vi are the velocity components in orthogonal coordinates xi . The deviatoric stress tensor can be derived explicitly as 1 d 0 eij ð19-3Þ t ij ¼ m 1 þ l dt

586

Chapter 19

Expanding the operator in terms of an inﬁnite series of increasing powers of l results in t0ij

d d2 dn1 ¼ m eij l eij þ l2 2 eij þ þ ðlÞn1 n1 eij dt dt dt

! ð19-4Þ

For low-Deborah number, De ¼ l=Dt, where Dt is a characteristic time of the ﬂow, second-order and higher powers of l are negligible. Therefore, only terms with the ﬁrst power of l are considered, and the equation gets the following simpliﬁed form: t0ij

d ¼ m eij l eij dt

ð19-5Þ

The tensor time derivative is deﬁned as follows (see Harnoy 1976): deij @eij @eij ¼ þ v Oia eaj þ eia Oaj dt @t @xa a

ð19-6Þ

The deﬁnition is similar to that of the Jaumann time derivative (see Prager 1961). Here, however, the rotation vector Oij is the rotation components of a rigid, rectangular coordinate system (1, 2, 3) having its origin ﬁxed to a ﬂuid particle and moving with it. At the same time, its directions always coincide with the three principle directions of the derived tensor. The last two terms, having the rotation, Oij , can be neglected for high-shear-rate ﬂow because the rotation of the principal directions is very slow. Equations (19-5) and (19-6) form the viscoelastic ﬂuid model for the following analysis.

19.3

ANALYSIS OF VISCOELASTIC FLUID FLOW

Similar to the analysis in Chapter 4, the following derivation starts from the balance of forces acting on an inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid element having the shape of a rectangular parallelogram with dimensions dx and dy, as shown in Fig. 4-1. The following derivation of Harnoy (1978) is for two-dimensional ﬂow in the x and y directions. In an inﬁnitely long bearing, there is no ﬂow or pressure gradient in the z direction. In a similar way to that described in Chapter 4, the balance of forces results in dt dx ¼ dp dy

ð19-7Þ

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

587

Remark: If the ﬂuid inertia is not neglected, the equilibrium equation in the x direction for two-dimensional ﬂow is [see Eq. (5-4b)] r

Du @p @s0 @txy ¼ þ xþ Dt @x @x @y

ð19-8Þ

After disregarding the ﬂuid inertia term on the left-hand side, the equation is equivalent to Eq. (19-7). In two-dimensional ﬂow, the continuity equation is @u @v þ ¼0 @x @y

ð19-9Þ

For viscoelastic ﬂuid, the constitutive equations (19-5) and (19-6) establishes the relation between the stress and velocity components. Substituting Eq. (19-5) in the equilibrium equation (19-8) yields the following differential equation of steady-state ﬂow in a two-dimensional lubrication ﬁlm: dp @2 u @ @2 u @2 u ¼ m 2 lm þ v ð19-10Þ dx @y @y @y @x @y2 Converting to dimensionless variables: u ¼

u ; U

v ¼

R v ; CU

x ¼

x ; R

y ¼

y C

ð19-11Þ

The ratio G, often referred to as the Deborah number, De, is deﬁned as De ¼ G ¼

lU R

The ﬂow equation (19-10) becomes @2 u @ @2 u @2 u u þ v ¼ 2FðxÞ m @y @y @x @y2 @y2

ð19-12Þ

ð19-13Þ

where 2FðxÞ ¼

C 2 dp ZUR d x

ð19-14Þ

In these equations, l is small in comparison to the characteristic time of the ﬂow, Dt. The characteristic time Dt is the time for a signiﬁcant periodic ﬂow to take place, such as a ﬂow around the bearing or the period time in oscillating ﬂow. It results that De is small in lubrication ﬂow, or G 1.

588

Chapter 19

19.3.1

Velocity

The ﬂow u ¼ u ðyÞ can be divided into a Newtonian ﬂow, u 0 , and a secondary ﬂow, u 1 , owing to the elasticity of the ﬂuid: u ¼ u 0 þ Gu1

ð19-15Þ

In the ﬂow equations, the secondary ﬂow terms include the coefﬁcient G.

19.3.2

Solution of the Di¡erential Equation of Flow

In order to solve the nonlinear differential equation of ﬂow for small G, a perturbation method is used, expanding in powers of G and retaining the ﬁrst power only, as follows: u ¼ u 0 þ Gu1 þ 0ðG2 Þ

ð19-16Þ

v ¼ v 0 þ Gv1 þ 0ðG Þ

ð19-17Þ

2

FðxÞ ¼ F0 ðxÞ þ GF1 ðxÞ þ 0ðG2 Þ

ð19-18Þ

Introducing Eqs. (19-16)–(19-18) into Eq. (19-13) and equating terms with corresponding powers of G yields two linear equations: @2 u 0 ¼ 2F0 ðxÞ @2 y 2 @2 u 1 @ @2 u 0 @2 u 0 u v þ xÞ 0 0 ¼ 2F1 ð @y2 @y @x @y @y2

ð19-19Þ ð19-20Þ

The boundary conditions of the ﬂow are: at y ¼ 0; h at y ¼ ; c

u ¼ 0 u ¼ 1

Because there is no side ﬂow, the ﬂux q is constant: ðh hU u dy ¼ q ¼ e 2 0

ð19-21Þ ð19-22Þ

ð19-23Þ

For the ﬁrst velocity term, u 0 , the boundary conditions are: at y ¼ 0

u 0 ¼ 0

ð19-24Þ

h c

u 0 ¼ 1

ð19-25Þ

at y ¼

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

589

Expanding the ﬂux into powers of G: q ¼ q0 þ Gq1 þ 0ðG2 qÞ ¼

he U 2

ð19-26Þ

and we denote hi ¼

2qi U

for i ¼ 0 and 1

ð19-27Þ

The ﬂow rate of the zero-order (Newtonian) velocity is ð h=c

u 0 d y ¼

q0 h ¼ 0 CU 2C

ð19-28Þ

After integrating Eq. (19-19) twice and using the boundary conditions (19-24), (19-25), and (19-28), the zero-order equations result in the well-known Newtonian solutions: u 0 ¼ M y 2 þ N y

ð19-29Þ

where

1 h0 h2 h3 3h 2 N ¼ C 20 h h

ð19-30Þ

M ¼ 3C 2

ð19-31Þ

The velocity component in the y direction, v0 , is determined from the continuity equation. Substituting u 0 and v 0 in Eq. (19-20) enables solution of the second velocity, u 1 . The boundary conditions for v 1 are: at y ¼ 0;

u 1 ¼ 0

ð19-32Þ

h at y ¼ ; c

u 1 ¼ 0

ð19-33Þ

ð h=c 0

u 1 d y ¼

q1 h ¼ 1 CU 2C

ð19-34Þ

The resulting solution for the velocity in the x direction is u ¼ u 0 þ Gu1 ¼ ay4 þ by3 þ gy2 þ dy

ð19-35Þ

590

Chapter 19

where

2 5he 3h2e dh a ¼ 3GC 5 þ 6 7 h h h d x h2 24h 8 dh b ¼ GC 3 18 e6 5 e þ 4 h d x h h 1 h 6 9h 54h2 dh g ¼ 3C 2 2 3e þ GC 2 3 þ 4e 5e h 5h h h 5h d x 2 3h 2 9he 4 1 dh d ¼ C 2e þ GC h h 5h4 5 h2 d x 4

ð19-36Þ ð19-37Þ ð19-38Þ ð19-39Þ

where he ¼ ho þ Gh1 is an unknown constant.

19.4

PRESSURE WAVE IN A JOURNAL BEARING

In a similar way to the solution in Chapter 4, the following pressure wave equation is obtained from Eq. (19-10) and the ﬂuid velocity: ðx 1 he 4 1 9 h2e 3 dx þ GRmU þ p ¼ 6RmU þk ð19-40Þ 2 5 h2 10 h4 h 0 h The last constant, k, is determined by the external oil feed pressure. The constant he is determined from the boundary conditions of the pressure p around the bearing. The analysis is limited to a relaxation time l that is much smaller than the characteristic time, Dt of the ﬂow. In this case, the characteristic time is Dt ¼ OðU =RÞ, which is the order of magnitude of the time for a ﬂuid particle to ﬂow around the bearing. The condition becomes l U =R. For a journal bearing, the pressure wave for a viscoelastic lubricant was solved and compared to that of a Newtonian ﬂuid; see Harnoy (1978). The pressure wave was solved by numerical integration. Realistic boundary conditions were applied for the pressure wave [see Eq. (6-67)]. The pressure wave starts at y ¼ 0 and terminates at y2 , where the pressure gradient also vanishes. The solution in Fig. 19-1 indicates that the elasticity of the ﬂuid increases the pressure wave and load capacity.

19.4.1

Improvements in Lubrication Performance of Journal Bearings

The velocity in Eq. (19-35) allows the calculation of the shear stresses, and friction torque on the journal. The results indicated (Harnoy, 1978) that the elasticity of the ﬂuid has a very small effect on the viscous friction losses of a

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

591

F IG. 19-1 Journal bearing pressure wave for Newtonian and viscoelastic lubricants. (From Harnoy, 1978.)

journal bearing, and the reduction in the friction coefﬁcient is mostly due the load capacity improvement. As mentioned in Sec. 19.1, the friction coefﬁcient is a criterion for the improvement in the lubrication performance under static load. In short hydrodynamic journal bearings, e.g., in car engines, the elasticity of the ﬂuid reduces the friction coefﬁcient by a similar order of magnitude (Harnoy, 1977). Harnoy and Zhu (1991) conducted dynamic analysis of short hydrodynamic journal bearings based on the same viscoelastic ﬂuid model. The results show that viscoelastic lubricants play a signiﬁcant role in improving the lubrication performance under heavy dynamic loads, where the eccentricity ratio is high; see Fig. 15-2. For a viscoelastic lubricant, the maximum eccentricity ratio emin of the locus of the journal center is signiﬁcantly reduced in comparison to that of a Newtonian lubricant. In conclusion, analytical results based on the viscoelastic ﬂuid model of Eqs. (19-5) and (19-6) indicated signiﬁcant improvements of lubrication performance under steady and dynamic loads. Moreover, the improvement increases with the eccentricity. These results are in agreement with the trends obtained in the experiments of Dubois et al. 1960. However, similar improvements in performance were obtained by using the conventional second-order equation. Therefore, the results for journal bearings cannot indicate the appropriate rheological equation, which is in better agreement with experimentation. It is shown in Sec. 19.5 that squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow can be used

592

Chapter 19

for the purpose of validation of the appropriate rheological equation, because the solutions of two theoretical models are in opposite trends. Viscoelastic lubricants play a signiﬁcant role in improving lubrication performance under heavy dynamic loads, where the eccentricity ratio is high; see Fig. 15-2. For a viscoelastic lubricant, the maximum locus eccentricity ratio emin is signiﬁcantly reduced in comparison to that of a Newtonian lubricant.

19.4.2

Viscoelastic Lubrication of Gears and Rollers

Harnoy (1976) investigated the role of viscoelastic lubricants in gears and rollers. In this application, there is a pure rolling or, more often, a rolling combined with sliding. For rolling and sliding between a cylinder and plane (see Fig. 4-4) the solution of the pressure wave for Newtonian and viscoelastic lubricants is shown in Fig. 19-2. The viscoelastic ﬂuid model is according to Eqs. (19-5) and (19-6). The results of the numerical integration are presented for different rolling-tosliding ratios x. The relative improvement of the pressure wave and load capacity due to the elasticity of the ﬂuid are more pronounced for rolling than for sliding (the relative rise of the pressure wave increases with x).

19.5

SQUEEZE-FILM FLOW

Squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow between two parallel circular and concentric disks is shown in Fig. 5-5 and 5-6. Unlike experiments in journal bearings, squeeze-ﬁlm experiments can be used for veriﬁcation of viscoelastic models. In fact, the viscoelastic ﬂuid model described by Eqs. (19-5) and (19-6) resulted in agreement with squeeze-ﬁlm experiments, while the conventional second-order equation resulted in conﬂict with experiments. Two types of experiments are usually conducted: 1.

2.

The upper disk has a constant velocity V toward the lower disk, and a load cell measures the upper disk load capacity versus the ﬁlm thickness, h. There is a constant load W on the upper disk, and the ﬁlm thickness h is measured versus time. Experiments were conducted to measure the descent time, namely, the time for the ﬁlm thickness to be reduced to half of its initial height.

For Newtonian ﬂuids, the solution of the load capacity in the ﬁrst experiment is presented in Sec. 5.7. If the upper disk has a constant velocity V toward the lower disk (ﬁrst experiment), the load capacity of the squeeze-ﬁlm of

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

593

F IG. 19-2 Comparison of Newtonian and viscoelastic pressure waves in rollers for various rolling-to-sliding ratios x.

viscoelastic ﬂuid is less than its Newtonian counterpart. In Sec. 5.7, it was shown that the squeeze-ﬁlm load capacity of a Newtonian ﬂuid is

Wo ¼

3pmVR4 2h3

ð19-41Þ

Here, Wo is the Newtonian load capacity, h is the clearance, and V is the disk velocity when the disks are approaching each other. If the ﬂuid is viscoelastic,

594

Chapter 19

under constant velocity V, the equation for the load capacity W becomes (Harnoy, 1987) W ¼ 1 2:1 De Wo

ð19-42Þ

Here, De is the ratio De ¼

lV h

ð19-43Þ

and h is the clearance. This result is in agreement with the physical interpretation of the viscoelasticity of the ﬂuid. In a squeeze action, the stresses increase with time, because the ﬁlm becomes thinner. For viscoelastic ﬂuid, the stresses are at an earlier, lower value. This effect is referred to as a memory effect, in the sense that the instantaneous stress is affected by the history of previous stress. In this case, it is affected only by the recent history of a very short time period. For the ﬁrst experiment of load under constant velocity, all the viscoelastic models are in agreement with the experiments of small reduction in load capacity. However, for the second experiment under constant load, the early conventional models (the second order ﬂuid and other models) are in conﬂict with the experiments. Leider and Bird (1974) conducted squeeze-ﬁlm experiments under a constant load. For viscoelastic ﬂuids, the experiments demonstrated a longer squeezing time (descent time) than for a comparable viscous ﬂuid. Grimm (1978) reviewed many previous experiments that lead to the same conclusion. Tichy and Modest (1980) were the ﬁrst to analyze the squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow based on Harnoy rheological equations (19.5) and (19.6). Later, Avila and Binding (1982), Sus (1984), and Harnoy (1987) analyzed additional aspects of the squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow of viscoelastic ﬂuid according to this model. The results of all these analytical investigations show that Harnoy equation correctly predicts the trend of increasing descent time under constant load, in agreement with experimentation. In that case, the theory and experiments are in agreement that the ﬂuid elasticity improves the lubrication performance in unsteady squeeze-ﬁlm under constant load. Brindley et al. (1976) solved the second experiment problem of squeezeﬁlm under constant load using the second order ﬂuid model. The result predicts an opposite trend of decreasing descent time, which is in conﬂict with the experiments. In this case, the second dynamic experiment can be used for validation of rheological equations. An additional example where the rheological equations (19.5) and (19.6) are in agreement with experiments, while the conventional equations are in conﬂict with experiments is the boundary-layer ﬂow around a cylinder. These experiments can also be used for similar validation of the appropriate viscoelastic

Non-Newtonian Viscoelastic E¡ects

595

models, resulting in similar conclusions for high shear rate ﬂows (Harnoy, 1977, 1989)

19.5.1

Conclusions

The theory and experiments indicate that the viscoelasticity improves the lubrication performance in comparison to that of a Newtonian lubricant, particularly under dynamic loads. Although the elasticity of the ﬂuid increases the load capacity of a journal bearing, the bearing stability must be tested as well. The elasticity of the ﬂuid (spring and dashpot in series) must affect the dynamic characteristics and stability of journal bearings. Mukherjee et al. (1985) studied the bearing stability based on Harnoy rheological equations [Eqs. (19.5) and (19.6)]. Their results indicated that the stability map of viscoelastic ﬂuid is different than for Newtonian lubricant. This conclusion is important to design engineers for preventing instability, such as bearing whirl. As mentioned earlier, these experiments were in conﬂict with previous rheological equations, which describe normal stresses as well as the stressrelaxation effect. However, the experiments were in agreement with the trend that is predicted by the rheological model based on Eqs. (19-5) and (19-6) which does not consider normal stresses.

20 Orthopedic Joint Implants

20.1

INTRODUCTION

Orthopedic joint implants are widely used in orthopedic surgery, particularly for the hip joint. Each year, more than 250,000 of orthopedic hip joints are implanted in the United States alone to treat severe hip joint disease, and this number is increasing every year. Although much research work has been devoted to various aspects of this topic, there are still several important problems. In the past, most of the research was conducted by bioengineering and medical scientists, and participation by the tribology community was limited. In fact, in the past decade there has been a signiﬁcant improvement in bearings in machinery, but the design of the hip replacement joint remains basically the same. This is an example where engineering design and the science of tribology can be very helpful in actual bioengineering problems. The common design of a hip replacement joint is shown in Fig. 20-1. The acetabular cup (socket) is made of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), while the femur head replacement is commonly made of titanium or cobalt alloys. The early designs used metal-on-metal joints in which both the femoral head and socket were made of stainless steel. In 1961, Dr. Sir John Charnley in England introduced the UHMWPE socket design. A short review of the history of artiﬁcial joints is included in Sec. 20.3.

596

Orthopedic Joint Implants

F IG. 20-1

597

Hip replacement joint.

The combinations with UHMWPE have relatively low friction and wear in comparison to earlier designs with metal sockets. Later, the stainless steel femur was replaced with titanium or cobalt alloys for better compatibility with the body. It proved to be a good design and material combination, with a life expectancy of 10–15 years. This basic hip joint design is still commonly used today. For comparison with the implant joint, an example of a natural joint (synovial joint) is shown in Fig. 20-2. The cartilage is a soft, compliant material, and together with the synovial ﬂuid as a lubricant, it is considered to be superior in performance to any manmade bearing (Dowson and Jin, 1986, Cooke et al., 1978, and Higginson, 1978).

F IG. 20-2

Example of a natural joint.

598

Chapter 20

Although signiﬁcant progress has been made, there are still two major problems in the current design that justify further research in this area. The most important problems are 1. 2.

A major problem is that particulate wear debris is undesirable in the body. A life of 10–15 years is not completely satisfactory, particularly for young people. It would offer a signiﬁcant beneﬁt to patients if the average life could be extended.

Previous studies, such as those by Willert et al. 1976, 1977, Mirra et al. 1976, Nolan and Phillips, 1996, and Pappas et al., 1996, indicate that small-size wear debris of UHMWPE is rejected by the body. Furthermore, there are indications that the wear debris contributes to undesirable separation of the metal from the bone. There is no doubt that any improvement in the life of the implant would be of great beneﬁt.

20.2

ARTIFICIAL HIP JOINT AS A BEARING

The artiﬁcial hip joint is a heavily loaded bearing operating at low speed and with an oscillating motion. The maximum dynamic load on a hip joint can reach ﬁve times the weight of an active person. During walking or running, the hip joint bearing is subjected to a dynamic friction in which the velocity as well as load periodically oscillate with time. The oscillations involve start-ups from zero velocity. The joint is considered a lubricated bearing in the presence of body ﬂuids, although the lubricant is of low viscosity and inferior to the natural synovial ﬂuid. For a lubricated sleeve or socket bearings, a certain minimum product of viscosity and speed, mU, is required to generate a full or partial ﬂuid ﬁlm that can reduce friction and wear. At very low speed, there is only boundary lubrication with direct contact between the asperities of the sliding surfaces. Dry friction of polymers (such as UHMWPE) against hard metals is unique, because the friction coefﬁcient increases with sliding velocity (Fig. 164). Friction of metals against metals has an opposite trend of a negative slope of friction versus sliding velocity. For polymers against metals, the start-up dry friction is the minimum friction, whereas it is the maximum friction in metal against metal. However, for lubricated surfaces, there is always a negative slope of friction versus sliding velocity, and the start-up friction is the maximum friction for polymers against metals as well as metals against metals. From a tribological perspective, the performance of artiﬁcial joints is inferior to that of synovial joints. The reciprocating swinging motion of the hip joint means that the velocity will be passing through zero, where friction is highest, with each cycle. In its present design, the maximum velocity reached in

Orthopedic Joint Implants

599

an artiﬁcial joint is not sufﬁcient (or sustained long enough) to generate full hydrodynamic lubrication. Under normal activity, much of the motion associated with joints is of low velocity and frequency. In artiﬁcial joints this means that lubrication is characterized by boundary lubrication, or at best mixed lubrication. In contrast, natural, synovial joints are characterized by a mixture of a full ﬂuid ﬁlm and mixed lubrication. Experiments by Unsworth et al. (1974, 1988) and O’Kelly et al. (1977) suggest that hip and knee synovial joints operate with an average friction coefﬁcient of 0.02. In comparison, the friction coefﬁcient measured in artiﬁcial joints ranges from 0.02–0.25. High friction causes the loosening of the implant. In addition, wear rate of artiﬁcial joints is much higher than in synovial joints. The synovial ﬂuid provides lubrication in the natural joint. It is highly nonNewtonian, exhibiting very high viscosity at low shear rates; however, it is only slightly more viscous than water at high shear rates. Dowson and Jin (1986, 1992) have attempted to analyze the lubrication of natural joints. In their work, they couple overall elastohydrodynamic analysis with a study of the local, microelastohydrodynamic action associated with surface asperities. Their analysis indicates that microelastohydrodynamic action smooths out the initial roughness of cartilage surfaces in the loaded junctions in articulating synovial joints. In natural joints a cartilage is attached to the bone surfaces. This cartilage is elastic and porous. The elastic properties of the cartilage allow for some compliance that extends the ﬂuid ﬁlm region. This is in contrast to artiﬁcial joints, which are relatively rigid and consequently exhibit poor lubrication in which ideal separation of the surfaces does not occur. Contact between the plastic and metal surfaces increases the friction and leads to wear. The problem is compounded due to the fact that synovial ﬂuid in implants is much less viscous than that in natural joints (Cooke et al. 1978). Therefore, any future improvement in design which extends the ﬂuid ﬁlm regime would be very beneﬁcial in reducing friction and minimizing wear in artiﬁcial joints.

20.3

HISTORY OF THE HIP REPLACEMENT JOINT

Dowson (1992, 1998) reviewed the history of artiﬁcial joint implants. The following is a summary of major developments of interest to design engineers. Unsuccessful attempts at joint replacement were performed* as early as 1891. These attempts failed due to incompatible materials, and infections. In 1938, Phillip Wiles designed and introduced the ﬁrst stainless steel artiﬁcial hip *The German surgeon Gluck (1891) replaced a diseased hip joint with an ivory ball and socket held in place with cement and screws. Two years later, a French surgeon, Emile Pean replaced a shoulder joint with an artiﬁcial joint made of platinum rods joined by a hard rubber ball.

600

Chapter 20

joint (see Wiles, 1957). The prosthesis consisted of an acetebular cup and femoral head (both made of stainless steel held in place by screws). The matching surfaces of the cup and femoral head were ground and ﬁtted together accurately. The basic design of Phillip Wiles was successful and did not change much over time; however, the steel-on-steel combination lacks tribological compatibility (see Chapter 11), resulting in high friction and wear. The high friction caused the implants to fail by loosening of the cup that had been connected to the pelvis by screws. Failure occurred mostly within one year; therefore, only six joints were implanted. In the 1950s, there were several interesting attempts to improve the femoral head material. For example, the Judet brothers in Paris used acrylic for femoral head replacement in 1946 (Judet and Judet, 1950); however, there were many failures due to fractures and abrasion of the acrylic head. In 1950, Austin Moore in the United States used Vitallium, a cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloy, for femoral head replacement (see Moore, 1959). Between 1956 and 1960, the surgeon G.K. McKee replaced the stainless steel with Vitallium; in addition, McKee and Watson-Farrar introduced the use of methyl-methacrylate as a cement to replace the screws. The design consisted of relatively large-diameter femoral head, and the outer surface of the cup had studs to improve the bonding of the cup to the bone by cement (see McKee and Watson-Farrar, 1966, and McKee, 1967). They used a metal-on-metal, closely ﬁtted femoral head and acetabular cup. These improvements signiﬁcantly improved the success rate to about 50%. However, the metal-on-metal combination loosened due to fast wear, and it was recognized that there is a need for more compatible materials. Dr. Sir John Charnley developed the successful modern replacement joint (see Charnley, 1979). Charnley conducted research on the lubrication of natural and artiﬁcial joints, and realized that the synovial ﬂuid in natural joints is a remarkable lubricant, but the body ﬂuid is not as effective in the metal-on-metal artiﬁcial joint. He concluded that a self-lubricating material would be beneﬁcial in this case. In 1969, Dr. Charnley replaced the metal cup with a polytetraﬂouroethelyne (PTFE) cup against a stainless steel femoral head. The design consisted of a stainless steel, small-diameter femoral head and a PTFE acetebular cup. The PTFE has self-lubricating characteristics, and very low friction against steel. However, the PTFE proved to have poor wear resistance and lacked the desired compatibility with the body (implant’s life was only 2–3 years). In 1961, Dr. Charnley replaced the PTFE cup with UHMWPE, which was introduced at that time. The wear rate of this combination was 500 to 1800 times lower than for PTFE cup. In addition, he replaced the screws and bolts with methyl-methacrylate cement (similar to the technique of McKee and WatsonFarrar). A study that followed 106 cases for ten years, and ended in 1973, showed

Orthopedic Joint Implants

601

a success rate of 92%. This design remains (with only a few improvements) the most commonly used artiﬁcial joint today. The use of cement in place of screws, UHMWPE, ceramics, and metal alloys with super ﬁne surface ﬁnish has led to the remarkable success of orthopedic joint implants; this is one of the important medical achievements. However, there are still a few problems. Wear debris generated by the rubbing motion is released into the area surrounding the implant. Although UHMWPE is compatible with the body, a severe foreign-body response against the small wear debris has been observed in some patients. Awakened by the presence of the debris, the body begins to attack the cement, resulting in loosening of the joint. Recently, complications resulting from UHMWPE wear debris have renewed some interest in metal-on-metal articulating designs (Nolan and Phillips, 1996). Wear is still a major problem limiting the life of joint implants. With the current design and materials, young recipients outlive the implant. With the average life span increasing, recipients will outlive the life of the joint. Unlike natural joints, the implants are rigid, the lubrication is inferior, and there is no soft layer to cushion impact. Further improvements are expected in the future; new implants will likely be more similar to natural joints.

20.4

MATERIALS FOR JOINT IMPLANTS

The materials in the prostheses must be compatible with the body. They must not induce tumors or inﬂammation, and must not activate the immune system. The materials must have excellent corrosion resistance and, ideally, high wear resistance and low coefﬁcient of friction against the mating material. Publications by Sharma and Szycher (1991) and Williams (1982) deal with materials compatible with the body. For the femoral head, low density is desirable, and high yield strength is very important. Common materials used are cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys and titanium alloy (6Al-4V). Cobalt alloys have excellent corrosion resistance (much better than stainless steel 316). The titanium alloy has high strength and low density but it is relatively expensive. Titanium alloys have a low toxicity and a strong resistance to pitting corrosion, but its wear resistance is somewhat inferior to cobalt alloys. Titanium alloy is considered a good choice for patients with sensitivity to cobalt debris. Aluminum oxide ceramic is also used in the manufacture of femoral heads. It has excellent corrosion resistance and compatibility with the body.

20.4.1

Ceramics

Aluminum oxide ceramic femoral heads in combination with UHMWPE cups have increasing use in prosthetic implants. Fine grain, high density aluminum

602

Chapter 20

oxide has the required strength for use in the heavily loaded femoral heads, high corrosion resistance, and wear resistance, and it has the advantage of selfanchoring to the human body through bone ingrowth. Most important, femoral ball heads with ﬁne surface-ﬁnish ceramics reduce the wear rate of UHMWPE cups. Dowson and Linnett (1980) reported a reduction of 50% in the wear rate of UHMWPE against aluminum-oxide ceramic, in comparison to UHMWPE against steel (observed in laboratory and in vivo tests). The apparent success of the ceramic femoral head design led to experiments with ceramic-on-ceramic joint (the UHMWPE cup is replaced with a ceramic cup). However, the results showed early failure due to fatigue and surface fracture. Ceramic-on-ceramic designs require an exceptional surface ﬁnish and precise manufacturing to secure close ﬁt. Surgical implantation of the all-ceramic joint is made more difﬁcult by the necessity to maintain precise alignment. In addition, the strength requirements must be carefully considered during the design (Mahoney and Dimon, 1990, Walter and Plitz, 1984, and McKellop et al., 1981).

20.5

DYNAMIC FRICTION

Most of the previous research on friction and wear of UHMWPE against metals was conducted under steady conditions. It was realized, however, that friction characteristics under dynamic conditions (oscillating sliding speed) are different from those under static conditions (steady speed). Under dynamic condition, the friction is a function of the instantaneous sliding speed as well as a memory function of the history of the speed. It would beneﬁt the design engineers to have an insight into the dynamic friction characteristics of UHMWPE used in implant joints. During walking, the hip joint is subjected to oscillating sliding velocity. Dynamic friction experiments were conducted at New Jersey Institute of Technology, Bearing and Bearing Lubrication Laboratory. The testing apparatus is similar to that shown in Fig. 14-7, and the test bearing is UHMWPE journal bearing against stainless steel shaft. The oscillation sliding in the hip joint is approximated by sinusoidal motion, obtained by a computer controlled DC servomotor. The friction and sliding velocity are measured versus time, and the readings are fed on-line into a computer with a data acquisition system, where the data is stored, analyzed and plotted. Figures 20-3 and 20-4 are examples of measured f –U curves for simulation of the walking velocity and frequency. The frequency of normal walking is approximated by sinusoidal sliding velocity o ¼ 4 rad=s; and a maximum sliding velocity of 0.07 m=s. The shaft diameter is 25 mm, with L=D ¼ 0.75 and a constant load of 215 N. For dry friction (Fig. 20-3), the friction increases with sliding velocity. At the start-up (acceleration) the friction is higher than for stopping (deceleration).

Orthopedic Joint Implants

603

F IG. 20-3 Friction–velocity curve for dry friction, UHMWPE against stainless steel, frequency ¼ 4 rad=s, maximum velocity ¼ 0.07 m=s, load = 215 N (Bearing and Bearing Lubrication Laboratory, NJIT).

F IG. 20-4 Friction–velocity curve, lubrication with low viscosity oil, m ¼ 0.001 N-s=m2, UHMWPE against stainless steel, frequency ¼ 4 rad=s, maximum velocity ¼ 0.07 m=s, load ¼ 215 N (Bearing and Bearing Lubrication Laboratory, NJIT).

604

Chapter 20

Unlike the metal-on-metal curve, the dynamic f –U curve with UHMWPE has considerable hysteresis for dry friction. This effect suggests that the friction of polymers involves viscous friction. Several cycles are measured, and the curve shows a good repeatability of the cycles—except for the ﬁrst cycle (dotted line), which has a higher stiction force. Unlike what we see with metal-on-metal testing, the friction coefﬁcient increases with the velocity, reaching a maximum of f ¼ 0:26. In this case, the breakaway friction at each cycle approaches zero. However, at the ﬁrst cycle of the experiment (dotted line), there is a higher stiction force, and the breakaway friction coefﬁcient is near 0.2. Figure 20-4 is for identical conditions, but lubrication is provided with a very light (low viscosity) oil, m ¼ 0:001 N-s=m2 . This curve simulates the friction in an actual joint implant. The curve indicates that even for a low viscosity and speed, the bearing operates in the boundary and mixed lubrication regime, and the friction decreases versus sliding velocity. This curve also shows a considerable hysteresis. For lubricated surfaces, the ﬁrst cycle (dotted line in Fig. 20-4) also demonstrates a higher stiction force of f ¼ 0:25 while the following cycles have a reduced maximum breakaway coefﬁcient of f ¼ 0:2.

Appendix A Units and De¢nitions of Material Properties

A.1

UNIT SYSTEMS

The traditional unit system in the United States has been the Imperial system, often referred to as the British system, although in United Kingdom the Imperial system was replaced by the SI International System (Syste`me Internationale, French). In the United States, the engineering societies are in favor of adopting SI, and most engineering publications and textbooks currently use SI units. Many engineering companies are in transition from Imperial to SI units, so engineers must be familiar with the two systems. For this reason, this text uses both systems, although most of the example problems are presented in SI units. The SI is based on three units: mass, length, and time. The unit of mass is the kilogram (kg), that of length is the meter (m), and that for time is the second (s). The unit of force is the Newton (N), which is deﬁned by Newton’s second law as the force required to accelerate 1 kg of mass at the rate of 1 m2 =s. Gravitational acceleration is g ¼ 9:81 m2 =s, so the weight (force exerted by gravity at the earth’s surface) of 1 kg mass is F ¼ mg ¼ 1 9:81 ¼ 9:81 N

ðA-1Þ

The unit of energy (or work) is the Joule (J), which is equivalent to N-m. The unit of power, which is energy per unit of time, is the watt (W). The watt is equivalent to J=s, or, in basic SI units, N-m=s. 605

606

Appendix A

Pressure or stress is force per unit area. The SI unit is the pascal (Pa), which is equivalent to N=m2 . This is a small unit, and preﬁxes such as kPa (103 Pa) and MPa (106 Pa) are often used. In SI units, very large or very small numbers are often needed in practical problems, and the following preﬁxes serve to indicate multiplication of units by various powers of 10: m ðmicro-Þ ¼ 106 m ðmilli-Þ ¼ 103 c ðcenti-Þ ¼ 102

k ðkilo-Þ ¼ 103 M ðmega-Þ ¼ 106 G ðgiga-Þ ¼ 109

For example, the well-known Imperial unit of pressure is psi (lbf =in:2 ). 1 psi is ¼ 6895 N=m2 ðPaÞ ¼ 6:895 kPa: A second example is the modulus of elasticity of the steel: E ¼ 2:05 1011 Pa ðN=m2 Þ ¼ 2:05 105 MPa; ¼ 2:05 102 GPa:

A.2

DEFINITIONS OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES

A.2.1

Density, r

Material density r is mass per unit volume. The SI unit of density is kg=m3 . In Imperial units, the density is lbm =ft3 , or lbm =in3. For example, the density of water at 4 C is 1000 kg=m3 , and in imperial units it is 62:43 lbm =in:3 . The conversion is 1 kg=m3 ¼ 0:06243 lbm =ft3 :

A.2.2

Speci¢c Weight, g

Speciﬁc weight, g, is the gravity force (weight) per unit volume of the material g ¼ rg

ðA-2Þ

The SI unit of density is N=m . For example, the speciﬁc weight g of water at 4 C is 9810 N=m3 , obtained by the equation 3

gwater ¼ rg ¼ 1000 9:81 ¼ 9810 N=m3 : The Imperial unit of speciﬁc density is lbf =ft3 , or lbf =in3. For example, the speciﬁc weight g of water at 4 C is 62:4 lbf =ft3 . The conversion is 1 lbf =ft3 ¼ 157:1 N=m3 1 N=m3 ¼ 0:00636 lbf =ft3

Material Properties

A.2.3

607

Speci¢c Gravity, S

Speciﬁc gravity, S, of a material is the ratio of its speciﬁc weight to the speciﬁc weight of water at 4 C. It is also the ratio of its density to the density of water at 4 C. For example, if the density of a steel is 7800 kg=m3 , its speciﬁc density is 7800=1000 ¼ 7.8 (speciﬁc gravity is a dimensionless ratio).

A.2.4

Speci¢c Heat, c

Speciﬁc heat, c, is the amount of heat that must be transferred to a unit of mass of a material to raise its temperature by one degree. For gas, the speciﬁc heat depends if the unit of mass has a constant pressure, cp , or if the unit of mass has a constant volume cv . The speciﬁc heat of a material is a function of its temperature. The SI unit of speciﬁc heat is J=Kg- C (a widely used unit is KJ=Kg- C), and the Imperial unit is BTU=lbm F. The conversion ratio is 1 BTU=lbm F ¼ 2326 J=Kg- C 1 BTU=lbm F ¼ 2:326 KJ=Kg- C

A.2.5

Thermal Conductivity, k

The thermal conductivity is a measure of the rate of heat transfer through a material. It is the coefﬁcient k in the Fourier Law of heat conduction q ¼ kA

@T @x

ðA-3Þ

where q is the rate of heat transfer, A is the area normal to the temperature gradient @T=@x. The SI unit of thermal conductivity is Watt per meter per Celsius degree, W=m-C. The Imperial unit of thermal conductivity is BTU=h-ft- F. The conversion ratio is 1 W=m-C ¼ 0:57782 BTU=h-ft- F:

A.2.6

Absolute Viscosity, m

The absolute viscosity, m, is a measure of the ﬂuid resistance to ﬂow. The viscosity and its units are presented in Chap. 2. The SI unit of absolute viscosity is N-s=m2 (or Pa-s). An additional widely used unit is the poise, (P) (after Poiseuille), which is dyne-s=cm2 , and a smaller traditional unit is centipoise (cP). 1 centipoise; ðcPÞ ¼ 102 poise

608

Appendix A

An Imperial unit for the viscosity is the reyn (after Osborne Reynolds), which is lbf -s=in:2 . Conversions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A.2.7

1 centipoise is equal to 1:45 107 reyn 1 centipoise is equal to 0.001 N-s=m2 1 centipoise is equal to 0.01 poise 1 reyn is equal to 6:895 103 N-s=m2 1 reyn is equal to 6:895 106 centipoise 1 N-s=m2 is equal to 103 centipoise 1 N-s=m2 is equal to 1:45 104 reyn

Kinematic Viscosity, n

The kinematic viscosity, n, is the ratio of the absolute viscosity and density m ðA-4Þ n¼ r The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m2 =s. Additional widely used traditional unit is the stokes (St) (after Stokes), which is cm2 =s, and a smaller unit is the centistokes (cSt), which is mm2 =s. The common Imperial unit is in:2 =s. Conversions 1 centistokes, cSt ¼ 106 m2 =s 1 stokes, St ¼ 104 m2 =s 1 m2 =s ¼ 6:452 104 in:2 =s 1 m2 =s ¼ 104 stokes 1 in:2 =s ¼ 0:00155 cSt

Appendix B Numerical Integration

The pressure wave along the bearing is solved by integration of Eq. 4-13. Although some integrals can be solved analytically, complex functions can be solved by numerical integration. This appendix is a survey of the various methods for numerical integration, and examples are presented. A simple numerical integration is demonstrated by means of a spreadsheet computer program, which is favored by engineers and students for its simplicity, and because the spreadsheet program can be used for graphic presentation of the pressure wave. The methods of approximate numerical integration are based on a summation of small areas of width Dx below the curve, which are approximated by various methods that include the midpoint rule, rectangle rule, trapezoidal rule, and Simpson rule.

B.1

MIDPOINT RULE

Integration by midpoint rule is an approximation. The area below the curve is approximated by the sum of the rectangular areas, as shown in Fig. B-1. The integral is approximated by the following equation: ðb

n baP f ðx Þ n i¼1 j a x þ xi xj ¼ i1 2

f ðxÞdx

609

610

Appendix B

F IG. B-1

Integration by midpoint rule.

where a is the lower limit and b is upper limit of the integration, and n is the number of columns.

B.2

RECTANGLE RULE (FIG. B-2)

The integral is approximated by the following equation: ðb f ðxÞdx

f ðxi ÞDx

i¼1

a

Dx ¼

F IG. B-2

n P

ba n

Rectangle rule.

Numerical Integration

F IG. B-3

B-3

611

Integration by the trapezoidal rule.

TRAPEZOIDAL RULE (FIG. B-3)

The integral is approximated by the following equation: ðb f ðxÞdx T a

Dx ½f ðx0 Þ þ 2f ðx1 Þ þ 2f ðx2 Þ þ . . . 2f ðxi1 Þ þ f ðxi Þ

2 ba Dx ¼ n T¼

The endpoints, at points a and b, are counted only once, while all the other points have the coefﬁcient 2.

B-4

SIMPSON RULE (FIG. B-4)

The Simpson rule is based on approximating the graph by parabolas rather than straight lines. The parabola is determined each time by the three consecutive points through which it passes. f ðxi1 Þ; f ðxi Þ and f ðxiþ1 Þ The area from ðxi1 ) to (xiþ1 Þ is Ai ¼

Dx ðf ðxi1 Þ þ 4f ðxi Þ þ f ðxiþ1 Þ 3

612

Appendix B

F IG. B-4

Integration by the Simpson rule.

If this procedure is repeated for every three adjacent points, the following Simpson rule for approximate integration is obtained: ðb f ðxÞdx S a

Dx ½f ðx0 Þ þ 4f ðx1 Þ þ 2f ðx2 Þ þ 4f ðx3 Þ þ 2f ðx4 Þ . . . 2f ðxi2 Þ 3 þ 4f ðxi1 Þ þ f ðxi Þ

ba Dx ¼ n xi1 ¼ a þ ðn 1ÞDx S¼

xi ¼ b The endpoints, at points a and b, are counted only once, while all the others are counted according to the coefﬁcients 4 and 2 in the Simpson rule. For the Simpson rule, the n must be an even number. The Simpson rule yields the best approximation.

Example Problem B-1 Numerical Integration Using a Spreadsheet Program Integrate the function f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 in the boundaries 0 x 2. Use the approximate rectangle rule, and solve the summation with the aid of a spreadsheet. Compare with the trapezoidal and Simpson rules. Solution The concept of numerical integration is to section the area under the curve into a large number of rectangles, calculating the area of each individual rectangle, and

Numerical Integration

F IG. B-5

613

Approximate integration by summation of rectangles.

ﬁnally summing the rectangular areas to obtain the total area under the curve (see Fig. B-5). The numerical integration is according to the equation ðb n P f ðxÞdx f ðxi ÞDxi i¼1

a

ba Dxi ¼ n In this problem, the function is f ðxÞ ¼ 3x2 0x2 ð2 3x2 dx ¼ 0

n P

f ðxi ÞDxi

i¼1

xi ¼ xi1 þ Dx The summation is performed with the aid of a spreadsheet program (Table B-1). The ﬁrst and second rows are added for explanation. The number of rectangles is selected (n ¼ 200), resulting in uniform Dxi ¼ 0:01. The third column shows the values xi , and the fourth column shows the respective values of the function f ðxi Þ. The ﬁfth column lists the areas of the rectangles obtained by the product f ðxi ÞDxi . The sixth (last) column lists the sum of the rectangles to the last xi . The solution of this numerical integration is at the bottom of this column. The exact solution of this integration is 8, and the errors of the various methods are compared in Table B-2. The best precision is obtained using the Simpson method.

614

Appendix B

TABLE B-1

Numerical integration with a spreadsheet program

TABLE B-2

Errors of Various Numerical Integration Methods

Method Actual solution Rectangular method Trapezoidal method Simpson method

Solution

Percent Error

8.000 8.06010 8.0000985 7.999997

0% 0.751% 0.00123% 0.0000375%

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Index

Abrasion wear, 274 Acetal, 296 Adhesion friction, 268 Adhesive wear, 273 Adjustable bearing arrangement, 440 Aluminum alloys, 282 Angular contact ball bearings, 317, 361 Antifoaming additives, 65 Antifriction bearings, 14, 308 Antiwear additives, 63 Apex point, 319, 443 Assumptions (hydrodynamic lubrication theory), 70 Average pressure, 23 Babbitts (white metals), 64 Base oils, 47, 49 Bearing friction force, 132 Bearing housing, 463 Bearing load, 3 Bearing precision, 411 Bearing stiffness, 155 Bearing temperature, 395

Boundary lubrication bearings, 5 Bronze, 282 Capillary restrictors, 11 Cast iron, 282 Centrifugal forces of rolling elements, 342, 355 Centrifugal mechanism (composite bearing), 565 Centrifugal pump, 454 Ceramic rolling elements, 358, 489 Combined rolling and sliding, 122 Compatible metals, 269 Compliant bearings, 202, 209 Composite bearing, 21, 22, 556 Conformability, 277 Conformity (race and ball), 332 Constitutive equation, 584 Contact stresses, 337 Copper lead alloys, 281 Corrosion fatigue, 65 Corrosion inhibitors, 64 Corrosion wear, 274 Coulomb friction, 270 625

626

Index

Crude oil, 48 Cylinder and a ﬂat plate, 84, 142 Cylindrical coordinates, 110 Cylindrical roller bearing, 318

Friction Friction Friction Friction

Deep-groove ball bearing, 314 Degradation (of oil), 59 Dimensionless equation, 87, 90 Dimensionless terms, 86, 138 DN value, 16 Double-row ball bearing, 316 Dust environment, 466 Dynamic friction measurements, 549, 537 modeling, 539

Gear pressure angle, 26 Gear pump, 246 Gearbox, 451 Grease groups, 57 Grease life, 467 Greases, 56, 458

Eccentricity, 7, 119 EHD of ball bearings, 351 EHD of line contact, 345 Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication, 15, 342, 401 Elastohydrodynamic pressure wave, 344 Electromagnetic bearings, 4 Elliptical contact area, 332, 335 Elliptical hydrodynamic bearing, 198 Embeddability, 276 Equation of ﬂuid motion, 74 Equivalent radial load, 391 Equivalent radius 99 (of contact), 326 Esters, 52 Fatigue life, 390 Fatigue wear, 274 Film thickness, 85, 91

Finite differences solution, 526 Finite-length bearings, 71, 161 Fits and tolerances, 418 Flow dividers, 252 Flow restrictors, 10, 234 Fluid cavitation, 127 Foil bearing, 203 Form drag, 36 Friction characteristics, 531 Friction coefﬁcient, 82, 133, 272, 277

curves, 191 force, 269 testing machines, 512 torque, 154

Helix angle, 25 Hertz stresses, 14, 323 High-density polyethylene (UHMWPE), 298 Hip replacement joint, 597 Hybrid bearing (rolling and hydrodynamic bearings in series), 555 Hybrid bearing, 16, 487 Hydraulic pump, 244 Hydrocarbon compounds, 49 Hydrodynamic bearings, 4, 6 Hydrodynamic journal bearing, 74, 118 Hydrodynamic long bearings, 72 Hydrodynamic lubrication theory, 69 Hydro-roll, 557 Hydrostatic bearings, 4, 9 Hydrostatic bidirectional pads, 230 Hydrostatic circular pad, 44, 214 Hydrostatic pad stiffness, 226, 235 Hydrostatic pads, 11 Hydrostatic rectangular pad, 222 Ice sled, 87, 137 Inclined plane-slider, 77 Internal clearance, 414 Isotherm contour plot (journal bearing), 578 Kinematic viscosity, 37, 39 Life adjustment factors, 392 Line contact stresses, 324 Load capacity components, 130, 156

Index Load carrying capacity, 67, 81, 129 Load rating: static, 379 dynamic, 390 Locating=ﬂoating bearing arrangement, 17, 437 Locus (journal center), 529 Lubrication systems (oil), 471 Machine tool spindles, 446, 448, 449 Maxwell model, 43 Mineral oils, 47 Minimum ﬁlm thickness, 163 Misalignment, 313 Mounting arrangements, 439 Multigrade oils, 58 Naphthenes, 49 Natural (synovial) joint, 597 Navier-Stokes equations, 94, 98 Needle roller bearing, 321 Neutralization number, 61 Newtonian ﬂuids, 59, 71 Noise (in rolling bearings), 416 Noncontact bearings, 20 Noncontact screw drive, 245 Non-Newtonian ﬂuids, 43 Non-slip condition, 36 Numerical integration, 90, 609 Numerical iterations, 139 Nylon, 292 of constant ﬂow rate, 226 of constant pressure supply, 233 Oil additives, 58 Oil lubricity, 62 Optimization of hydrostatic pad, 219 Orthopedic joint implants, 595 Oxidation inhibitors, 50, 60 Parafﬁns, 49 Peak temperature, 188 Performance parameters, 161 Phenolics, 294 Pivoted-pad bearing, 200

627 Plastic bearing materials, 283 Polyalkylene glycols (PAGs), 52 Poly-alpha oleﬁns (PAOs), 51 Polyamide, 295 Polycarbonate, 298 Porosity, 277, 283 Pour point, 49, 50, 61 Power loss, 134, 159, 218 Power-law equation, 43 Precision spindle bearings, 19 Pressure boundary conditions, 135 Pressure wave, 7, 67, 79, 85, 125, 150 Pressure-viscosity coefﬁcient, 42 PTFE (teﬂon), 63, 289 PV limit, 7, 22 Radial load, 3, 19 Raimondi and Boyd charts, 161 Recess, 11, 215 Relaxation time, 43 Reynolds equation, 69, 97, 100, 120 Reynolds number, 105 Reynolds, 68 Rheological equations, 584 Rolling bearings cages, 490 Rolling bearings materials, 480 Rolling bearings speed limit, 480 Rolling bearings terminology, 309 Rolling-element bearings, 4, 14, 308 Rotating sleeve, 121, 123 Run-out, 412 Saybolt universal second (SUS), 38 Score resistance, 269, 276 Seals, 492 self aligning and self adjusted, 256 Self aligning ball bearing, 315 Self aligning spherical bearing, 322 Short journal bearings, 147 Silver, 283 Simple shear ﬂow, 35, 78 Skin friction force, 36 Solid lubricant additives, 286 Sommerfeld number, 134, 153 Sommerfeld solution, 127

628

Index

Squeeze-ﬁlm action, 101 Squeeze-ﬁlm ﬂow, 111, 591 Start-up friction, 21 Stress components, 95 Stress relaxation, 43 Stick-slip friction, 532 Stribeck ( f –U ) curve, 62, 533 Subsurface contact stresses, 328, 336 Surface asperities, 268 Synthetic oils, 50 Tapered roller bearing, 319 Taylor vortexes, 106 Temperature, ﬂuid ﬁlm, 181 Testing journal bearing friction, 509 Testing machines (friction and wear), 503 Testing of dynamic friction, 511 Testing under oscillations, 505 Thermal conductivity, 278 Thermal effects, 576 Thermoplastics, 285 Thermosets, 286 Three-lobe bearing, 199

колхоз 7/13/06

Thrust load, 3 Tight ﬁt stresses, 429 Trajectory (journal center), 529 Tribology, 1, 267 Turbulence, 105 Units, 605 VI improvers, 49, 58 Viscoelastic ﬂuid models, 584 Viscoelastic ﬂuids, 43, 582 Viscosity index (VI), 40, 49 Viscosity units, 37 Viscosity, 33 Viscous drag force, 36 Viscous friction, 81, 154 Wedge action, 101 Whirl, half frequency whirl, 197 White metal (babbitt), 64, 279 ZDDP, 63 Z n=P curves, 191